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Herniated disk in the lower back agrasen hospital dr sandeep agrawal gondia vidarbha maharashtra india www.drsandeepagrawal.com www.agrasenortho.com

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Back Pain

Back pain is often a common symptom of many disease conditions and the back pain may range from simple or dull pain to sudden and sharp pain. If the pain persists for few days, it is acute pain whereas if continues for more than 3 months, it is considered as chronic pain. In most cases, back pain may resolve without any treatment however if persists for more than 3 days, medical intervention is necessary.

Neck Pain

The first 7 vertebral bones on the spinal column form the cervical spine and are located in the neck region. The neck bears the weight of the head, allows significant amount of movement, and also less protected than other parts of spine. All these factors make the neck more susceptible to injury or other painful disorders. Common neck pain may occur from muscle strain or tension in everyday activities including poor posture, prolonged use of a computer and sleeping in an uncomfortable position.

Spinal Deformity Surgery

The Spine or backbone provides stability to the upper part of our body. It helps to hold the body upright. It consists of several irregularly shaped bones, called vertebrae appearing in a straight line. The spine has two gentle curves, when looked from the side and appears to be straight when viewed from the front. When these curves are exaggerated, pronounced problems can occur such as back pain, breathing difficulties and fatigue and the condition will be considered as deformity. Spine deformity can be defined as abnormality in the shape, curvature and flexibility of spine.
Spine Injections

Spine injection is a nonsurgical treatment modality recommended for treatment of chronic back pain. Injection of certain medicinal agents relieves the pain by blocking the nerve signals between specific areas of the body and the brain. The treatment approach involves injections of local anaesthetics, steroids, or narcotics into the affected soft tissues, joints, or nerve roots. It may also involve complex nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

Spine Trauma

Spine trauma is damage to the spine caused from a sudden traumatic injury caused by an accidental fall or any other physical injury. Spinal injuries may occur while playing, performing normal activities, operating heavy machines, lifting heavy objects, driving automobiles, or when you suffer a fall. Injury to spine may cause various conditions including fractures, dislocation, partial misalignment (subluxation), disc compression (herniated disc), hematoma (accumulation of blood) and partial or complete tears of ligaments.
Vertebral Fractures

Vertebral compression fractures occur when the normal vertebral body of the spine is squeezed or compressed. The bone collapses when too much pressure is placed on the vertebrae, resulting in pain, limited mobility, loss of height, and spinal deformities. In severe compression fractures the vertebral body is pushed into the spinal canal which will apply pressure on the spinal cord and nerves.

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Excellence in Spine Care : Dr Sandeep Agrawal provides care for patients suffering from low back pain, arthritis, degenerative disc disease, herniated discs, spinal stenosis, scoliosis and sciatica, to name just some of the conditions he treats. While he takes a completely individualized approach to every patient he sees, his goal is always the same: to help patients get back to their healthy, active lives. If you’re suffering from back or neck pain, the innovative treatments, skilled specialists and comprehensive care at Agrasen Hospital are here to help you find relief. Highly skilled, experienced spine knowledge bring you an array of nonsurgical and surgical treatment options and offer the latest advances in spine surgery. Conditions Treated : Kyphoplasty spinal fusion Repair of herniated discs Treatment of cervical spine disorders Treatment of low back pain Treatment of sciatica & Radiculopathy Treatment of spinal deformities Treatment of spine or nerve compression Treatments of stenosis and arthritis Vertebroplasty
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  • Comfort position: How does one position their body for comfort when they're in pain? The goal: Prevent pain and further malfunction Handle objects safely and efficiently Maintain an ease of movement during the performance of an activity Reduce the energy needed to perform an activity which slows the onset of fatigue Avoid injury to yourself and feel as good as possible. The first principle is to remove any tension or feeling of stretch to a muscle or nerve. Here are 12 ways to get comfortable if you experience back pain or discomfort: Place pillows at various bends in the body. Move every 15 to 20 minutes to avoid strain, fatigue and joint stiffness. Always keep a good posture and body alignment when you are sitting, standing or lying down. Allow the largest and strongest muscles of the body to perform as much work as possible while allowing the smallest and weakest muscles of the body to perform as little work as possible. Use good abdominal support instead of allowing the abdomen to just relax while sitting. Always make sure that you're sitting on your buttocks and not your tailbone. Use a firm chair and make sure that the back height, leg height and seat depth adapts to your body frame. A chair should be constructed in a way that makes it possible to sit upright without leaning backwards. Try to maintain a small curve in your lower back by placing a small soft roll at the back of the chair. Sit as close as possible to the work at hand. When sitting for any length of time sit so you are directly facing the object you are looking at. If you're having difficulty sitting on a toilet try to recline back. Try to alternate between standing, sitting or lying down every 15 to 20 minutes. When moving in bed use your arms to assist movement. Try to log roll as much as possible--and keep core neutral.
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Herniated disk in the lower back agrasen hospital dr sandeep agrawal gondia vidarbha maharashtra india www.drsandeepagrawal.com www.agrasenortho.com

  1. 1. Herniated Disk in the Lower Back: ! ! www.drsandeepagrawal.com! www.agrasenortho.com! AGRASEN HOSPITAL Gondia Vidarbha DR SANDEEP C AGRAWAL GONDIA! ! ! ! Sometimes called a slipped disc, a herniated disk most often occurs in your lower back. It is one of the most common causes of low back pain, as well as leg pain (sciatica).
  2. 2. Herniated Disc symptoms: sharp, burning or stabbing pain in back, may also run down leg; onset is often sudden. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Condition and Causes: Between 60% and 80% of people will experience low back pain at some point in their lives. A high percentage of people will have low back and leg pain caused by a herniated disk. Although a herniated disk can sometimes be very painful, most people feel much betterment with just a few weeks or months of nonsurgical treatment. Anatomy: Your spine is made up of 24 bones, called vertebrae, that are stacked on top of one another. These bones connect to create a canal that protects the spinal cord. ! !
  3. 3. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Five vertebrae make up the lower back. This area is called your lumbar spine. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
  4. 4. ! Other parts of your spine include: Spinal cord and nerves.These "electrical cables" travel through the spinal canal carrying messages between your brain and muscles. Intervertebral disks. In between your vertebrae are flexible intervertebral disks. They act as shock absorbers when your walk or run. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Intervertebral disks are flat and round, and about a half inch thick. They are made up of two components.
  5. 5. Healthy intervertebral disk (cross-section view). ! ! ! ! ! !
  6. 6. • Annulus fibrosus.This is the tough, flexible outer ring of the disk. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
  7. 7. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! • Nucleus pulposus.This is the soft, jelly-like center of the disk. • In between the vertebrae of the spine are cushions called discs. Theses discs contain an inner core, called the nucleus pulposus, and an outer wall, called the annulus fibrosis. If the annulus degenerates or tears, the nucleus can seep into the annulus and cause the disc to bulge and protrude. This bulging disc may press against nerves and cause pain. When the inner core pushes through the annulus fibrosis, it's called a herniated disc. The tear in the annulus fibrosis created by this bulging of the inner core causes back pain. That pain may spread to a different area of the body if the now protruding disc is putting pressure on a spinal nerve. ! ! ! ! ! ! !
  8. 8. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! A disk begins to herniate when its jelly-like nucleus pushes against its outer ring due to wear and tear or a sudden injury. This pressure against the outer ring may cause lower back pain. !
  9. 9. ! If the disk is very worn or injured, the jelly-like center may squeeze all the way through. Once the nucleus breaks — or herniates — through the outer ring, pain in the lower back may improve. Sciatic leg pain, however, increases. This is because the jelly- like material inflames the spinal nerves. It may also put pressure on these sensitive spinal nerves, causing pain, numbness, or weakness in one or both legs. ! ! ! ! Causes: In many cases, a herniated disk is related to the natural aging of your spine. In children and young adults, disks have a high water content. As we get older, our disks begin to dry out and weaken. The disks begin to shrink and the spaces between the vertebrae get narrower. This normal aging process is called disk degeneration. Risk Factors In addition to the gradual wear and tear that comes with aging, other factors can increase the likelihood of a herniated disk. Knowing what puts you at risk for a herniated disk can help you prevent further problems. Gender. Men between the ages of 30 and 50 are most likely to have a herniated disk. Improper lifting. Using your back muscles to lift heavy objects, instead of your legs, can cause a herniated disk. Twisting while you lift can also make your back vulnerable. Lifting with your legs, not your back, may protect your spine.
  10. 10. ! Weight. Being overweight puts added stress on the disks in your lower back. Repetitive activities that strain your spine. Many jobs are physically demanding. Some require constant lifting, pulling, bending, or twisting. Using safe lifting and movement techniques can help protect your back. Frequent driving. Staying seated for long periods, plus the vibration from the car engine, can put pressure on your spine and disks. Sedentary lifestyle. Regular exercise is important in preventing many medical conditions, including a herniated disk. Smoking. It is believed that smoking lessens oxygen supply to the disk and causes more rapid degeneration. Symptoms and Diagnosis; ! The main symptom of a herniated disc is sharp and acute pain, often described as a "deep pain," which increases in severity as it moves down the affected leg. Pain onset may occur suddenly, or be preceded by a snapping or tearing sensation in the spine. This sensation may be attributed to the annulus fibrosis suddenly tearing.
  11. 11. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! There is often a limited range of motion present in patients with herniated discs, and patients will often lean to one side when bending over. Walking will often be painful, with patients attempting to alter their gait by straightening the affected leg to avoid putting too much weight on it. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is often used to diagnose a herniated disc. CT scans are also helpful for providing better images of the source of pressure if a nerve root is being pressed upon by the herniated disc. Symptoms may be one or all of the following: • Back pain • Leg and/or foot pain (sciatica) • Numbness or a tingling sensation in the leg and/or foot • Weakness in the leg and /or foot • Loss of bladder or bowel control (extremely rare) This may indicate a more serious problem called cauda equina syndrome. This condition is caused by the spinal nerve roots being compressed. It requires immediate medical attention. Not all patients will experience pain as a disk degenerates. It remains a great challenge for the doctor to determine whether a disk that is wearing out is the source of a patient's pain. Physical examination: To determine whether you have a herniated lumbar disk, your doctor will ask you for a complete medical history and conduct a physical examination. The diagnosis can be confirmed by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan.
  12. 12. Medical History and Physical Examination After discussing your symptoms and medical history, your doctor will examine your spine. During the physical examination, your doctor may conduct the following tests to help determine the cause of your low back pain. Neurological examination. A physical examination should include a neurological examination to detect weakness or sensory loss. To test muscle weakness, your doctor will assess how you walk on your heels and toes. Your thigh, ankle, and toe strength may also be tested. Your doctor can detect any loss of sensation by checking whether you are numb to light touch in the leg and foot. In addition, your reflexes at the knee and ankle will be tested, and sometimes may be absent. ! ! ! ! ! Straight leg raise (SLR) test. This test is a very accurate predictor of a disk herniation in patients under the age of 35. In this test, you lie on your back and your doctor lifts your affected leg. Your knee stays straight. If you feel pain down your leg and below the knee, you test positive for a herniated disk. Imaging Tests: To help confirm a diagnosis of herniated disk, your doctor may recommend a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. This scan can create clear images of soft tissues like intervertebral disks. ! !
  13. 13. Treatment : In the majority of cases, a herniated lumbar disk will slowly improve over a period of several days to weeks. Typically, most patients are free of symptoms by 3 to 4 months. However, some patients do experience episodes of pain during their recovery. ! Rest, medication and physical therapy are usually successful when treating a herniated disc. Medications like anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics and muscle relaxants may be prescribed to help with pressure and pain. Surgery is not often needed for a herniated disc, but if a patient doesn't respond to rest, physical therapy and medications over a long period of time, surgery may be recommended. Nonsurgical Treatment Unless there are neurological deficits — muscle weakness, difficulty walking — or cauda equina syndrome, conservative care is the first course of treatment. Because it is not clear that nonsurgical care is any better than letting the condition resolve on its own, the focus is on providing pain relief. Common nonsurgical measures include: Rest. Usually 1-2 days of bed rest will calm severe back pain. Do not stay off your feet for longer, though. Take rest breaks throughout the day, but avoid sitting for long periods of time. Make all your movements slow and controlled. Change your daily activities so that you avoid movements that can cause further pain, especially bending forward and lifting. Anti-inflammatory medications. Medicines like ibuprofen or naproxen may relieve pain. Physical therapy. Specific exercises can strengthen your lower back and abdominal muscles. Epidural steroid injection. In this procedure, steroids are injected into your back to reduce local inflammation. Of the above measures, only epidural injections have been proven effective at reducing symptoms. There is good evidence that epidural injections can be successful in 42-56% of patients who have not been helped by 6 weeks or more of other nonsurgical care. Overall, the most effective nonsurgical care for lumbar herniated disk includes observation and an epidural steroid injection for short-term pain relief. Surgical Treatment
  14. 14. Only a small percentage of patients with lumbar disk herniations require surgery. Spine surgery is typically recommended only after a period of nonsurgical treatment has not relieved painful symptoms. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
  15. 15. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Microdiskectomy. The most common surgical procedure for a herniated disk in the lower back is a lumbar microdiskectomy. Microdisketomy involves removing the herniated part of the disk and any fragments that are putting pressure on the spinal nerve. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
  16. 16. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Rehabilitation. Most patients do not require formal physical therapy after surgery. After your surgeon evaluates you and confirms that your incision is healed, you may begin a rehabilitation exercise program. A simple walking program 30 minutes each day, along with flexibility exercises for the back and legs, can be done as a home program. If needed, your surgeon will refer you to a physical therapist. Considerations Regardless of the kind of treatment prescribed, there is a 5% chance of the disk herniating again. The risk of nonsurgical treatment is that your symptoms may take a long time to resolve. The risk of surgical complications is exceptionally low. Possible complications include: • Infection • Nerve damage • Dural leak — An opening of the thin lining of the nerve root canal may cause loss of the watery liquid (cerebrospinal fluid) that bathes the nerves roots. When seen during surgery, the lining may be repaired. Sometimes headaches occur afterward, but typically improve with time. • Hematoma causing nerve compression — This is caused by blood collecting around the nerve roots after the surgery. • Recurrent disk herniation — another piece of disk material may break off at the same site and cause the leg pain to return. This may be managed with conservative treatment, but another surgery may be necessary. • Outcomes: The results of microdiskectomy surgery are generally very good. The outcome of leg pain improvement is much more reliable than back pain and therefore this surgery is rarey performed for back pain only.
  17. 17. Most patients notice improvement over the first several weeks following surgery, but may also experience continued improvement over several months. Pain is typically the first symptom to improve, followed by improvement in overall strength of the leg, and then sensation. It is common for some patients to state that although pain symptoms are better, they still have a numb spot on their leg or foot. Most patients will slowly resume normal daily activities over the first several weeks following surgery. Over the last several years, there has been extensive research on lumbar disk surgery and patient improvement. One of the most publicized research projects in this area is the Spinal Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). The study followed patients with herniated disk. Half were treated with conservative measures, and half with surgery. The initial outcomes for patients treated with surgery were much better than those who followed conservative treatment, including improvement in pain relief and function. At the 2-year follow-up, patients treated with surgery again showed improvements over those treated conservatively. However, over the course of the study, numerous patients did change their treatments. Your surgeon will be best able to explain what the actual study results are with any recommended approach for you. All information provided here is for information purposes only. Please see a healthcare professional for medical advice.
  18. 18. This information is provided as an educational service and is not intended to serve as medical advice. Anyone seeking specific orthopaedic advice or assistance should consult his or her orthopaedic surgeon. Dr.Sandeep C Agrawal! ! Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon! Agrasen Hospital Gondia! Vidarbha Maharashtra India! www.drsandeepagrawal.com!  www.agrasenortho.com! !

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