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Asian american lgbt presentation


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Asian american lgbt presentation

  2. 2. Collectivist Values Value family and community o Over Individual Gain (Sue & Sue, 1990)
  3. 3. Sexual Attitudes and Expectations• Family honor= Sexuality is a private matter and an inappropriate topic of conversation • Acceptable within marriage • Stimga of sexuality leads to avoidance of the topic (which can cause uncomfortable feelings and embarrassment) – Lack of discussion among families (Okazaki, 2002; Zhang, Li, Li, & Beck, 1999) (Kim, 2009)
  4. 4. Sexual Attitudes and Expectations: (Kim, Li, & Ng, 2005; Okazaki, 2002) – Patriarchal values (Ho, 1990; Kim & Ward, 2007; Mills & Granoff, 1992) – Traditional sex roles – Misogyny = a general hostility, mistrust, and devaluing of women.(Koo, Stephens, Lindgren,George; 2012; Okazaki, 2002)
  5. 5. Asian American Adolescent Sexual Behaviors National Health & Social Life Survey High School in Los Angeles in 1992 Asian American Students (n=186) compared to Other Cultures (n= 2,026 students)• More likely to be virgins (75%)• Age began to understand what sexual intercourse was ( m=14.1)• Less likely to initiate heterosexual intercourse at an early age• Lower number of lifetime partners• Frequency of sexual activity the same for Asian & Non- Asians• Primary language English= More likely to be sexually active
  6. 6. Views of Sexuality Level of acculturation may indicateif the Asian-American individual identifies more withSexual attitudes, Norms, and Behaviors of their Asian or American identity
  7. 7. Consequences of Avoiding Discussions on Sexuality• Research indicates that: – Asian American youth • Know less about birth control and HIV transmission than Black or White youth (DiClemente, Zorn, & Temoshok, 1987; Strunin, 1991) • Not more likely to use condoms or avoid substance use during sexual encounters once they become sexually active (Grunbaum, Lowry, Kann, & Pateman, 2000; Hou & Basen-Engquist, 1997). – Asian American women • Less likely than any other ethnic or gender subgroup to be tested for HIV/AIDS (Darbes et al., 2002) • Heterosexual contact is the dominant source of HIV transmission • Filipina Americans: earlier age of sexual onset and higher proportions of unintended pregnancies and HIV/AIDS than women in East Asian ethnic groups (Darbes et al., 2002; Horan & DiClemente, 1993), • A quarter of Asian American women( between 18- 35 years) never seek care from reproductive and sexual health providers (National Asian Women’s Health Organization, 1997) (Kim, 2009)
  8. 8. Asian-American Sexuality• Sexuality is overlooked – Seen as “low risk” for STD’s • Model minority perspective (good grades, submissive) • Less sexual experience • More conservative sexual attitudes • Lower rates of unintended pregnancies than Black, White or Latino youth (Kim, 2009)
  9. 9. Asian Sexuality• China Doll" and "Geisha" reinforce stereotypes of Asians as passive, weak or as sex objects – Typically portrayed in mainstream media – Full Metal Jacket Movie clip coins the phrase “Me so horney” (See:
  10. 10. Commercial Sex Work• More typical for women to be in the industry – Sexual behavior perceived as a consequence of weak economy and poverty of the country – Typically between the ages of 12-16• Call boys: male sex workers that engage in sex with both men and women Prevalence Of Sex Industry Southeast Asian countries (Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines): Estimated to account for between 2% -14% of Gross Domestic Product Japan: Annual earnings estimate of between 4-10 trillion yen Estimated to account for 1% - 3% of Gross National Product. (WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION Regional Office for the Western Pacific )
  12. 12. Descriptive LGB Identification TermsCountry Terms usedChina Tongzi, LalaJapan DoseiashaPhillipines Bakla, Tomboy, Bayot
  13. 13. Homesexuality & LawCountry Law Says:Singapore Homosexual acts are unlawfulChina Legal position unclear, but not technically illegalThailand Not mentioned in lawVietnam Not technically illegalLaos Legal position unclear (Source: Utopia-Asia as cited inPhilippines Not mentioned in law, 2000)Cambodia Not illegalJapan Not illegal
  14. 14. Homsexuality & LawCountry Law Says:Burma Has a sodomy lawMalaysia Not illegal except if youre Muslim (though police harrasment occurs)North Korea Not mentioned in lawSouth Korea No overtly discriminatory lawsIndonesia Not mentioned in lawBrunei IllegalTaiwan Overt lewdness in public places can be used to harrass (Utopia-Asia as cited in
  15. 15. LGBT in Asian History (
  16. 16. LGBT Asian History• Homosexual behaviors documented in – Historical Accounts, Literature, and Art (Leupp,1995; Pope& Chung, 1999) – Royalty: Homosexual behaviors and Bisexual behaviors confined to royal palaces (Ruan, 1991) • Emperors, Concubines, and Servants – Miltary: Warriors with their young apprentices – Japanese Kabuki: all-male or all-female live theater casts (Robertson, 1998) • Same-sex love in performances -Cultural: Affection is acceptable ( Chung & Katayama, 1998) • E.g., Hold hands, sleep in same bed (Matteson, 1997; Tewari, Alvin N. Alvarez, 2009)
  17. 17. LGBT Recent History• Conseqeuences for LGB demographic Communist countries – Public humiliation – Physical assault – Imprisonment – Execution (Tewari, Alvin N. Alvarez, 2009)
  18. 18. LGBT Sexual Attraction• Asians (typically males) seen as asexual or not as attractive – Being with another Asian men or Asian women in a relationships joked to be “incest”• “Rice Queen”- white males attracted to primarily Asian men (Chung & Szymanki, 2006) – Research suggests that Asian Americans are attracted to White Americans • Possibly influenced by internalized racial oppression • Western standard of what is attractive • May see White Americans as powerful or more desirable • See other gay Asian Men as competition for white mates (Tewari, Alvin N. Alvarez,2009) (Photo: 0new/J-Crew-gay-couple-2.jpg)
  19. 19. Religions & SexualityReligion ViewsIslam Homosexuality -IllegalHinduism General -Women dishonor families by engaging pre-marital sex -Discussions about sex acceptable within a marriage -Kama Sutra “Kama”=sensual or sexual pleasure. “Sutra”=a formula Not a sex manual= guide for virts life of love, family , and pleasures of lifeConfucianism General “Virtuous woman would never have two husbands.” -Among Japanese women before the 20th century, remarriage was common, and premarital sex was usual
  20. 20. Religion & SexualityReligion ViewCatholic General -Premarital sex unacceptable -Use of contraceptives unacceptable -Abortion unacceptable Homosexuality -Natural law debate -No common opposition until 12th century (Collapse of Roman Empire where homosexuality has been prevalent) -Requires homosexuals abstain from sex -To Live in Chris (1976) book teaches understanding and compassion -Leviticus 18:22: “abomination” -Romans 1:27 : “dishonorable” -Paul 1:24: Impurity 01 Corinthians 6:9-10 & 1 Timothy 1:8-10”: Excluded from reign of God (
  21. 21. Heterosexual Asian-American Attitudes towards Homosexuality• Males were more negative than females in their attitudes toward homosexuality• Asian-American students scored significantly higher on the homophobia measures than Caucasian students. (Span & Vidal, 2003)
  22. 22. Clinical Classification of LGBT PopulationsChinese Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Mental DisordersHomosexuality excluded as mental illness in 2001 (Tewari, Alvin N. Alvarez,2009)
  24. 24. Transgender Identification Terms Country Terms used India Hijras (“Third sex”) South India Jôgappa Southern Iraq Mustergil Burma Acault Oman Xanîth Thailand Kathoey (“lady boy”) Phillipines Bayot Malaysia Mak-nyahs Samoa Fa’afafine
  25. 25. Transgender Identification TermsCountry Terms UsedChina Bianxing (“one who changes sex”) Katoey (also used in Thailand, offensive in China. Translates to “human monster”) (Tewari, Alvin N. Alvarez,2009)
  26. 26. Transgenderism in Art & Media
  27. 27. Entertainment & Media• Drag Queens – Thailand: major entertainment industry – China: considered extremely offensive – Phillipines: • Parloristas: individuals who take on traditional female roles – Example: working as a hair stylist in a beauty salon, dressing up as a drag queen, or serving as domestic help). – Seen as effeminate, flamboyant individuals who are often subjected to jokes and dehumanizing portrayals in the media. – America: • Asian-American men have advantage to impersonate females due to shorter height, limited facial and body hair, and bone structure • Stereotype: effeminate and submissive – Sexually and otherwise (Tewari, Alvin N. Alvarez,2009)
  28. 28. Transgenderism Video: American Beauties“American Beauties is an award-winning documentary onAsian transgender immigrants. We enter the secretive, oftenmisunderstood world of immigrant male to femaletransgenders. In a series of illuminating interviews, Amanda,Imani, Kimberly and Kosal give revealing insights on the issuesclosest to their hearts: discrimination, prostitution, and sexreassignment surgery as well as their former lives, and theirdreams for the future.”
  29. 29. Reassignment SurgeryThailand: One of the most thriving industries in worldChina: Due to increase in population, starting to provideinfo to demographic for sex reassignment surgery,hormone therapy, and other daily living issues (Tewari, Alvin N. Alvarez,2009)
  30. 30. Clinical Implications & Challenges• STI’s- shame in family finding out• Identity Development• Socialization• Behaviors• Sexual Health• Sexual Violence• Lack of knowledge on topic (Okazaki, 2002) – Most studies look at sexual attitudes not sexual identity development (Chng & Geliga-Vargas, 2000; Cochran, Mays, & Leung, 1991; Huang & Uba, 1992; Meston, Trapnell & Gorzalka, 1996) (Tewari, Alvin N. Alvarez,2009)
  31. 31. Impact of Sexual Attitudes on Physical Health• Asian Pacific Islander Men• Asian American Women – Not seeking sexual and reproductive care leads to: • Greater risk for delay of treatment in breast, cervical cancer, and other gyneolocial problems – Recent CDC data indicates: • Annual HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates are increasing faster among Asian Pacific Islanders than any other racial group • Islanders are the only racial group with a statistically significant percentage increase in annual HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates • Low self esteem, social isolation, Marginalization from heterosexual and homosexual communities • Protective Factors: Family – Living with one’s parents – Asian family values= » practice safe sex to live and support family » overt urging by family members to engage in safer sex (Chin et al. 2007; Han,Operario,& Choi, 2011)
  32. 32. Expression of Sexual Identity• Sexual identity changes according to context (Tewari, Alvin N. Alvarez, 2009) – Out to friends, close siblings – Secret to heterosexual peers, family and coworkers – May prefer to celebrate pride in smaller gatherings at friend’s homes than in large pride festival – Closeted to their parents (Tan, 2011) • Either refuse to or claim they do not feel obliged to • Introduce partners to parents as “friends” – Consequences influences LGBT individuals to question: “Is coming out even necessary?”• Phillipines – Machismo and the down low:- Similar to Spanish culture • With masculine-like behavior and physical appearance, gay men reject a homosexual identity despite sexual activities with other men (Nadal, 2010; Nadal & Corpus 2012)• Sensitivity to cultural factor – Should not assume these behaviors are immature or unhealthy – Avoidance and denial is as typical coping strategy (Cass, 1979)
  33. 33. Resources Available• China – Increasing transgendered population encourages the need for more information • Academia, Conferences • Internet support groups, Websites• Phillipines – Most studies on experiences of LGBT Filipinos tend to focus primarily on gay men, some who may not even identify as gay (Tan, 995). (Tewari, Alvin N. Alvarez,2009)
  34. 34. QUESTIONHow might you apply information regardingAsian American sexuality into your work withAsian American LGBTQ clients?
  35. 35. ReferencesChae, D. H., & Ayala, G. (2010). Sexual orientation and sexual behavior among Latino and Asian Americans: Implications for unfair treatment and psychological distress. Journal Of SexResearch, 47(5), 451-459. doi:10.1080/00224490903100579Han, C., Operario, D., & Choi, K. (2011). If I was infected with HIV, I would be letting my family down: Family influences on risk and protective factors for unsafe sex among gay Asian PacificIslander men. Health, Risk & Society, 13(4), 373-388. doi:10.1080/13698575.2011.575932Han, C. (2006). Geisha of a different kind: Gay asian men and the gendering of sexual identity. Sexuality & Culture: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly, 10(3), 3-28. doi:10.1007/s12119-006-1018-0Kelly H. Koo Kari A. Stephens Kristen P. Lindgren William H. George Arch (2012). Misogyny, Acculturation, and Ethnic Identity: Relationto Rape-Supportive Attitudes in Asian American College • • •Men. Sex Behavior, 41 (4) 1005-1014.Kim, J.L (2009). ASIAN AMERICAN WOMEN’S RETROSPECTIVE REPORTS OF THEIR SEXUAL SOCIALIZATION. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 33 (2009), 334–350Matteson, D. R. (1997). Bisexual and homosexual behavior and HIV risk among Chinese-, Filipino- and Korean-American men. Journal Of Sex Research, 34(1), 93-104.doi:10.1080/00224499709551870Nadal, K. L., & Corpus, M. J. H. (2012, October 1). “Tomboys” and “Baklas”: Experiences of Lesbian and Gay Filipino Americans. Asian American Journal of Psychology. Advance online publication.doi: 10.1037/a0030168Ochiai, E. (2011). Love and life in Southwestern Japan: The story of a one-hundred-year-old lady. Journal Of Comparative Family Studies, 42(3), 399-410.Okazaki, S. (2002). Influences of culture on Asian Americans sexuality. Journal Of Sex Research, 39(1), 34-41. doi:10.1080/00224490209552117Span, S. A., & Vidal, L. A. (2003). Cross-cultural differences in female university students attitudes toward homosexuals: A preliminary study. Psychological Reports, 92(2), 565-572.doi:10.2466/PR0.92.2.565-572Tan, (2011). Go Home, Gay Boy! Or, Why Do Singaporean Gay Men Prefer to “Go Home” and Not “Come Out”? Journal of Homosexuality. Doi 10.1080/00918369.2011.581930Tewari, Alvin N. Alvarez ((2009) Asian American Psychology: Current Perspectives. Psychology Press.Yap, J. G. (1986). Philippine ethnoculture and human sexuality. Journal Of Social Work & Human Sexuality, 4(3), 121-134.Zucker, K. J., Blanchard, R., Kim, T., Pae, C., & Lee, C. (2007). Birth order and sibling sex ratio in homosexual transsexual South Korean men: Effects of the male-preference stopping rule. PsychiatryAnd Clinical Neurosciences, 61(5), 529-533. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2007.01703.x Catholicism and Homosexuality 2012 Drag Queen Lychee Minnelli – A Man In A DressWorld History of Male Love, "Homosexual Traditions", Chinese Tradition of Male Love, 2000 HEALTH ORGANIZATION Regional Office for the Western Pacific . Sex Work in Asia (2001) Out: Gay and lesbian Life in East Asia (2000)