Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Child psychiatry brock-chisolm-1946-12pgs-edu-psy


Published on

  • Does Penis Size REALLY Matter? The truth comes out... ◆◆◆
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Are You Heartbroken? Don't be upset, let Justin help you get your Ex back. ♥♥♥
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

Child psychiatry brock-chisolm-1946-12pgs-edu-psy

  1. 1. ti The William Alanson White Memorial Lectures Second Series Major-General G . B . Chisholm, C.B.E., .M.D. 1JEPUTY MINISTER OF HEALTH DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL HEALTH AND WELFARE, CANADA AN APPRECIATION ABE FORTASO- THE REESTABLISHMENT OF PEACETIME SOCIETY RESPONSIBILITY OF PSYCHIATRY RESPONSIBILITY OF PSYCHIATRISTS ,G. B. CHISHOLM PANEL DISCUSSION OF THE FIRST LECTURE HENRY A. WALLACE 4 WATSON B. MILLER ANTHONY HYDE DANIEL BLAIN G. . B. CHISHOLM ROSS McC . CHAPMAN AN APPRECIATION AND CRITIQUE SAMUEL W. HAMILTON THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION TO END WAR HARRY STACK SULLIVAN 3D Research Co. 519 River Road Dresden, ME 04342 OFFPRINTED FOR DISTRIBUTION IN THE PUBLIC INTEREST FROM PSYCHIATRY JOURNAL OF THE BIOLOGY AND THE PATHO INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS VOLUME NINE FEBRUAR NUMBER ONE Published Quarter~y by The William Alanson White Psy Foundation, Inc. Entered as second class matter, April 28 1938 at the Post OPflce at Baltimore, Marylait' under the Act o4 March 3, 1879. Oboe 04 Publication, X600 Gtreenmount Ave., Baltimore 2,M d. Adss all editorial communications to The Editor of Psychiatry, 1711. Rhode Island Ave ., N.W., Washingto, D. C. Copyright, 1947, by The- William Alanson White Psychiatric Foundation, Inc.
  2. 2. An Appreciation Honorable Abe Fortas The Under Secretary of _the Interior GENERAL CHISHOLM'S REMARKABLE LECTURES on The Reestablishment of Peacetime Society will undoubtedly startle many people . This is not the first time that wisdom has mercilessly illuminated the nature and consequences of the fantastic fabric of man's training and behavior . But I dare say that it is one of the few occasions in which pitiless disclosure has been accompanied by the drawing of a clear, cleanly-defined alternative which may inspire our efforts . General Chisholm is paradoxical. He not only pleads for mature men and women, but the nature of his plea discloses that he himself is that extraordinary creature : of maturity. Dr. Sullivan says that "the mental disorder of modern man" is the attempt "to protect a peace of mind that at best is the peace and quiet of fresh thistledown on a windy day." But the prescription of General Chisholm for this disorder is not the patent formula in the medicine book . He does not suggest a renewed effort to ` anchor the mind and personality . He does not even propose that the trouble be solved by anchorage to different and better foundations. He says that the difficulty is with the very idea of anchoring at all . Man has sought through the ages to define and classify behavior : this is good, that is evil ; this is religion, that is taboo . It matters not that different groups of men at different times and in different places have arrived at conflicting results . The results have always been as unimpeachable as a decision of the Supreme Court of the United States.JThe inducements to the results, although more complex, have been similarly basically intelligible : to define a code, to compel a course of conduct which would apparently permit man to live with man in the given society, and, as a presumably necessary part of this, to bind each new individual to his elders, his rulers, and their past. But the human past is no lour suitable to the material Rres~ent_ It hasn't been for some time, u we have now reached the point where drastic readjust- ment of human personality and conduct appears necessary for survival . u.>{,-i As General Chisholm points,out, the problem of society in a world trembling with the power of self-destruction is essentially the problem of society's individuals . Unless we can remake ourselves-unless in every country there are "large numbers of mature, reasonable people, free of guilts and inferiorities," there may soon be "none of us left, not even to bury the dead ." So it is that General Chisholm proposes that we put aside the "mistaken old ways of our elders," and that we take charge of our own destiny. On his agenda, no one is without a part to play in this challenging undertaking; the church, the home, schools, and government should set themselves to the task of examining and f understanding and treating the ills that beset society-and the individual . And the role of the psychiatrist in this venture is not merely that of a healer ; it is the greater task of him who seeks the causes of fear, anxiety, prejudice, and vicious passion, and works to er icate those causes .
  3. 3. ENDURING PEACE AND SOCIAL PROGRESS We must make it possible, General Chisholm advocates, for human beings to think, and thereby to act rationally. If we are to do this, we must first free them of the terrible burden of blind authoritarianism, of the slavish acceptance of the doctrines which each generation is supposed to accept from its predecessors like a burial urn, and to pass on untouched and une~carDined_,to its successors . There are some, no doubt, who will take alarm at this precept . But the rejec- tion of authoritarianism which it implies is neither an adjuration to repudiate -authority nor a mandate to cast aside reasonable standards of behavior. It is merely an invitation to seek fact and reason, which cannot be found in the blocked tunnel of prescribed formula. Indeed, most of the essential principles which we teach as religious or moral imperatives are solidly founded in sensible social necessity . "Thou shalt not kill" is a reasonable multilateral arrangement among the members of society. But "Thou shaft not kill," advanced merely as the ipse dixit of a thunderous War-God, is a bewildering contradiction which spawns with equal facility avengers, aggressors, Quakers, and Jehovah's Witnesses ; the GI's of Bill Mauldin's cartoons and the GI's of the neuropsychiatric wards. General Chisholm's proposal is practical pedagogy. We are interested, after all, not in the mere learning of good and evil, but in the practice of reasonably mature individual and community living . This comes about not through the acr •iisition of doctrinal information, but through the application of reason and humanity, maturely, to the complex facts of life. "Thou shalt not kill" has not yet stopped a war . "Thou shall not commit adultery" has not yet solved all of the emotional and social problems of fancy which has gone astray. But careful analysis of the problems of human life, killing, love, sex, and family, might give us a start towards reasonable attitudes, and an approach to workable solutions . At any rate, from it will not result the frustrations and agonies of undebatable principle in sharp conflict with undeniable fact . Teaching should not be a substitute provided for thinking-and it too often is, from nursery through Ph .D. and beyond. Instead of precepts, it should offer for discussion and analysis the relationships of people and events, factors and things. General Chisholm says, "Freedom from moralities means freedom to think and behave sensibly." Freedom from authoritarian imperatives, divorced from reason and life, means freedom ' to acquire, in useable form, understanding and comprehension of behavior and relationships, which may equip us to deal with the urgent problems of a desperate time. We have smashed the atom and unleashed the terrible power of nature. We must smash the housing of preconception and prejudice which encases the mind and spirit of man, and set them free to cope with the forces of dissolution and disintegration which are loose in the world .
  4. 4. The Reestablishment of Peacetime Society t C3 ~ G. B. Chisholm* The Responsibility of Psychiatry WILLIAM ALANSON WHITE'S teachings and writings from his Outlines in 1907 to the last days of his life provided much of the impetus in the develop-_ ment of psychiatry which occurred during those years . His vision and humanity, honest thinking and devotion would have been of great value to the world in the troublous times ahead of us now. It would not however be a fitting memorial to William Alanson White to spend our time on this occasion looking backward at his work and bemoaning his absence and the loss to psychiatry. He would not have us at any memorial of his, talk about William Alanson White . The most sincere way we can honor him is to try to look forward, in the spirit of honesty, devotion and ser- vice which characterized his whole life, to face and deal with the vast problems which lie ahead. He would recognize that there is much for psychiatry to do and we should be getting on with the job as he would be doing if he were here. He would recog- nize, as we must, that this is a sick world, with an old chronic but ever more ex- tensive and serious sickness. Its sickness has recently become acutely dangerous and the future is uncertain indeed . i Man, again, and on a wider and more highly organized scale than ever before, has been indulging in one of his most con- sistent behavior patterns, war. Though it seems that, among the people of the world, relatively few want or enjoy wars, and very many suffer in many ways dur- ing wars, man persists in this senseless behavior century after century . Until recent years wars could. take place locally without necessarily affecting or causing concern on the part of peoples in other parts of the world, but that time is past. Every war is now a threat to all the people in the world, either directly or through deprivation of materials or loss l` of trade. This situation is widely recognized and no nation will ever again be able to formu- late its policies on the basis of isolation- ism. The interdependence of all the people in this shrunken world is obvious. Fast air transport and the atomic bomb are only the latest steps in that process, which has been going on for a long time, of breaking down the geographical bar- riers between groups of peoples. We are all now~,perforce,, citizens of the world, whether we are sufficiently mature ade- quately to carry that responsibility or„not. • M.D. University of Toronto 24; post-graduate work Middlesex and All Saints' Hospitals London England 24-25; general practice Oakville Ontario 25-31 ; lecturer psychiatry Yale Med . School 31-33; National Hospital Queens Square and Maudsley Hospital London England 33-34 ;' pract3ce`psychological Medicine Toronto 35-40. Canadian Army infantry for 4j years through ranks to Captain in first World War; Battalion and Brigade Commander in the Militia ; in present World War served as Commandant Northern Area M .D. 2, was chairman Canadian Medical Procurement and Assignment Board, Deputy Adjutant-General and Director Personnel Selection 41-42, Director General Medical Services 42-44, Deputy Minister of National Health Dept . National Health and Welfare November 44- . Chairman Dominion Council of Health; President National Comm. Mental Hygiene Canada; Chairman Health Comm. Canadian Youth Commission . t This is the second series of William Alanson White Memorial Lectures . The first of these two lectures was given in Washington, D . C., at the Auditorium of the New Interior Department Building, 23 October. The Honorables, the Secretary of Commerce, the Federal Security Administrator, and the Deputy Director of War Mobilization and Reconversion, participated in panel discussion with Drs . Chisholm, Ross McClure Chapman, Samuel W . Hamilton, and Daniel Blain, at the same place the succeeding eve- ning. The second lecture was given in New York City at the Academy of Medicine, 29 October 1945 . Honorable Jerome N . Franc, U. S.. Circuit Court of Appeals Judge, spoke in discussion.
  5. 5. "In the face of this new status as world :citizens we must accept the uncomfort- able fact that we are the kind of people who fight wars every fifteen or twenty years. We always have, for as far back as we know anything of the race, and if we go on being the same kinds of people it is to be supposed that we will continue to fight each other . Now that' the latest war has just finished we must take one of several pos- sible courses. First we can return to the kind of life and society we had before the war, go back to our peaceful pursuit of a living, or local social betterment, or political importance, or psychotherapy as the case maybe. We could probably count with luck on fifteen years, or even twenty, of peace if we do that, but those occupa- tions would be completely futile as we would be taken over and enslaved, liter- ally, and our comfortable social develop- ments thrown into the discard by a "Mas- ter Race" to whom we would appear weak and unrealistic and not fit to run our own lives. Every present indication is that the next time any self-styled master race is allowed to prepare and make such an attempt it will succeed . If our future concern is just the reestablishment of the pre-war society, slavery is absolutely inevitable. We were before the war . the kind of people who allowed the Germans, Italians and Japanese to prepare openly for war for years and to pick their own time and place to attack us . If we go on being that same kind of people we are indeed not fit to survive. We will have proven clearly our lack of ability to learn from even the most painful experience- a biologically intolerable condition . The second possible course is to pre- pare earnestly for the next war, recogniz- ing its inevitability, training our children from infancy to live dangerously, to be able to fight effectively with ever more efficient, ruthless and terrible weapons. They must be trained to strike first be- cause there may be no second blow in the wars of the future . Constant alertness and ruthless killing of all potential enemies will be the price of . survival if we go on ENDURING PEACE AND SOCIAL PROGRESS The third possible course is to find and take sure steps to prevent wars in the future. While this possibility seems ob- viously preferable it is something that has never yet been undertaken success- fully. Perhaps it can be said that such a course has never been undertaken at all. Perhaps there is no way of prevent- ing wars; if so we must decide whether to be slaves or ruthless killers, but be- fore accepting either of those uncomfort- able alternatives let us at least explore possible ways of preventing war. Before exploring such possibilities how- ever, we should first. consider war in relation to the human race so that we may be assured that it would indeed be good for the race to prevent future wars. It would seem to be true that, whatever the destiny of the race, the killing off of large' numbers of its physically fit, in- telligent and socially minded y .unger men can hardly be advantageou A case might be made for wars if th could be fought by the old men and the mental defectives but that does not seem' to be +r even a remote possibility as wars become ever more technical and demanding of all the fittest men . While the atomic bomb .has been a dramatic weapon in the clos- ing phases of the recent war, other pos- sible weapons may be still more terrible. Whit of the introduction into major water su lies of a chemical t pregnancy in females? What of the i finite` ca`aci y for killing in the haplds of bi s; s and chemistsallover the wow rld, Any country could be paralyzed, anal destroyedvt„leisure-bv a ,well organ- ized attack of anv' on . of various new tvvpes-and without any.:development of^ heav industries n fact then the ten- dency i volve not only fit young men, but every sign points to the killing in any future wars,of large numbers of unselected whole populations, including women' and children. This can hardly possibly be a useful procedure from a racial point of view unless conceivably it could serve to reduce population pres- sures in some parts' of the world. This end could surely be attained, however, in I ;t P,
  6. 6. ALLEGED REMEDIES FOR WAR tion, if such reduction of population should become necessary to the human race. eme aspects of war are undoubtedly attractive to many people, but these ad- vantages are clearly so far outweighed by the sufferings of others that no case can be made for continuing to wage wars on that score. Wars affect the economic status of millions of people, many of them for the better. Business booms, money flows freely, prosperity is widespread, but only where the war is not actually being fought. In the future, war may well be fought everywhere throughout the world without immediately compensating pros- perity for anybody. Furthermore it ought to be possible for us to produce the same prosperity without killing, starving or en- slaving millions of people . Look as we may we cannot find a sen- sible reason, from the point of view of the welfare of the human race, for con- tinuing to fight wars or for not prevent- ing them. Then why do we go on doing it? Let me repeat-we are the kind of people who fight wars every fifteen or twenty years. Why? Shall we only throw up our hands in resignation and reply "human nature"? Surely other expres- sions of human nature are subject to extensive changes . Why not this one? We may not change nature but surely its expression in behavior patterns can be modified very extensively. The responsibility for charting the ~J necessary changes in human, behavior rests clearly on the sciences working in that field. (Psychologists, psychiatrist, sociologists, econtt and politiciansns must face this responsibilit) It cannot be avoided. Even a decision not to inter- fere is still a decision and carries no less responsibilit y) We must earnestly con- sider what can be dyne to save the race from itself, from its insatiable desire for its own blood. ! Can this old habitual pat- tern of the race be eradicated by strong combinations of powerful nations, or by legislation, or by pretending that now everyone will love everyone else and there will be no more wars, or by prayer and factino nr by rnntrnl of anemv inriiiatriaa' These have all been tried repeatedly, and uniformly unsuccessfully . There is" nothing to suggest that any of them can be successful though they are all seriously being recommended again by many interested people. We are even being told we can prevent wars by con- trolling our potential enemies' heavy industries. I am reminded that when the Romans were concerned to keep the Britons from fighting them they cut down all the yew trees in England so the Britons could not make long bows . The Britons . took to cross bows instead, which were much better weapons. Surely we have learned something in 2000 years! Or have we? We might as well forbid the Germans to make spears or breed horses for cavalry as control their heavy industries. Every lesson of history and of common sense would suggest the fu- tility of these methods. It is clear that so ething new is needed-but what? Can we identify the reasons why we fight wars or even enough of them to perceive a pattern? Many of them are easy to list-prejudice, isolationism, the ability emotionally and uncritically to be- lieve unreasbnab'le things excessive desire for material or power, excessiv ear of others,_ belief in a destiny to con-root ers, vengeance, ability to avoid seeing and facing unpleasant facts and taking appro- priate action. These are probably the main reasons we find ourselves involved in wars., They are all well known and recognized neurotic symptoms. The only normal motive is self defence, to protect ourselves from aggression, but surely we should be able to see the aggression com- ing long before it breaks out in warfare and take appropriate action to satisfy or suppress it4Ei p self defence may in-" volvg a neurotic re ionwhen it means deferldin 4ox win excessive material w al from others who are in great need. This type of defense is short sighte ineffective and inevitably leads to more wars. When we see neurotic patients show- ing these same reactions in their private affairs we may also throw up our hands anti cav "human natiiro" nr'~nconhnn~*i, ;n
  7. 7. personality of this or that type" or we may go to work to try to help the person in trouble to grow up over again more successfully than his parents were able to o. This can be c onefrequently but it would have been still better if his parents had been able to help him to grow up successfully in the first place . It would appear that at least three requirements are basic to, any hope of permanent world peace. First ecuri~, elimination of the oc- casion forvalid fear` of aggression =l is attainable, at least temporarily and as as'p `a "until something better can be arran • ed b le islation backed by im- mediately avai a . e ombined orce .re- I ared to sue .ress J an as_ seal to force by any peop es in e world. The administration an command of such a force is a delicate problem but can be devisedif and when the great powrs really want it. A less effective substitute for this method but one which may work well enough for long enough is for the great powers to assume this function themselves. To work even well enough it will be necessary that all disputes be- tween nations be submitted to arbitration by a court of the highest integrity. _pportunity to live reasonably comfortably for all the people in the world on economic levels which do not vary too widely either geographically or by groups within a population . This is a simple matter of redistribution ofmeal,of which there is-~p enty in the worldfj everybody, or of which plenty can easily be made. This can easily be attained whenever enough people see its necessity for their own and their children's safety if for no more mature reason. It is probable that these first two re- quirements would make wars unneces- sary for mature normal people without neurotic necessities, but their attainment depends on the ability of enough people in the right places to want to implement them, and(fa people are mature and without neurotic necessities So far in thy ee history of the world there have never been enough mature people . in the right anywhere who have been able to see and accept these facts and who are sufficiently well developed and responsible to tackle these problems . It follows inevitably then that th thirds requirement, on which the attainment and the effectiveness of the others de- pend, is that there should be enough eo .le in the world, in all countries, who are = as we are and alwa s have seen, and will not show the neurotic necessities which we and every generation of our ancestors have shown. g have never had enough people anywhere who are sufficiently free of these neurotic symp- toms which make wars inevitable. All psychiatrists know where these symptoms come from. The burden of inferiority, guilt, and _we have all carried lies at the root of this failure to mature successfully. Psychotherapy is pre- dominantly, by any of a . variety of meth- ods, the reduction of the weight of this load. Therefore the question we must ask ourselves is why the human race is so loaded down with these incubi and what can be done about it. Strecker and Appel have recently de- fined maturity in terms of abilities which, if attained by enough people, could ensure the continuity and continued development of the race along the lines of its inherent destiny without wars. To quote, "Maturity is a quality of personality that is made up of a number of elements . It is stick- to-it-iveness, the ability to stick to a job, to work on it, and to struggle through until it is finished, or until one has given all one has in the endeavor . It is the quality or capacity of giving more than is asked or required in a given situation. It is this characteristic that enables others to count on one ; thus it is reliability. Per- sistence is an aspect of maturity : persis- tence to carry out a goal in the face of difficulties. Endurance of difficulties, un- pleasantness, discomfort, frustration, hard- ship. The ability to size things up, make one's own decision, is a characteristic of maturity. This implies a considerable amount of independence. A mature per- son is not dependent unless ill . Maturity I 1 ENDURING PEACE AND SOCIAL PROGRESS
  8. 8. WHENCE PERSONAL IMMATURITY? and succeed, a will to life. Of course, maturity represents the capacity to co- operate: to work with others, to work in an organization and under authority. The mature person is flexible, can defer to time, persons, circumstances. He can show tolerance, he can be patient, and above all he has the qualities of adapta- bility and compromise . Basically, maturity represents a wholesome amalgamation of two things : 1-dissatisfaction with the status quo, which calls forth aggressive, constructive effort, and 2-social con- cern and devotion. It is morale in the individual." Let me repeat parts of this "The ability to size things up, make one's own deci- sions, is a characteristic of maturity," "A mature person . . . above all he has the qualities of adaptability and compromise ." Can anyone doubt that enough people reaching maturity in these terms would not want to start wars themselves and would prevent other people starting them . It would appear that this quality of ma- turity, this growing up successfully, is what is lacking in the human race gen- erally, in ourselves and in our legislators and governments, which can only repre- sent the people. This fact puts the problem squarely up to psychiatry. The necessity to fight wars, hether as aggressor or as a defender sary who could have, but has not, taken steps guilt to prevent war occurring, is as much a pathological psychiatric symptom as is a phobia or the antisocial behavior of a criminal who has been dominatednated by a stern and unreasonable father. They are ake irrational -e aviorpatterns resulting from unsuccessful development and failure to reach emotional maturity. by our Barents, our»flow and day school It is evident that this failure is usual in to her our oliticians o Tests our the whole human race and has been so newspapers and otherswithavested in- throughout historical time . tgrest in controllin us. "Thou shalt be- For a cause we must seek some, con- come as gods, knowing good and evil," sistent thread running through the weave ood and e it with which to keep children In the old Hebrew story God warns the first man and woman to have nothing to do with good x~ evil . It is interest-8 ing to note that as long ago as that, "good" is recognized as just as great a menace as "evil." They are the fruit of the one tree and are different aspects of the same thing. We have been very slow to rediscover this truth and to recognize the unneces- and artificially imposed inferiority, and fear, commonly known as sin, under which we have almost all labored and which produces so much of the social maladjustment and unhappiness in the world. For many generations we have bowed our necks to the yoke of the con- viction, of sin. We have swallowed all manner of poisonous_ certainties of all civilizations we have known and under control, with which to preven ree preventing the development of all or thinkin with which to imose local , and almost all the people to a state of true and national loyalties and with maturity. What basic psychological dis- which to, lind children to their glorious tortion can be found in every civilization intellectual heritage . Misauidecl by au- ~ecus a force which discourages the ability tt see and acknowledge patent facts, which prevents the rational use of intelligence, which teaches or encourages the ability to dissociate and to believe contrary to and in spite of clear evidence, which pro- duces inferiority, guilt and fear, which makes controlling other people's personal behavior emotionally necessary, which encourages prejudice and the inability to see, understand and sympathize with other people's points of view. Is there an force so potent and so perv that it can do all these thin s in a ci lizations . =FMT4 ~, ^ • Th F6* - ~st common denominator of all civi= jizat}gr~S dtie only.nsvcholoZical force capable of producing these perversions moralit the oiicen , of r' t and, wron theoisonl ong ago described and warn against as "the fruit of the tree of th knowledge of good and evil." 0
  9. 9. ENDURING PEACE AND SOCIAL PROGRESS ~faith '" stunted by inculcated loyalty, torn . would kee each eneration under the ,by frantic heresy,, bedevilled by insistent control of the the schism, drugged, by ecstatic experience, aman` i and the confused by conflicting certainty, Let us go back to Strecker and Appel's derd~Sy invented mystery, and loaded definition of maturity. "The ability to down by the weight of~uilit and fear en- size things up, make one's own decisions gendered by its .own onipal promises, is a characteristic of maturity." "A ma- the unfortunate uman race, a riv by ture person . . . has the qualities of these incubi of its only defences and its adaptability and compromise." Were you only reasons for striving, its reasoning and I brought up in that direction? No; power and its natural' capacity to . enjoy we were tau ht to be absolutel lo al and the satisfaction of its natural urees, obedient local concept of virtue strugg i along under its ghastly self- whatever that happened to be. We were imposedburden. The results, the inevit- toi t t at os ems or Hindus or Jews ; ableresults, arefrustration, inferiority, or Democrats or Republicans (with us in neurosis and inability to enjoy living, to Canada. Grits or Tories) or capitalistsor reason clearly or to make a world fit to t•rndh unionist$, nrsocialists or commu- - live in. nib, or Roman Catholics, or Methodists The cripp1i, of intelligW-ce by these 9r anv of all other human groups are band f belief, in the name of virtueirtue wrong or even wicked. It almost always an eccur for the soul, is as recogniz- -.-happened that among all the people in_ able as that of the feet of the Chinese the world only our own parents, and per- girl who was sacrificed to the local con- haps a few, people they selected, were cept of beauty. The result is, in both right about everything . We could refuse cases, not beauty of character or of feet, to accept their rightness only at the price but distortion and crippling and loss of of a load of guilt and fear, and peril, to natural function.~Intelligence, ability to our immortal souls. This training has observe and to re son clearly and to reach been practically universal in the human and implement decisions appropriate to race.. Variations in content have had the real situation in which he finds him- almost no importance. The fruit is poi- self, are man's only specific methods of Sonous no matter how it is prepared or survival. His uni_iaaue eguinment is en- disguised. tirely in the superior lobes of his brain. "The mature person is flexible, can His destiny must lie in the direction in- defer to time, persons and circumstances. dicated by his equipment . Whatever He can show tolerance, he can be pa- hampers or distorts man's clear true tient, and above all he has the qualities thinking works against man's manifest of adaptability and compromise" say destiny and tends to destroy him . Strecker and Appel . Is family or school Man's freedom to observe and to think .or church teaching in that direction? freely is as essential to his survival as are Almost never, and yet it is surely true the specific methods of survival of the that helping their children to reach this other species to them. Birds must fly, state 'of maturity successfully is the first fish must swim, herbivorous animals must responsibility of each generation. Only eat grasses and cereals, and man must -when~thisIhas been done successfully can observe and think freely . That freedom, we hope to have enough people able to see present in all children and known as and think clearly and freely enough to be innocence, has been destroyed or crippled able to prevent the race going on as we by local certainties, by gods of local have gone, from slaughter to bigger and ' moralities, of local loyalty, of personal better slaughter. salvation, of prejudice and hate and in- Psychiatrists everywhere have spent tolerance-frequently mass ueradinA as `their lives trying, -more and more success- love-gods of gygrything„that would de- fully with a variety of methods, to help
  10. 10. EDUCATION'S CRUCIAL ROLE near enough to this state of maturity to no signs of social or personal degenera=, be able to live comfortably for themselves tion, no lack of social responsibility, no and for the group ; but surely it would be tendency toward social anarchy . This more advan aage`ous to the world for psy- bugbear has no basis in fact whatever . chiatrists to go into the preventive fie~ld We all recognize these reactions as those where the big job needs to be done . The of the immature, the inferior, the guilty, training of children is making a thousand which are not found in the mature in- neurotics for ever•' ? oneethat psychiatrists tegrated personality. Freedom from mo- can hope to help with psychotherapy. To ralities means freedom to observe, to produce a' generation of mature citizens think and behave sensibly, to the ad- is the biggest and most necessary job any vantage of the person and of the group, country could undertake, and the reward free from outmoded types of loyalties and in saving of misery and suffering would from the magic fears of our ancestors. be colossal. If the race is to be freed from its The re-interpretation and eventually crippling burden of good and evill it must eradication of thel concept of right and be psychiatrists whotake the original re- wrong wwhich has been the basis of child sponsibility._ This is a challenge which trainin the substitution of intelli ent must be met. If psychiatrists decide to 'and rational thinking for faith in the cer- do nothing about it but continue in the tainties of the fold people] these are the futility of psychotherapy only, that too belated objectives of practically all effec- is a decision and the~cesponsibnity for tive psychotherapy. Would they not be the results is still theirs . What the world legitimate objectives of original educa- needs from psychiatry is honest, simple tion? Would it not be sensible to stop im- and clear thinking, talking and writing . posing our local prejudices faiths on It needs the same from psychology, ao children and'give the1nall sides of every ciology, economics and politics . Clear and quest so that in their own good time honest ., thinking can almost always be they may have the ability to size things expressed in simple words which are y up, and make their own decisions . understandable by the people who atter The suggestion that, we should stop inadeemocracy. The people who matter teaching children moralities and rights are the teachers, the young mothers and and wrongs and instead protect their orig- fathers, the parent-teacher associations, inal intellectual integrity has of course youth groups, service clubs, schools and to be met by an outcry of heretic or colleges, the churches and Sunday schools iconoclast, such as was raised against -everyone who can be reached and given Galileo for finding another planet, and help toward 'intellectual freedom and against those who claimed the world was honesty for themselves and for the chil- round, and against the truths of evolution, dren whose future depends on thei J . and against Christ's re-interpretation of Can we psychiatrists give up our pro- the Hebrew God, and against any attempt tective device of hiding behind a specific, to change the mistaken old ways or ideas . difficult and variable vocabulary to avoid The pretense is made, as it has been our obvious responsibility? made in relation to the finding of any The battle, if it is to be undertaken, extension of truth, that to do away with will be long and difficult but truth will right and wrong would produce uncivi- prevail-whenever enough people want lized people, immorality, lawlessness and it to. With luck we have perhaps fifteen social chaos . The fact is that most psy- or even twenty years before the out- chiatrists and psychologistss and many break of the next world war if we remain othe respectabletpeople have escaped as we are, . twenty years in which to from these oral chainsiand are able to change the dearest certainties of enoug observe and think freely. Most of the of the human race, twenty years in which patients they have treated successfully to root out and destroy the oldest and ` mnet. flniirishinLy narasitieal growth in the~___., a at e - A ..n+ +hno ahnnr
  11. 11. ENDURING PEACE AND SOCIAL PROGRESS 'world, the tree of the knowledge of good men and women seeking a safe, respect- andevil. so that man may learn to pre- able and quickly attainable social and servee his most precious heritage, his in- emotional status, nor for girls filling in nocence and intellectual freedom, twenty their time before marriage . Fortunately years in which to remove the necessity there are recent signs of intellectual for the perverse satisfactions to be found stirrings amongst teachers which give in warfare, and to ensure that enough some hope. To be allowed to teach chil- people everywhere do not close their eyes dren should be the sign of the final ap- to the awful threats facing them as we proval of society . The present scale of did from 1910 to 1914 and 1917, and from values is clearly illustrated by the dis- 1933 to 1939 and 1941 . parity between teachers' salaries and We are the horrible example . We are those of movie actresses or football the people who fight wars every fifteen coaches. I am reminded of a group whose e or twenty years . We must at whatever responsibility was the reclamation, train- cost prevent our children and their chil- ing and rehabilitation of all the unmarried dren from being 'as we have been, but mothers in a certain community. The pro- freedom from the tyranny of these faiths cedure was to have an "I.Q." done and and fears is not to be gained in one then to train the girl according to a generation. simple chart. The upper levels rated It is therefore necessary that, for so various types of useful training . Those long as it may take to change the bring- at the bottom, not fit for anything else, ing up of children in enough of the world, were trained as nursemaids, to bring up our close watch on each other and every- children. Thus, hundreds of defenceless one in the world should not be relaxed children in that large community have for a moment. Let uss all be prepared, not been brought up by moronic unmarried -for another like the last war with navies mothers. Because these are psychopath- and armies and airforces, but for the next ological matters, psychiatrists simply war with rockets and atomic bombs and have to take the responsibility .of inter- all the mobilized power of our laborato- pretation and initiative. ries. These are the weapons of the future and with them the, whole world can be Can such a program of re-education or reached from any place on the earth in of a new kind of education be charted? some minutes. The people who definitely I would not presume to go so far, except do not want to fight any more wars to suggest that psychology and sociology bEf st promise annihilation to an ation an psyrlu patholo~v the sciences which starts to fight and must be pre- o living, should be made available to all pared immediately and ruthlessly to carry the people by being taught to all chil- out that promise without parley or nego- dren in primary and secondary schools, tiation. This involves the continual up- while the study of kings as trig- J' keep of widely dispersed atomic rocket onometry, Latin, and others stations covering the whole world and of specialist concern be left to a continual high pressure research pro- universities. gram to discover ever more efficient Only so, I think, can we help our chil- methods of killing to keep ahead of any dren to carry their responsibilities as possible competition. This must go on world citizens as we hal e not been able until we, all the people, are re-educated 'to do. Only so can we prevent their hav- to be able to live in peace together, until ing to live in a world of f..atr and chaos we are free to observe clearly and to think and cruelty and death, far more horrible and behave sensibly. than we can know. The most important thing in the world We have never had a really peaceful today is . the bringing up of childre t society in the world, but only short in- is not a job for economic or emotional terludes of forgetting and then frantic misfits. for frightened. inferiority-ridden preparation between wars . Can the world
  12. 12. learn to live at peace? I think so, but only i individual psychiatrists and psycholo- gists can live up to Strecker and Appel's definition,-"Basically maturity repre- sents a wholesome amalgamation of two things, one, dissatisfaction with the status quo, which calls forth aggressive, con- structive effort, and two, social concern aad devotion." If we cannot, the job will M be left to what survivors there may after the next war, or to, intellectual more honest and braver people who may, get a-chance some generations later. With the other human sciences, psychiatry must now decide what is to be the imme- diate future of the human race. Noi one else can, And this is the prime respon- sibility of psychiatry.