Ibm cog comp_may2015_handanimate

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Ibm cog comp_may2015_handanimate

  1. 1. Is  Your  Intelligent  Computer     Smart  Enough   To  Be  on  My  Team?   Barbara  J.  Grosz   School  of  Engineering  and  Applied  Sciences   Harvard  University     Acknowledgements:  Nuance  FoundaEon        
  2. 2. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Background:  A  Par@cular     Turing  Predic@on   }  “.  .  .  The  original  quesEon,  ‘Can  machines  think?’  I   believe  to  be  too  meaningless  to  deserve  discussion.   Nevertheless  I  believe  that  at  the  end  of  the  century   the  use  of  words  and  general  educated  opinion  will   have  altered  so  much  that  one  will  be  able  to  speak  of   machines  thinking  without  expec5ng  to  be   contradicted.  .  .”       “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”, Mind, 1950. p. 442
  3. 3. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 What  Ques@on  Might  Turing  Pose  Now?     }  SeOng:  Agents  and  people  work  together  on   nontrivial  task,    extended  in  Eme,  in  an  uncertain,   dynamic  environment.       }  Can  a  computer  (agent)  team-­‐member  behave,  over   the  long-­‐term,  in  such  a  way  that  people  on  the  team   will  not  noEce  it’s  not  human  or  think  it’s  stupid.     Grosz,  Turing  Research  Symposium,  University  of  Edinburgh  &  Royal   Society  of  Edinburgh,  11  May  2012;  AI  Magazine,  33:4,  2012;  The   Atlan2c  blog,  August  2012.  
  4. 4. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Why  Teamwork?   Canonical  Compu@ng  Environment  Now   From “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” and “Can MachinesThink?” toTeamwork
  5. 5. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Why  Teamwork?   Arguments  from  Cogni@ve  Science     }  It’s  fundamental:  “Every  funcEon  in  the  child's  cultural   development  appears  twice:  first,  on  the  social  level,  and   later,  on  the  individual  level  .  .  .    All  the  higher  func5ons   originate  as  actual  rela5ons  between  human   individuals.”  (Vygotsky,  1978,  pp.  56-­‐57)     }  Language  is  interpersonal,  cooperaEve:   }  “Infants  depend  in  both  their  comprehension  and  producEon  of   poinEng  on  a  joint  ahenEonal  frame  (common  ground)  with  their   communicaEve  partners  .  .  .  And  they  do  this  for  the   fundamentally  coopera5ve  mo5ves  of  helping  and  sharing   informaEon  and  aOtudes  .  .  .”  (Tomasello,  et  al.,  2007,  p.  720)    
  6. 6. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Teamwork  Is  Not  Easy:  Essen@al  Match  of   Abili@es  to  Tasks  and  Roles  or  .  .  .     Source: http://msdn.microsoft.com
  7. 7. Interac@ve  Intelligence  and     Health  Care  Coordina@on   new  twists:   loosely  coupled  team  members   team  of  peers  (limited/no  hierarchy)   relaEvely  long  Eme  horizon  (not  “one-­‐shot”)     My  current  research  focus:    
  8. 8. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Research  Program  Framing:  Design/Build    Collabora@ve  Computer  Agents   Models  and  algorithms  for  efficient   decision-­‐making  under  uncertainty    Formal  models  of  collaboraEon   Methods  for  supporEng  communicaEon   and  informaEon  sharing   Methods  for  analyzing  and  learning  people’s   percepEons  of  agent  behavior  
  9. 9. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Theore@cal  Founda@ons:   SharedPlans  Theory   }  Each  team  members  commits  to  team’s  performance   of  the  group  acEvity;  requires  model  of  inten2on.   }  Team  members  reach  consensus  on  a  (high-­‐level)   “recipe”,  recipes  may  be  par2al,  revised  over  2me.     }  Team  reaches  consensus  on  allocaEon  of  (subtasks),   taking  into  account  agents’  capabiliEes.     }  Team  members  commit  to  assigned  subtasks.   }  Team  members  commit  to  each  others’  success.     Theory  implicitly  requires  group  decision  making  processes.   (Grosz&Kraus, 1996,1999; Hunsberger, 1999; Grosz&Hunsberger, 2006 )  
  10. 10. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Theory  As  Inspira@on  and  Design  Guide:   Collabora@ve  Interfaces  I:   What’s  the  right   division  of  labor?     Writer’s  Aid  (Babaian, Grosz, Shieber, 2002)  
  11. 11. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Theory  As  Inspira@on  and  Design  Guide:   Collabora@ve  Interfaces  II:   Detailed  descripEon  of   students’  interacEons   Condensed  presentaEon   of  students’  interacEons   Direct  feedback  from   teacher  to  students   Complemen2ng  and  working   well  with  people.   S-­‐CASTS  (Reddy et al., 2009; Gal, Reddy, Shieber, Rubin, Grosz, 2012)  
  12. 12. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Key  Problem:     Interrup@on  Management   drive     home     Route  A   Route  B   0.9   0.1   drive     home     Route  A   Agent   (Observe/ Help)     Recipient   Communicate?    
  13. 13. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Key  Problem:     Interrup@on  Management   drive     home     Route  A   Route  B   0.9   0.1   drive     home     Route  A   Inform   if  Expected  U@lity>Cost  Agent   (Observe/ Help)     Recipient   Surprise!  
  14. 14. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 A  New  Representa@on:     Probabilis@c  Recipe  Trees  (Kamar,  2010)   May 20, 2015 Slide 14 Expected Duration: 19 min min10 min5 min3 min10 min14 min2 min2
  15. 15. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Inform  Decisions   May 20, 2015 Ece Kamar - Harvard University Slide 15 Expected Duration: 47.8 min min5 min3 min10 min14 min2 min242 min Route A
  16. 16. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Inform  Decisions   May 20, 2015 Ece Kamar - Harvard University Slide 16 Expected Duration: 28 min min10 min14 min2 min2 0.11.00.0 0.0 Route A
  17. 17. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Interrupt  to  Inform?   EU( ) Updated Plan EU( ) Original Plan >   Communicate  if  the  gain  is  bigger  than  the  cost  of   communicaEon  and  interrupEon  
  18. 18. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 The  Vision  and  the  Challenges   }  “Turing  Challenge”:  Can  a  computer  (agent)  team-­‐ member  behave,  over  the  long-­‐term,  in  such  a  way   that  people  on  the  team  will  not  no2ce  it’s  not  human   or  think  it’s  stupid.     }  Test  Environment:  Health  Care  Coordina2on     }  Vision:  Care  Augmen2ng  SoQware  Partners   (CASPERs)   }  AI  scienEfic  challenges  (MAS,  AI)  arise  from     }  demands  of  coordinaEng  care   }  needs  for  improving  communicaEon  between  paEents  and   medical  providers    
  19. 19. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Parents Primary Care Provider Physical Therapist Neurologist School nurse Camp counselor Health aide Teacher Speech Therapist GI The  Care  for  Children  with  Complex   Chronic  Condi@ons  (Amir,  Grosz,  Law  &  Stern,  AAMAS  2013)   Project  in  collabora2on  with  the  Complex  Primary   Care  Clinic,    Stanford  University  
  20. 20. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Parents Primary Care Provider Physical Therapist Neurologist School nurse Camp counselor Health aide Teacher Speech Therapist GI The  Care  for  Children  with  Complex   Chronic  Condi@ons  (Amir,  Grosz,  Law  &  Stern,  AAMAS  2013)   The Problem: care for children with complex conditions is poorly coordinated, leading to unmet health needs and preventable health care crises Project  in  collabora2on  with  the  Complex  Primary   Care  Clinic,    Stanford  University  
  21. 21. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Team-­‐Based  Care  Plans  for  Improved   Coordina@on  (LPFCH,  2014)   Goals Actions Caregivers Move to oral feeds •  Improve mouth muscle tone •  Adjust formula for weight gain PCP, GI, OT, nutritionist Start daycare •  Minimize need for tube feeds •  Assess therapy needs Parents, PCP, nutritionist, home nurse Go on family trip •  Arrange portable equipment •  Arrange funding and transportation Parents, PCP, PT, social worker
  22. 22. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Team-­‐Based  Care  Plans  for  Improved   Coordina@on  (LPFCH,  2014)   Goals Actions Caregivers Move to oral feeds •  Improve mouth muscle tone •  Adjust formula for weight gain PCP, GI, OT, nutritionist Start daycare •  Minimize need for tube feeds •  Assess therapy needs Parents, PCP, nutritionist, home nurse Go on family trip •  Arrange portable equipment •  Arrange funding and transportation Parents, PCP, PT, social worker Rationale: everybody “on the same page” In practice: rarely deployed or consulted
  23. 23. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Study  of  Complex  Care  Teams   (Amir,  Grosz,  Gajos,  Swenson,  and  Sanders,  2015)   }  “From  Care  Plans  to  Care  Coordina@on:  Opportuni@es  for   Computer  Support  of  Teamwork  in  Complex  Healthcare”     }  Interviews  and  observaEons  of  team  members:   }  Parents  (13)   }  Primary  care  providers  (4)   }  Specialists  (4)   }  Therapists  (8)   }  Care  coordinator  (1)   }  Program  directors  (2)   }  Family  services  coordinator  (1)   }  Social  worker  (1)   }  Analyzed  using  affinity  diagramming  
  24. 24. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Barriers  to  Effec@ve  Care  Plan  Use:   Complex  Teamwork  in  Complex  Care   “FLECS”  teamwork  characterisEcs:     }  Flat-­‐structure  of  team   }  Loosely  coupled  plans  and  acEviEes   }  Extended  duraEon  of  plans     }  ConEnual  distributed  revision  of  plans   }  Syncopated  Eme  scales    
  25. 25. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Flat  Structure   No  single  person  in  charge:   “We  have  different  goals  for  different  specialists;  it  is   hard  to  keep  track.”  (parent)   Need  to  priori2ze  goals  because  “everyone  wants  to   work  on  everything.”  (parent)      
  26. 26. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Loosely  Coupled  Ac@vi@es   Loose  coupling  makes  appropriate  informa5on   sharing  hard:   “There  isn’t  an  example  when  I  wasn’t  missing   informa2on”    (specialist)   “We  need  to  relay  informa2on  back  and   forth...”  (parent)      
  27. 27. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Extended  Dura@on,   Con@nual  Distributed  Plan  Revision   No  mechanism  to  support  plan  revision:     Full-­‐team  mee2ngs  “totally  not   scalable”  (specialist)     “All  the  status  chats  have  to  be  provider  ini2ated,   and  so  if  you  don’t  remember  to  do  it  or  there’s  no   one  coordina2ng  it,  it’s  like  where  is  it  going,  where   do  you  even  look  for  it?”  (specialist)    
  28. 28. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Syncopated  Time  Scales   Different  frequencies  of  seeing  the  pa5ent   }  Primary  care  providers:    3  to  4  2mes  a  year   }  Specialists:  2  to  3  2me  a  year   }  Therapists:  1  to  3  2mes  a  week     Different  informa5on  needs:   “A  doctor  asks  if  she  is  walking  and  expects  a  yes/no   answer;  a  physical  therapist  will  ask  how  she  is  walking   and  how  much  progress  she  has  made.”  (parent)  
  29. 29. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Team-­‐Based  Care  Plans:  Ideal  vs.  Reality   }  Principles  for  successful  care  plan  use  (LPFCH,  2014):   }  “The  plan  of  care  is  systema2zed  as  a  common,  shared   document;  it  is  used  consistently  by  every  provider…”   }  “The  team  monitors  progress  against  goals,  provides  feedback   and  adjusts  the  plan  of  care  on  an  ongoing  basis…”   }  “Family-­‐centered  care  teams  can  access  the  informa5on  they   need  to  make  shared,  informed  decisions.”   }  Principles  are  largely  not  realized  in  current  pracEce;   root  cause:  FLECS  nature  of  teamwork.    
  30. 30. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Team-­‐Based  Care  Plans:  Ideal  vs.  Reality   }  Principles  for  successful  care  plan  use  (LPFCH,  2014):   }  “The  plan  of  care  is  systema2zed  as  a  common,  shared   document;  it  is  used  consistently  by  every  provider…”   }  “The  team  monitors  progress  against  goals,  provides  feedback   and  adjusts  the  plan  of  care  on  an  ongoing  basis…”   }  “Family-­‐centered  care  teams  can  access  the  informa5on  they   need  to  make  shared,  informed  decisions.”   }  Principles  are  largely  not  realized  in  current  pracEce;   root  cause:  FLECS  nature  of  teamwork.     Research focus: Develop foundations and technology to better support complex FLECS teamwork.
  31. 31. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Founda@ons  for  Design  of  Systems  to   Support  Complex  Care  Teams   SharedPlans  (Grosz  &  Kraus  1996)  :       A  computaEonal  theory  of  collaboraEon             “..the  capabili2es  needed  for  collabora2on  cannot  be   patched  on  but  must  be  designed  in  from  the  start.  "    
  32. 32. SharedPlans  Representa@on   adjust   formula   funding  &   transportaEon   follow  family   prioriEes   move  to   oral  feeds   go  on   family  trip   improve   mouth   muscle  tone   {parents,  primary  care  provider,   specialists,  therapists,  community   members}   {primary  care   provider,    physical   therapist,  social   worker}   {primary  care  provider,   gastroenterologist,  occupa2onal   therapist,  nutri2onist}   arrange   equipment  {…}   {…}   {…}   {…}  
  33. 33. SharedPlans  Representa@on   adjust   formula   funding  &   transportaEon   follow  family   prioriEes   move  to   oral  feeds   go  on   family  trip   improve   mouth   muscle  tone   {parents,  primary  care  provider,   specialists,  therapists,  community   members}   {primary  care   provider,    physical   therapist,  social   worker}   {primary  care  provider,   gastroenterologist,  occupa2onal   therapist,  nutri2onist}   arrange   equipment  {…}   {…}   {…}   {…}  
  34. 34. adjust   formula   arrange   equipment   go  on   family  trip   move  to   oral  feeds   SharedPlans Representation funding  &   transportaEon   follow  family   prioriEes   {parents,  primary  care  provider,   specialists,  therapists,  community   members}   {primary  care   provider,    physical   therapist,  social   worker}   {primary  care  provider,   gastroenterologist,  occupa2onal   therapist,  nutri2onist}   {…}   {…}   {…}   {…}   improve   mouth   muscle  tone  
  35. 35. improve   mouth   muscle  tone   SharedPlans Representation adjust   formula   arrange   equipment   go  on   family  trip   move  to   oral  feeds   funding  &   transportaEon   follow  family   prioriEes   {parents,  primary  care  provider,   specialists,  therapists,  community   members}   {primary  care   provider,    physical   therapist,  social   worker}   {…}   {…}   {…}   {…}   {primary  care  provider,   gastroenterologist,  occupa2onal   therapist,  nutri2onist}  
  36. 36. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Key  Elements  of   SharedPlans  Theory   }  Consensus  on  recipe:       }  Recipes  may  be  parEal  and  evolve  over  Eme:   }  Team  members  commit  to  performance  of  group   acEvity  and  to  each  others’  success:   (Grosz&Kraus, 1996,1999; Hunsberger, 1999; Grosz&Hunsberger, 2006 )  
  37. 37. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Key  Elements  of   SharedPlans  Theory   }  Consensus  on  recipe:       }  Support  for  providers  establishing  agreement  on  high-­‐level   approach,  establishing  mutual  belief.   }  Recipes  may  be  parEal  and  evolve  over  Eme:   }  Support  dynamically  evolving  plans.       }  Team  members  commit  to  performance  of  group   acEvity  and  to  each  others’  success:   }  Support  communicaEon  and  coordinaEon  at  appropriate   levels  and  Emes.     (Grosz&Kraus, 1996,1999; Hunsberger, 1999; Grosz&Hunsberger, 2006 )  
  38. 38. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Key  Elements  of   SharedPlans  Theory   }  Consensus  on  recipe:       }  Support  for  providers  establishing  agreement  on  high-­‐level   approach,  establishing  mutual  belief.   }  Recipes  may  be  parEal  and  evolve  over  Eme:   }  Support  dynamically  evolving  plans.       }  Team  members  commit  to  performance  of  group   acEvity  and  to  each  others’  success:   }  Support  communicaEon  and  coordinaEon  at  appropriate   levels  and  Emes.     Key  capability:  informaEon  sharing  without  informaEon   overload.       (Grosz&Kraus, 1996,1999; Hunsberger, 1999; Grosz&Hunsberger, 2006 )  
  39. 39. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Key  Roles  for  Technology  for   Suppor@ng  Complex  Care  Teams   }  Make  the  care  plan  “ever  present”   }  Support  plan  revision  and  expansion   }  Support  efficient  informaEon  sharing   Challenges:   }  EliciEng  plans   }  Inferring  context  in  plan   }  Reasoning  about  informaEon  sharing    
  40. 40. adjust   formula   Agreement on High-Level Approach, Mutual Beliefs funding  &   transportaEon   follow  family   prioriEes   move  to   oral  feeds   go  on   family  trip   improve   mouth   muscle  tone   {parents,  primary  care  provider,   specialists,  therapists,  community   members}   {primary  care   provider,    physical   therapist,  social   worker}   {primary  care  provider,   gastroenterologist,  occupa2onal   therapist,  nutri2onist}   arrange   equipment   {…}   {…}   {…}   {…}  
  41. 41. Dynamically Evolving Plans …   …   …   …   funding  &   transportaEon   follow  family   prioriEes   move  to   oral  feeds   go  on   family  trip   improve   mouth   muscle  tone   adjust   formula   arrange   equipment   {parents,  primary  care  provider,   specialists,  therapists,  community   members}   {primary  care   provider,    physical   therapist,  social   worker}   {primary  care  provider,   gastroenterologist,  occupa2onal   therapist,  nutri2onist}   {…}   {…}   {…}   {…}  
  42. 42. adjust   formula   …   …   …   …   funding  &   transportaEon   follow  family   prioriEes   move  to   oral  feeds   go  on   family  trip   improve   mouth   muscle  tone   {parents,  primary  care  provider,   specialists,  therapists,  community   members}   {primary  care   provider,    physical   therapist,  social   worker}   {primary  care  provider,   gastroenterologist,  occupa2onal   therapist,  nutri2onist}   arrange   equipment   Communication and Coordination {…}   {…}   {…}   {…}  
  43. 43. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Ongoing  Work:     GoalKeeper  (Ofra  Amir)  
  44. 44. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Parents PCP Physical Therapist GI School nurse Camp counselor Health aide Teacher Speech Therapist Neurologist Beyond  Health  Care:  Plan  Coordina@on  
  45. 45. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Victims Police Fire Fighter National Guard Politician Business man ICU NGOs Construction Coordina@ng  Rescue  and  Rebuilding   Psychologist
  46. 46. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Ongoing  Work:   Suppor@ng  Collabora@ve  Wri@ng                    “Deploying  AI  Methods  to  Support  Collabora2ve  Wri2ng:  a  Preliminary   Inves2ga2on”,    Gehrmann,  Urke,  Amir  and  Grosz,  CHI  2015    
  47. 47. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 No  man  is  an  island,     en@re  of  itself...   (John  Donne,  1624)   computer
  48. 48. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Giving  Turing  the  Last  Word:   Fundamental  Knowledge     }  “The  whole  thinking  process  is  sEll  rather  mysterious   to  us,  but  I  believe  the  ahempt  to  make  a  thinking   machine  will  help  us  greatly  in  finding  out  how  we   think  ourselves.”   Typescript,  BBC  Third  Programme   15  May  1951;  reprinted  in  Shieber,   The  Turing  Test:  Verbal  Behavior  as   the  Hallmark  of  Intelligence,  2004  
  49. 49. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 References   SharedPlans:   Barbara  J.  Grosz  and  Luke  Hunsberger,  2006.  The  Dynamics  of  IntenEons  in  CollaboraEve   IntenEonality.      In  Cogni2ve  Systems  Research  (special  issue  on  Cogni2on,  Joint  Ac2on  and   Collec2ve  Inten2onality),  7,2-­‐3.       Luke  Hunsberger.  1999.  “Making  SharedPlans  More  Concise  and  Easier  to  Reason  About.”   In  Intelligent  Agents  V:  Agents  Theories,  Architectures,  and  Languages,  pp.  81-­‐98.  Springer  Berlin   Heidelberg.     Barbara  Grosz  and  Sarit  Kraus.  1999.  The  EvoluEon  of  SharedPlans.  Founda2ons  of  Ra2onal   Agencies,  A.  Rao  and  M.  Wooldridge,  eds.,  Kluwer  Academic  Press,    pp.  227-­‐262.     Barbara  J.  Grosz  and  Sarit  Kraus.  1996.  CollaboraEve  Plans  for  Complex  Group  AcEon.  In  Ar2ficial   Intelligence  86(2),  pp.  269-­‐357.    Awarded  IFAAMAS  Influen2al  Paper  Award,  2007.       SharedPlans  for  dialogue:  Karen  E.  Lochbaum.  1998.  A  collaboraEve  planning  model  of   intenEonal  structure.  Computa2onal  Linguis2cs.  24,  4  (December  1998),  525-­‐572.      
  50. 50. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 References   Collabora@ve  interfaces:     S-­‐CASTS:  Ya'akov  Gal,  Swapna  Reddy,  Stuart  Shieber,  Andee  Rubin,  and  Barbara  Grosz.  2012.   Plan  RecogniEon  in  Exploratory  Domains.  Ar2ficial  Intelligence.  176(1):  pp.  2270—2290.       WAID:  Tamara  Babaian,  Barbara  J.  Grosz  and  Stuart  M.  Shieber.    2002  A  Writer’s  CollaboraEve  Aid.   Proceedings  of  the  Intelligent  User  Interfaces  Conference  (IUI-­‐2002),  San  Francisco,  CA.    January  13-­‐16.     ACM  Press.    pp.  7-­‐14.       Colored  Trails  MAS  Testbed:     Ya’akov  Gal,  Barbara  Grosz,  Sarit  Kraus,  Avi  Pfeffer,  Stuart  Shieber.  2010.  Agent  Decision-­‐Making  in   Open  Mixed  Networks.  Ar2ficial  Intelligence,  174(18):  pp.  1460-­‐1480.       Interrup@on  Management:   Ece  Kamar,  Kobi  Gal,  and  Barbara  Grosz.  2013.  Modeling  InformaEon  Exchange  OpportuniEes  for   EffecEve  Human-­‐computer  Teamwork.  Ar2ficial  Intelligence  195:528–550.       Ece  Kamar,  Ya'akov  Gal,  and  Barbara  J.  Grosz.  2009.  IncorporaEng  helpful  behavior  into  collaboraEve   planning.  In  Proceedings  of  The  8th  Interna2onal  Conference  on  Autonomous  Agents  and  Mul2agent   Systems  -­‐  Volume  2  (AAMAS  '09),  Vol.  2.  InternaEonal  FoundaEon  for  Autonomous  Agents  and   MulEagent  Systems,  Richland,  SC,  pp.  875-­‐882.      
  51. 51. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 References   Informa@on  Sharing  for  Care  Coordina@on  and  Collabora@ve  Work:   Ofra  Amir,  Barbara  Grosz,  Krzysztof  Gajos,  Sonja  Swenson,  and  Lee  Sanders.   2015.  From  Care  Plans  to  Care  CoordinaEon:  OpportuniEes  for  Computer   Support  of  Teamwork  in  Complex  Healthcare.”  In  Proceedings  of  the  33rd   Annual  ACM  Conference  Extended  Abstracts  on  Human  Factors  in  Compu2ng   Systems.  Seoul,  South  Korea.  April  18-­‐23,  2015.  pp.  1419-­‐1428       Ofra  Amir,  Barbara  J.  Grosz,  Edith  Law,  and  Roni  Stern.  2013.  CollaboraEve   Health  Care  Plan  Support.  Proceedings  of  the  12th  Interna2onal  Conference   on  Autonomous  Agents  and  Mul2agent  Systems  (AAMAS  2013),  Ito,  Jonker,   Gini,  and  Shehory  (eds.).  pp.  793-­‐796.  Second  Prize,  Compu2ng  Community   Consor2um/AAMAS2013  Challenges  and  Visions  Track       SebasEan  Gehrmann,  Lauren  Urke,  Ofra  Amir,  and  Barbara  J  Grosz.  2015.   Deploying  AI  Methods  to  Support  CollaboraEve  WriEng:  A  Preliminary   InvesEgaEon.  In  Proceedings  of  the  33rd  Annual  ACM  Conference  Extended   Abstracts  on  Human  Factors  in  Compu2ng  Systems.  Seoul,  South  Korea.  April   18-­‐23,  2015.  pp.  917-­‐922.    
  52. 52. Barbara J. GroszSmart Enough To Be On My Team IBM CSIG May 2015 Thanks!     Collaborators: Ofra Amir, Krzysztof Gajos Harvard SEAS; Sonja Swenson, Lee Sanders Stanford University Medical School.   Research supported in part by Nuance Foundation.   QuesEons?    

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