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Maslow’s hierarchy of needs


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Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

  1. 1. Abraham Maslow and his Hierarchy of Needs
  2. 2. Biography • Name: Abraham Harold Maslow • Birthdate: April 1, 1908 • Birthplace: Brooklyn, New York • Parents: Samuel and Rose Maslow
  3. 3. • Maslow’s parents are Jewish emigrants from Russia. • He experienced anti-Semitism from his teachers and from other children around the neighborhood. He had various encounters with anti-Semitic gangs who would chase and throw rocks at him. • Maslow had various problems within his own home. • He and his father were constantly at odds. • His father, Samuel, continually degraded him and pushed him to excel in areas that were of no interest to him. • Samuel even publicly announced that his son was repulsively ugly.
  4. 4. • Maslow’s mother treated him even worse than his father. • Maslow deeply loathed his mother and wanted no interaction with her whatsoever. • Maslow perceived his mother as being entirely insensitive and unloving. • She exhibited no sign of affection or love for anyone she encountered, even her own family. • Fortunately, a loving uncle, his mother’s brother, watched over him in adolescence and showed him what normality and decency were.
  5. 5. "I was a little Jewish boy in the non-Jewish neighborhood. It was a little like being the first Negro enrolled in an all-white school. I was isolated and unhappy. I grew up in libraries and among books, without friends.―
  6. 6. • Maslow described his early childhood as unhappy and lonely, and he spent much of his time in the library immersed in books. • He went to Boys High School, one of the top high schools in Brooklyn. There, he served as the officer to many academic clubs, and became editor of the Latin Magazine. He also edited Principia, the school's Physics paper, for a year.
  7. 7. • He developed other strengths as well: As a young boy, Maslow believed physical strength to be the single most defining characteristic of a true male; hence, he exercised often and took up weight lifting in hopes of being transformed into a more muscular, tough-looking guy, however, he was unable to achieve this due to his humble-looking and chaste figure as well as his studiousness.
  8. 8. Timeline 1926 - At the age of 17, Maslow enrolled at the City College of New York (CCNY). In an effort to appease his father, he registered for evening classes at the Brooklyn Law School. 1927 - He transferred to Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, but at the end of the semester returned to CCNY due to poor grades and high costs. 1928 - Transferred to the University of Wisconsin. December 31, 1928 - Abraham Maslow married Bertha Goodman, his long-time sweetheart and first cousin. The couple had two daughters, Ann and Ellen.
  9. 9. 1930 - Received his BA from the University of Wisconsin 1931 - Received his MA from the University of Wisconsin 1934 - Received his PhD from the University of Wisconsin. Maslow’s dissertation involved dominance among a colony of monkeys. After he received his PhD in 1934, he continued to teach at the University of Wisconsin. 1935 - Moved to Columbia University to work with Edward Lee Thorndike; began his research on human sexuality. Between 1937 and 1942 Maslow published various articles regarding female sexuality.
  10. 10. 1937 - Moved to Old Brooklyn College and taught full time. 1947 - Maslow suffered a heart attack. 1949 - He returned to Brooklyn College where he taught Abnormal Psychology and The Normal Personality. 1951 - Again, Maslow moved to Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachusetts to serve as chairman of Psychology department. 1962 - He founded the American Association of Humanistic Psychology, also known as the ―Third Force‖.
  11. 11. July 8, 1966 - Maslow was elected president of the American Psychological Association. 1967- He had an almost fatal heart attack. 1968 – Because of his failing health, he quit teaching. June 8, 1970 - While slowly jogging, he suffered a fatal heart attack. Abraham Harold Maslow died at the age of 62 in Menlo Park, California.
  12. 12. Publications and Awards Received 1954 - Motivation and Personality is published. 1962 - Toward a Psychology of Being is published. 1964 - Religions, Values, and Peak Experiences is published 1965 - Eupsychian Management is published 1966 - The Psychology of Science: A Reconnaissance is published. 1967 - American Humanist Association Humanist of the Year 1968 - Toward a Psychology of Being is published
  13. 13. • Maslow showed little interest in animal or laboratory studies of human behaviour. He chose instead to collect data for his theories by studying outstanding individuals. His studies led him to believe that people have certain needs which are unchanging and genetic in origin. These needs are the same in all cultures and are both physiological and psychological. Maslow described these needs as being hierarchal in nature, meaning that some needs are more basic or more powerful than others and as these needs are satisfied, other higher needs emerge.
  14. 14. Hierarchy of Needs
  15. 15. • Hierarchy of Needs suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other, more advanced needs. • This hierarchy is most often displayed as a pyramid. The lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of the most basic needs, while the more complex needs are located at the top of the pyramid.
  16. 16. 2 Types of Needs o Deficiency Needs (D-needs)  Contains the most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid: physiological needs, security or safety needs, love and belonging, and esteem.  These needs arise due to deprivation.  The satisfaction of these needs helps to ―avoid‖ unpleasant feelings or consequence.
  17. 17. o Growth Needs  It is also known as being needs or B-needs.  Growth needs do not come from a place of ―lack‖, but rather from a desire to grow as a person.  Contains the highest level in Maslow’s pyramid: self- actualization.
  18. 18. Physiological Needs • These include the most basic needs that are vital to survival, such as the need for water, air (oxygen), food, and sleep/rest. • Maslow believed that these needs are the most basic and instinctive needs in the hierarchy.
  19. 19. Safety o Security Needs • Includes a desire for steady employment, health care, safe neighborhoods, and shelter from the environment. • These needs have to do with man’s yearning for a predictable, orderly world in which injustice and inconsistency are under control. FAIRNESS
  20. 20. Love and Belonging • It involves emotionally- based relationships in general, such as friendship, sexual intimacy, acceptance and having a supportive and communicative family.
  21. 21. Self-Esteem Needs • It includes the need for things that reflect on self-esteem, personal worth, social recognition, and accomplishment. • People need to engage themselves to gain recognition and have an activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution, to feel accepted and self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby.
  22. 22. Revised Hierarchy of Needs
  23. 23. Cognitive Needs • Needs to increase intelligence and thereby chase knowledge. • Cognitive needs is the expression of the natural human need to learn, explore, discover and create to get a better understanding of the world around them.
  24. 24. Aesthetic Needs • This is the desire to appreciate symmetry, beauty, balance and order. • This need is a higher level need to relate in a beautiful way with the environment and leads to the beautiful feeling of intimacy with nature and everything beautiful.
  25. 25. Self-Actualization • Self-actualization is the instinctual need of humans to make the most of their abilities and to strive to be the best they can. • Need for growth, development and utilization of potential, becoming all that one can be, self-fulfilment.
  26. 26. Transcendence • The need for helping others to self-actualize. • This need when fulfilled, leads to feelings of integrity.
  27. 27. Suggested Applications of Maslow’s Theory to Education  Physiological Needs  free breakfast or lunch programs  correct room temperatures  bathroom breaks  drink breaks  Safety Needs  Controlled classroom behaviour  Fair discipline  Attitude of teacher: accepting & non- judgemental, pleasant, nonthreatening
  28. 28.  Love and Belonging  teacher personality: empathetic, considerate, patient, fair, supportive  provide positive comments & feedback rather than negative  get to know students (likes, dislikes, concerns)  be available for students in need  listen to students
  29. 29.  show that you value students thoughts, opinions & judgments  show trust to students by providing situation where it is necessary (e.g. running errands, classroom leader)  be available & approachable so that students having difficulties feel comfortable coming for help  Encourage social affiliation. Games, group work and teamwork exercises are a way to apply this stage of the hierarchy because interaction helps students feel more involved.
  30. 30.  Self-Esteem  Respect from others • develop a classroom environment where students are positive & non-judgmental • star of the week • recognition programs for special effort (e.g. helpful citizens of the week) • employ cooperative learning in such a way as to develop trust between group members • involve students in activities of importance & worthiness (e.g. cleaning up the environment, carrying out a food drive for the needy)
  31. 31.  Cognitive Needs  provide lessons that are intellectually challenging  use a discovery approach to learning whenever possible  provide opportunities for philosophical thought & discussion  get students involved in intellectually challenging programs (e.g. Battle of the Wise, Quiz Bee)
  32. 32.  Aesthetic Needs  organize classroom materials in a neat & appealing way  display student art work in an appealing manner  put up interesting & colorful wall hangings  create varied appealing & interesting learning centers  rooms painted in pleasing colors  well maintained physical surroundings (ex. keeping walls painted, desks and chairs are cleaned & repaired etc.)  fresh smelling and clean rooms
  33. 33.  Self-actualization  expect students to do their best  give students freedom to explore & discover on their own  make learning meaningful--connect to "real" life  plan lessons involving metacognitive activities  get students involved in self-expressive and creative projects
  34. 34. References -Abraham Maslow — History of Psychology Department at Carthage — Psychology — -Carthage College.htm -Abraham Maslow - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.htm -Abraham Maslow Biography.htm -Educational Psychology Interactive Maslow's hierarchy of needs.htm -Hierarchy of Needs.htm -How to Apply Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs to Education _ eHow.htm -Maslow’s eight basic needs and the eight stage devlopmental model _ The Mouse Trap.htm -Maslow's hierarchy of needs - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.htm -PSED516DiversityProject - Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs in an Inclusion Classroom- By Kaitlin Lutz.htm
  35. 35. THANK YOU!   