Main issues in data collection on migration and mobility. The case of EU and Eastern Europe


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Executive Training Migration in the EU and its Neighbourhood

Florence, 21 January 2013
by Anna Di Bartolomeo

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Main issues in data collection on migration and mobility. The case of EU and Eastern Europe

  1. 1. Executive Training Migration in the EU and its NeighbourhoodMain issues in data collection on migration and mobility. The case of EU and Eastern Europe Anna Di Bartolomeo 21 January 2012
  2. 2. OutlineMeasuring migration: basic conceptsData collection in the EU: the Eurostat databaseData collection in the EU Eastern Neighbourhood and Russia: the CARIM-Eastdatabase
  3. 3. Measuring migration: basic concepts- Who do we measure? Migrants’ definition issue- What do we measure? Stock vs flow- How do we measure? Data sources
  4. 4. Who do we measure?1. Temporal limits (temporary vs permanent)• Short stay (or temporary) migration: at least 3 months (touristic visa) but less than 12• Long stay migration: at least 12 months (UN Population division recommendation)
  5. 5. Who do we measure?1. Geopolitical-legal criteria (birth vs citizenship)• Country of birth population born abroad• Country of citizenship foreign population regardless their country of birth
  6. 6. What do we measure?• Stock: number of migrants living in a country at time t (e.g. 1 Jan. 2012)• Flows: number of migrants who move in a specified time period (usually one year)
  7. 7. How do we measure?1. Destination vs. origin statistics (direct vs indirect): counting who is in!Emigration from a given country has to be reconstructed as the aggregatedimmigration originating from this country in all other countries of the world;Immigration in a given country has to be measured using data collected in thesecountries.
  8. 8. Source on emigration on from EU Eastern partners and Russia: who counts? Institution of destination countries Institution of origin countries MAIN SOURCES Population Census Consulates Population Registers/Residence permits Ad hoc surveys ADVANTAGES Partial recovery of emigrants residing in Updated countries which do not publish or simply collect data on immigrants Rich of info Partial recovery of irregular emigrants Partial recovey of temporary migrants in countries which fail in capturing temporary immigration (see e.g. Russia) LIMITATIONS Not available for some countries Registration is voluntary (consulates) Scarcely comparable (birth vs. citizenship!) Second generation migrants are in No info on irregular migrantsSource: for an extended review of this topic, see Fargues P. 2006. Mediterranean migration: an overview, in Mediterranean Migration – Report2005 (ed. by Fargues P.), RSCAS, EUI.
  9. 9. The role of ad hoc surveys: the Moldovan Labour Force SurveyAdvantages• Partial recovery of temporary and irregular emigrants• Longitudinal study• Special module on emigration: rich of infoLimitations• Understimation of «permanent» emigrants (indirect measurement)
  10. 10. Moldovan citizens living in Russia according to different sources in 2010 Russian sources Moldovan sourceMigration status Population Labour Force Work permits Census Survey !!!Permanent migrant 34,000Temporary worker 72,233Temporary migrant 195,700
  11. 11. How do we measure?2. Stock vs. flow sourcesSources on stock• Population census• Population Register/special register of foreigners• Residence/work permits• Ad hoc national and international surveys (e.g. EU LFS; OECD-PISA)
  12. 12. Sources on flows• Population Register/special register of foreigners: registration and deregistration in a specified time period (usually one year)• Residence/work permits: first permits granted in a specific time period vs. not renewed-expired permits• Visa statistics
  13. 13. Migration to the EUUseful linksMigration to the EU: the Eurostat database -> Let’s see how to use it!Migration to OECD countries: the OECD Migration Database migration statistics (IPUMS) (List of national statistical institutes)
  14. 14. Data collection in the EU Eastern Neighbourhood and RussiaThe CARIM-East database: innovative features1. Equal attention is paid to both migration ends, i.e. migration FROM, TO andTHROUGH countries
  15. 15. 2. All categories of migrants are taken into account: migrant workers, family members, students, return migrants, forced migrants, ‘irregular’ migrants.3. Data are obtained from a variety of sources4. Data are first-hand, authentic statistics that are validated at source
  16. 16. Individual born in Georgia and later moved to the Russian Federation How is he counted? How should he bePeriod of departure counted today? Country of birth Country of citizenship Non-international Foreign born From USSR to RUS citizen------ Before 1991 ---> immigrant (international immigrant) (non-international immigrant) International Foreign born It depends: RUS citizen/non------- After 1991 ---> immigrant (international immigrant) status migrants/foreing citizens Result on migration estimates Country of birth Country of citizenship Overstimation of Understimation of international immigrants international immigrants
  17. 17. Migrants originating in CARIM-E countries by area of residence and CARIM country of originand according to different definitions of “international migrants”, most recent data, (c 2010) Country of birth Country of citizenship (CARIM-E countries)6,0005,0004,0003,0002,0001,000 0 Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Georgia Moldova Russian Ukraine Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Georgia Moldova Russian Ukraine Federation FederationNotes: values in 000sSource: destination countries statistics
  18. 18. 5. Data are organized into a standardised list of tables allowing systematic comparison over time and between countries..Let’s see how to use it!Link: