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gender, sexuality, and globalization


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gender, sexuality, and globalization

  2. 2. What is Gender? “Gender is more about your personal sense of who you are. Gender is often thought about as being a man or a woman. Many societies are now expanding their use of gender terms.” Source: What each of Facebook’s 51 New Gender Options Means
  3. 3. NEOLIBERAL ASSUMPTIONS ON GENDER • Women are empowered to work outside of the household. • Evidence shows that this is contingent on the kind of work and the conditions of that work • Poor men are more violent toward women. • Data indicates that domestic violence is prevalent across all social classes and is more common against women who have jobs. Source: Developing Partnerships: Gender, Sexuality, and the reformed World Bank
  4. 4. World Bank on Gender “Former World Bank President James Wolfensohn starting in the mid- 1990s in the face of the crisis in social reproduction and continued impoverishment that put the neoliberal Washington Consensus on structural adjustment in retreat.” came up with the World Bank’s view on gender, which is “if women ‘work harder’ in the public realm and men ‘love better’ in the private realm, poverty will be reduced”. Source: Developing Partnerships: Gender, Sexuality, and the reformed World Bank
  5. 5. WORLD BANK ON GENDER The World Bank’s own research shows that female- headed households have minimal impact on the levels of poverty and preform much better than male-headed households in keeping children in school. Source: Developing Partnerships: Gender, Sexuality, and the reformed World Bank
  6. 6. FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES • the global governance of intimacy through which LGBTQ and straight relations are policed and disciplined by market forces and actors, including international financial institutions. Regulate rather than liberate poor men and women. Source: Developing Partnerships: Gender, Sexuality and the Reformed World Bank
  7. 7. FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES • According to Kate Bedford, “women are always empowered by work outside the home.” In contrast Martin Manalansan IV argues numerous systems of oppression interact to regulate the lives of most people Source The Center for Migration Studies
  8. 8. WHAT IS SEXUALITY? “until very recently sexuality has almost always been relegated to and equated with the realms of heterosexual reproduction and family life. Additionally, sexuality has been submerged under or closeted within concepts and rubrics like gender roles, morals, deviance, and pathology.” Now sexuality also deals with homosexuality as well as heterosexuality. Source: Queer intersections: Sexuality and Gender in Migration Studies
  9. 9. SEXUALITY ON THE WORLD STAGE • Some postcolonial states have had arguments around the tensions of sexuality often with a conflation of ‘tradition’ and the legacy of colonialism. The end result usually is to defend the retention of anti-homosexual laws that are in fact legacies of colonialism. • Other postcolonial states have taken a different stance and you can now see gay pride parades being held in such places as Manila, Philippines; Johannesburg, South Africa; and Sao Paulo, Brazil. Source: Sexuality and Globalisation
  10. 10. In Cuba there has been a proposal in front of the Cuban Parliament for over 15 years to change the countries family code. Recently, Alberto Roque sent an open letter to five members of the Cuban Parliament warning about the traditional, conservative, and heteronormative treatment the Cuban Press has given the topic of family. Source:
  11. 11. SEXUALITY ON THE WORLD STAGE • Non-Western sexual ideologies do not follow a unilinear assimilative process into western modern sexual ideologies but rather are involved in syncretic processes that create alternative sexual politics, cultures, and identities. Source: Queer Intersections: Sexuality and Gender in Migration Studies
  12. 12. AFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION ON SEXUALITY • Most common way is the growth of consumerism and individualism • The dominating film and video industry of the United States offers new ways of constructing lives, along with identities based upon sexuality and gender for people living all over the world. • EXAMPLE: Young Saudi and Egyptian men studying the Koran also see images of sexuality on television which they are taught are evil, while young people flock to the discos in Shanghai, China; Jakarta, Indonesia; and Lima, Peru to dance to music and video images from the United States. Source: Sexuality and Globalisation
  13. 13. SEXUAL MIGRATION • Sexuality and sexual identities, practices, and desires may be pivotal factors for migration. • Hector Carillo suggests that sexuality broadly conceived, can be the indirect or direct motivation for international relocation and movement. Transnational movements enable queer practices, identities and subjectivities.
  14. 14. SEX TOURISM • Traveling to attend events that are sexual in nature. • Example of events: • World Gay Games • Sydney’s Mardi Gras • New Orleans Southern Decadence • Spring Break for American College Students • Women and third-world queers are active participants in sex tourism. Source: Sexuality and Globalisation.; Queer Intersections: Sexuality and Gender in Migration Studies
  15. 15. “I could see the distance we have to travel back home before we get to a point of celebrating our sexuality without fear or repression. I could also feel the euphoria of freedom where it exists, and the desirability of it, for it is inherently good. But most of all I could feel a validation of what I do back home, for unfolding before my eyes was an ideal that could be had and playing at the back of my mind was the actual oppression I witness every day I live and work in India.” -Bondyopadhay, one of the Indian participants wrote this about his experiences at the opening ceremony of the World Gay Games. Source: Sexuality and Globalisation
  16. 16. GLOBALIZATION OF PROSTITUTION • Most major world cities have a very diverse sex work force due to the large scale trafficking in young men and women. • There is organized smuggling of people from Moldova and Albania to Western Europe; from Nepal to India; from Mozambique and the Congo to South Africa; from Jamaica and Nigeria to Bangkok, Thailand. • However, since the fall of the Soviet Union there has been a dramatic increase of young people coming from the former Soviet Union with estimates of half a million young men and women. Source: Sexuality and Globalisation
  17. 17. GLOBALIZATION OF PROSTITUTION • Women involved in transnational sex work and “pen pal” marriages resulting in a lack of agency become active resisters of powerful structural arrangements and ideas. Source: Queer Intersections: Sexuality and Gender in Migration Studies
  18. 18. HIV/AIDS • Because of Globalization HIV/AIDS has been able to spread rapidly, at the same time Globalization has also made the response and development of resources available to groups working with those people who are affected; primarily those who are homosexual and sex workers. Source: Sexuality and Globalisation
  19. 19. IMMIGRATION, GAY RIGHTS, AND HIV/AIDS • Issues around asylum gained ground during the height of the AIDS pandemic in relation to undocumented immigrants who came down with the disease. Political organizing around AIDS and gay rights enabled the establishment of immigration provisions for refugee/asylum cases based on sexual orientation. Source: Queer Intersections: Sexuality and Gender in Migration Studies
  20. 20. MIGRANTS • Migrant queers experience discrimination and stigma from both their own communities as well as from mainstream culture. The experiences extended the marginalization of migrant queers even within the “gay and lesbian” communities within the United States. Source: Queer Intersections: Sexuality and Gender in Migration Studies
  21. 21. • Oliva Espin (1999) studied Latina lesbian migrants who were caught between their own communities’ homophobic and misogynist tendencies and the larger new homeland’s racialized, classed, and ethnicized attitudes and practices. Their struggle to negotiate their own identities is seen as passive assimilation to or adoption of lesbian and/or American identities. Source: Queer Intersections: Sexuality and Gender in Migration Studies
  22. 22. SOURCES Altman, Dennis. “Sexuality and Globalisation” Agenda: Women for gender Equity. No. 62, African Feminisms Vol. 2.1 (2004) Baldwin, Aleta and Debby Herbenick. “What Each of Facebook’s 51 New Gender Options Mean.” Viewed on Jan. 6, 2015 Bedford, Kate. “Developing Partnerships: Gender, Sexuality, and the Reformed World Bank.” University of Minnesota Press. (2009) “Cuban LGBT Activist Takes on Conservative ‘Family Code’.” Viewed on Feb. 23, 2015 Manalansan IV, Martin F. “Queer intersections: Sexuality and Gender in Migration Studies.” International Migration Review, Vol. 40. No. 1. Gender and Migration Revisited (Spring, 2006)