Lipid profile is the collective term given to the estimation of, typically, total
cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein
cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein.
It is recommended that healthy adults with no other risk factors for heart disease
be tested fasting lipid profile once every five years.
High cholesterol usually causes no signs or symptoms.
A complete cholesterol test is done to determine whether your cholesterol is
high and to estimate your risk of heart attacks and other forms of heart disease
and diseases of the blood vessels.
A complete cholesterol test includes the calculation of four types of fats in your
Total cholesterol. This is a sum of your blood’s cholesterol content.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. This is called the “bad”
cholesterol. Too much of it in your blood causes the buildup of fatty deposits
(plaques) in your arteries (atherosclerosis), which reduces blood flow.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. This is called the
“good” cholesterol because it helps carry away LDL cholesterol, thus
keeping arteries open and your blood flowing more freely.
Triglycerides. Triglycerides are another type of fat found in blood and
in food. Triglycerides are produced in the liver. When you drink alcohol
or take in more calories than your body needs, your liver produces more
Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol is produced in
the liver and released into the bloodstream to supply body tissues with a
type of fat (triglycerides).
LDL Lowering medicines- Niacin ,Fibrates , Ezetimble , Bile
Phlebotomy is the process of making a puncture in a vein, usually in
the arm, with a cannula for the purpose of drawing blood.
The common location for a blood draw is in the medial cubital fossa.
In this area, the medial cubital vein is superficial and covers the
bicipital aponeurosis in the cubital fossa.
Step 1: Identify The Vein
For adult patients, the most common and first choice is the median
cubital vein in the antecubital fossa.
This is an extremely large vessel and if stuck properly can yield
excellent blood results.
Other commonly used veins include:
Step 2: Gather Supplies
Blood Collection Tubes (Vials), Personal Protective Equipment (i.e., gloves,
mask), Appropriate blood-drawing needles, Tourniquet, Hand Sanitizer,
Alcohol swabs for skin disinfection.
Extra supplies into the patient’s room in case you need to attempt a second
Step 3: Venipuncture
Position the patient and hyperextend the patient’s arm.
Perform good hand hygiene and don appropriate PPE.
Apply a tourniquet approximately 3-4 inches above
the selected site.
Insert the needle at a 15 to 30-degree angle
into the vessel. If properly inserted blood
should flash into the catheter.
for Lipid Profile Test
After phlebotomy , blood is collected in plain vial for separation of
serum from blood.
Then , vial is inserted in sample collection chamber of
Sample number and instruction of Lipid profile test
is entered manually and then Biochemistry Analyzer perform the
test and give result within few minutes.
Biochemistry analyzer is an instrument that measures a specific chemical
composition in body fluid according to the photoelectric colorimetric
principle. It is mainly for the testing of liver function, kidney function, blood
sugar and blood lipids.
1. Serum Cholesterol- below 200 mg/dl (Normal range)
200-239 mg/dl (Borderline)
240 mg/dl and above (Unhealthy)
2. Triglyceride- below 150 mg/dl (Normal range)
200 mg/dl and above (Unhealthy)
3.HDL- more than 60 mg/dl (Normal range)
50-60 mg/dl (Borderline)
below 40 mg/dl (Unhealthy)
The number of heart attack deaths in India
year wise (NCRB )
Last year, 70 percent of heart attack deaths occurred in the
30-60 age group, a total of 19,744 people.
In 2020, the total number of deaths from heart attack in people aged 30 to
60 years in India was 19,238. There was an increase of over six per cent in
the number of heart attack deaths in this age group, from 2020 to 2021.