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Coordinated climate preparedness 2014 year in review

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The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs -- a review of the progress made in 2014 toward achieving the goals laid out in Governor Patrick's Coordinated Climate Preparedness Initiative.

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs -- a review of the progress made in 2014 toward achieving the goals laid out in Governor Patrick's Coordinated Climate Preparedness Initiative.

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Coordinated climate preparedness 2014 year in review

  1. 1. Coordinated Climate Preparedness 2014 Year in Review Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs January 2015
  2. 2. 2 Acknowledgements The Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs (EEA) extends its thanks to all of the Patrick Administration Executive Offices, stakeholders, industry experts, and local, state and federal officials who helped advance our efforts to increase climate preparedness in Massachusetts. Special thanks to the EEA Undersecretaries and Commissioners, EEA’s Policy Advisor for Climate Preparedness, Liz Hanson, and to all the members of the state’s task force from participating agencies that helped to develop and implement these items. Front Cover Photo Source: Nathan Ouellette/ Governor's Office
  3. 3. 3 The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs 100 Cambridge Street, Suite 900 Boston, MA 02114 Deval L. Patrick GOVERNOR Maeve Vallely Bartlett SECRETARY Tel: (617) 626-1000 Fax: (617) 626-1181 http://www.mass.gov/eea Dear Fellow Massachusetts Citizens, It is with great pleasure that I share with you the accomplishments the Patrick Administration has made over the past year to advance climate preparedness measures in Massachusetts. On January 14, 2014, Governor Patrick announced his Coordinated Climate Preparedness Initiative at the New England Aquarium, committing the Commonwealth to targeted action through the remainder of his term to leave our assets and residents better prepared for the next storm and the next generation. Since then, the Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs has been proud to lead implementation of this effort, working collaboratively across the Administration and with stakeholders to realize over twenty high-priority items. In this report you will find information on policy changes, infrastructure investments, and community grant programs designed to increase the resiliency and robustness of the assets upon which we all rely. I would like to take the opportunity to thank my fellow Secretaries who have committed their time and resources to this effort, and the staff that has led implementation across fourteen different agencies. I’d also like to thank the team at EEA for their tireless work on this issue, in particular Liz Hanson, who as my Policy Advisor for Climate Preparedness has led this vital initiative. Finally, none of this would be possible without our partnership with committed legislative leaders, or the stakeholders that have provided guidance and encouragement to push for greater, bolder action. The Commonwealth is a better, safer place for all of these contributions. I hope this report serves as an important resource for all involved in this issue as the Commonwealth moves forward with additional actions to prepare Massachusetts for the impacts of climate change. Sincerely, Secretary Maeve Vallely Bartlett
  4. 4. 4 Table of Contents Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………. 4 Assessing Our Transportation Assets…………………………………………………….…8  Phase 1 Vulnerability Assessment…………………………………………………..8  Other Notable Transportation Resiliency Projects in 2014…………………….….9 Increasing Our Energy Resilience……………………………………………………..…….12  Grid Modernization…………………………………………………………………….12  Community Clean Energy Resiliency……………………………………................13  Energy Generation Resiliency Survey…………………………………………..…..18 Protecting Our Built and Natural Environments…………………………………………….19  Commonwealth of Massachusetts Facility Assessment and Mitigation Strategy Development Guidebook……………………………………………………………...19  Hazard Mitigation in Smart Growth Planning……………………………………….19  Coastal Community Resilience Program……………………………..……………..20  Green Infrastructure Pilot Program…………………………………………………..25  Dam and Seawall Repair and Removal Fund……………………………………...28  Evaluation of Regulatory Changes…………………………………………………..29 Protecting Public Health………………………………………………………………………31  Bolstering Local Public Health Capacity…………………………………………….31  Tracking Harmful Algae Blooms and Health Impacts………………………...……32  Enhancing Food Protection in a Changing Climate………………………………..32  Addressing Needs for Identifying Vector Borne Disease………………………….33  Addressing Indoor Air Quality in Public Buildings and Housing…………………..33  Assessing and Improving Wastewater and Drinking Water Resilience………….33 Improving Our Data…………………………………………………………...……………….35  Completing LiDAR……………………………………………………………………..35  Expanding MassGIS Capabilities…………………………………………………….35  Downscaled Climate Change Mapping Tool for Local Communities…………….36  Establishing a State Climatologist……………………………………………………36 Additional Efforts……………………………………………………………………………….38  Investing Wisely………………………………………………………………………..38  Connecting with Our State and Federal Partners………………………………….38 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………...39
  5. 5. 5 Introduction Governor Patrick has made addressing climate change a priority throughout his Administration. From the beginning he recognized the essential link between our energy consumption and the impact it has on our environment, and upon taking office became the first Governor in the nation to combine energy and environmental agencies under one Cabinet Secretary. Governor Patrick continued to demonstrate this holistic commitment to reducing our dependence on fossil fuels and diversifying our energy sources to protect our Commonwealth in 2008 when, through collaboration with the legislature, he signed the Global Warming Solutions Act (GWSA) and set the most ambitious limits in the nation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) 25% by 2020 and 80% by 2050. In addition to decreasing GHG for environmental benefits, Governor Patrick recognized that energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies represented a significant economic opportunity for the Commonwealth. The Patrick Administration has fostered a thriving, innovative clean energy economy in the Commonwealth and clean energy firms are projected to increase by 48% between 2010 and 2014. The Commonwealth is now home to over 525 megawatts of renewable energy and is poised to be home to the first off shore wind farm in the nation. In addition to promoting private development, the Administration is leading by example through the Accelerated Energy Program, which aims to reduce energy consumption by 20-25% at state facilities, create 4,000 clean energy jobs, save the Commonwealth $43 million annually and save the environment an estimated 135,000 metric tons of GHG annually—the equivalent of removing 26,000 vehicles from the road per year. The Patrick Administration has also recognized energy efficiency as our “first fuel,” and for the third year in a row the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy rated Massachusetts #1 in Energy Efficiency in 2013. All these energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction strategies will contribute to global efforts to minimize the changes in our climate from carbon emissions. However, due to past emissions of greenhouse gases, the climate is already changing and the impacts are being felt in Massachusetts today. Climate change is one of the most challenging issues the Commonwealth will face in the near and long term, with the potential to dramatically impact our way of life in Massachusetts. Scientific evidence overwhelming points to an inability to prevent climate impacts in our communities through mitigation alone. Massachusetts is expected to experience up to 6.6 feet of sea level rise by 2100 under the high emission scenario, temperatures from 5o -9o F higher, increased precipitation, and greater frequency of high intensity storms. While it is difficult to attribute any one specific storm to climate change, the Commonwealth is committed to taking lessons learned from recent severe weather across the state and applying best practices as we begin to prepare for the increasingly intense storms predicted by scientists. In Governor Patrick’s second term alone, the Commonwealth
  6. 6. 6 experienced an October snowstorm, tornadoes across Massachusetts, Tropical Storm Irene, Superstorm Sandy, and a February Nor’easter called “NEMO.” The summer of 2012 saw a significant increase in Eastern Equine Encephalitis that necessitated aerial spraying, and in the summer of 2013 oyster beds had to be closed for the first time in the history of Massachusetts, at significant cost to shellfishermen, because of vibrio parahaemolyticus. The cost of these events is measured not simply by the hundreds of millions of dollars in emergency services and disaster relief, but in the lives, livelihoods, homes and businesses lost in our communities. If the Commonwealth is to meet the challenge of climate change, it is essential that we plan for these impacts today. EEA has been working on the Climate Change Adaptation issue throughout Governor Patrick’s Administration, including producing the Massachusetts Climate Change Adaptation Report in 2011. As required by the GWSA, this report was developed in consultation with other agencies, a broad range of stakeholders, industry experts and academic leaders and includes nearly 400 potential actions the Commonwealth should consider to address climate impacts. EEA and other agencies have been working to follow the principles laid out in the report and implement recommendations where applicable, CZM’s work with coastal communities to conduct vulnerability assessments and develop tools and strategies to increase resiliency through its StormSmart Coasts Program, the Massachusetts’ Department of Transportation’s assessment of the Central Artery and the Department of Public Health’s survey of Local Boards of Health in conjunction with the Center for Disease Control. To date over half of the recommendations are in progress, with another two dozen completed. On July 24, 2013, Governor Patrick re-affirmed his Administration’s commitment to this effort, announcing that Climate Change Adaptation was one of his top three priorities for EEA through the remainder of his term. Accordingly, then EEA Secretary Sullivan led the development of a plan to advance Climate Preparedness efforts through the end of the Administration. This process included receiving feedback from all of the Administration’s Executive Offices, municipalities, and a range of stakeholders, and focused on identifying the most pressing needs and developing meaningful strategies to address them. Although a range of topics were raised, as officials across the Administration, municipalities, and stakeholders weighed in, a consistent theme emerged. The climate change concerns most often identified as needing adaptation strategies relate to the Commonwealth’s infrastructure, specifically transportation, energy and our built and natural environments. Concerns were raised about how the debilitation of these assets will affect public health, public safety and our economic vitality. Governor Patrick announced his Coordinated Climate Preparedness plan on January 14, 2014. The plan prioritized efforts by the Administration to prepare our transportation system, harden our energy resources, create more resilient built and natural
  7. 7. 7 environments, and protect the public health of our residents. Governor Patrick committed $50 million in available capital and trust resources to programs that directly benefit municipalities as they try to address the impacts they will face in their communities. He additionally requested $2 million in his FY15 budget. The final budget he signed on July 11, 2014 included $1.2 million, as well as an outside section formally establishing the Office of the State Climatologist in Massachusetts. Over the course of 2014, agencies have implemented Governor Patrick’s vision, and impacts of this work are described in more detail in this report. The Patrick Administration is encouraged by and grateful to the agencies and stakeholders that have been involved, and remain engaged, in this process. This important collaboration has been essential to the implementation of this first step and will continue to be vital to ensuring the success of future climate preparedness efforts.
  8. 8. 8 Assessing Our Transportation Assets Transportation infrastructure has been a priority throughout the Patrick Administration. Governor Patrick recognizes that these assets are vital to encouraging economic growth, job creation, and providing support for communities across the Commonwealth. Indeed, MassDOT’s core mission is to provide the nation's safest and most reliable transportation system in a way that strengthens our economy and quality of life. The Administration recognizes that the increasingly intense storms and changing weather patterns that threaten these essential assets, which are largely built to specifications based on historic weather patterns, also threaten the Commonwealth’s public safety, and economic growth. Indeed, Massachusetts has already experienced impacts of this nature during previous storms, including the washout of Rt. 2 during Hurricane Irene Significant flooding in areas around the Deerfield and Connecticut Rivers rendered a six-mile stretch of Route 2 completely impassable. Reconstruction cost $34.5 million and was named project of the year by the American Public Works Association because of the speed with which it was completed, 110 days after the storm Source:MassDOT Flickr Phase 1 Vulnerability Assessment MassDOT’s enabling legislation, Chapter 25 of the Acts of 2009, designates the Office of Transportation Planning (OTP) as the lead on adaptation planning at MassDOT. “The office shall undertake planning and research tasks and coordinate with the executive office of energy and environmental affairs on issues related to historic, current, and projected future transportation- generated emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases and technology, policy, and legal issues related to developing and implementing market-based compliance mechanisms for transportation- generated greenhouse gases. Such planning shall include comprehensive climate change adaptation planning to ensure that the
  9. 9. 9 commonwealth’s transportation infrastructure is designed to tolerate increased environmental stress due to climate change, including, but not limited to increased temperatures, increased stormwater runoff, and extreme weather events.” While EEA and OTP have long been engaged on this issue, over the course of 2014 OTP enhanced their efforts by convening a team of senior managers from each MassDOT division to serve on an internal working group. This body, which OTP chairs, is responsible for identifying work done to date, additional needs, and next steps to advance resiliency. Their first priority was the development of a scope of work for a consultant to conduct a phase 1 vulnerability assessment of MassDOT assets system- wide. MassDOT issued a Request for Responses (RFR) on October 9, 2014 outlining their request for a vulnerability assessment that will lay the ground work for resiliency planning for assets identified as at risk. The expected result of the assessment is a prioritized set of high risk hazards as well as high risk assets. In addition, the scope of work includes the development of a set of tools that can be utilized to educate stakeholders and inform future investments, planning, and design. In addition, MassDOT will conduct working group sessions to educate stakeholders and inform future investments, planning, and design. The final vulnerability assessment report is expected to be complete by the beginning of 2016. As part of this work, MassDOT is coordinating with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR). DCR has care, custody, and control over a number of historic and unique parkways and roadways across the state many of which were designed and built specifically to define the edge of parkland corridors along rivers and streams. As is the case with the vast majority of the Commonwealth’s transportation infrastructure, most, if not all, of these transportation resources were designed based on historic weather, sea level, and flooding patterns, making them particularly vulnerable to current and future climate change impacts. Other Notable Transportation Resiliency Projects in 2014 MassDOT-FHWA Pilot Project to Evaluate the Central Artery Vulnerabilities to Extreme Weather and Sea Level Rise: This Project is co-funded by MassDOT and the Federal Highway Administration. The project focuses on the Central Artery Tunnel system and related Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority’s (MBTA) structures that would be susceptible to flooding from future sea level rise, waves and storm surges associated with hurricanes and nor’easter storms for today, 2030, 2070, and 2100. MassDOT and the UMass Boston project team Preliminary mapping of inundation risk in the year 2030 Source: MassDOT
  10. 10. 10 members created a state of the art Boston Harbor Flood Risk Model. This model not only produces current and future flood risk potential for the Central Artery Tunnel system it also produces flood risk information for all of the Cities of Boston and Cambridge. MassDOT is coordinating with local, state and federal on a number of related climate resiliency projects in the area. The project is scheduled to be complete in February 2015. Assessing the Vulnerability of MassDOT’s Coastal Transportation Systems to Future Seal Level Rise and Coastal Storms: This state of the art project is an extension of the Boston Harbor Flood Risk Model (BH-FRM) to the entire Massachusetts Coastline including the Islands. The project will: 1) examine the impacts of sea level rise and increased tidal and storm surge flooding on federal, state, and local roads and bridges and supporting infrastructure; 2) develop conceptual level protection strategies over time and by location; and 3) estimate the cost of these strategies. The resulting model will be named the Massachusetts Coastline Flood Risk Model or MC-FRM. As with the BH-FRM the results will be available for federal, state and local use. The project will begin in January 2015 using the UMass Boston project team and is scheduled to be complete by December 2017. Both flood risk models are differentiated from other coastal screening and planning tools due their robust and forward looking functions. Deerfield Watershed Inland Road/Stream Crossing Vulnerability Pilot: MassDOT is working with UMass Amherst on a pilot project looking at the climate change vulnerability of road/stream crossings within the Deerfield River Watershed. This project will go beyond the hydraulic modeling methods currently used for crossing design, incorporating several advanced modeling methods, information on the geomorphologic condition of the channel at each location, the crossing structure's orientation and condition, the potential for improving stream connectivity for wildlife, and predicted climate changes over the course of this century. Final products will include GIS layers showing each structure's rating for several types of climate change vulnerability, along with decision support matrices to help with project planning and a final report exploring the potential for statewide implementation. This project is scheduled to be completed by December 2016. MBTA: The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority’s (MBTA) has prioritized a range of activities to increase the resiliency of the transit system. One of the key decision making factors the MBTA incorporates when determining which projects are funded in its capital program is whether a project helps address the impacts of climate change. Additionally, the MBTA is updating its Transit Asset Management systems to flag assets that are threatened by extreme storms or critical to return service after storms, thus allowing the MBTA to incorporate infrastructure upgrades that provide system resiliency. The MBTA has also committed $7M to complete light and radar (LiDAR) mapping of all MBTA tunnels and structures to assess the vulnerability of the tunnels to flooding and storm surge. Finally, in September the MBTA was awarded $32 million in Federal Transit Authority funding to address the resiliency of two critical assets—the Green Line Subway Portal and the Charlestown Bus Garage, both of which sit along riverine systems that make them particularly vulnerable to flooding.
  11. 11. 11 Massachusetts Port Authority: Massport concluded its Disaster and Infrastructure Resiliency Plan this year. The Resiliency Plan will help Massport address the most significant risks to its infrastructure over the coming decades due to sea level rise and extreme weather events, as well as create programs to address broader climate risks. Detailed facility assessments were developed for each critical asset identified at Logan Airport and the maritime facilities in South Boston. The assessments included information as to the use and construction of the building, the anticipated flood levels under various scenarios, recommended floodproofing measures and order-of- magnitude cost estimates for those improvements. With the information produced, Massport is weighing the costs and benefits of proposed capital investments, emergency planning, and disaster response and recovery measures. In 2015, design, specification, and bid documents will be produced to implement priority recommendations. Operational plans for flooding events will also be created. Massport will continue to collaborate with external agencies and stakeholders to ensure a more resilient transportation region.
  12. 12. 12 Increasing Our Energy Resilience Reliable energy is essential to fulfilling the needs of Massachusetts residents, visitors, businesses, and governments every day. In severe climate events, when our energy systems are most likely to be damaged, these systems become even more critical to ensuring public health and safety. Massachusetts continues to learn valuable lessons from each storm on how to repair energy systems efficiently, however, too often residents, businesses and institutions are left without power for extended periods of time. In order to address the impacts from more intense storms associated with climate change, the Commonwealth needs to address the vulnerabilities that cause damage before it occurs. The Patrick Administration began this critical work to reimagine the Commonwealth’s electrical grid, protect critical facilities in our communities, and ensure that generators are prepared for the impacts of climate change. Grid Modernization Being able to safely and reliably provide energy is critically important for climate preparedness. The Department of Public Utilities (DPU) is responsible for oversight of investor-owned electric power, natural gas, and water utilities in the Commonwealth. Given this responsibility, and given the increase in severe weather events, the DPU has begun developing alternatives to traditional regulation, by creating the right regulatory environment to encourage investments in system hardening, new communication systems, and “self-healing” grid technologies, all while improving monitoring of service quality. To prepare for vulnerabilities associated with climate change, the DPU opened a proceeding in an effort to ensure that electric distribution companies adopt grid modernization technology and practices that will enhance electric service reliability and resiliency in the face of extreme weather and allow for more efficient daily utility operations. The major customer benefits of modernizing the electric grid include: reducing the frequency and duration of customer outages due to storms; improving communication with customers, and municipal and state officials; creating the right regulatory environment to encourage cost-effective new, more resilient technologies, such as microgrids and electricity storage that can be used in tandem with residential or commercial solar installations; and improving reliability at vulnerable critical sites for transmission and distribution that can be hardened. In order to ensure that utility consumers are provided with the most reliable service at the lowest possible cost consistent with the utilities’ obligations, the DPU prioritized resiliency during grid modernization proceedings in an effort to responsibly accelerate storm hardening, deployment of microgrids and resiliency projects at critical sites on the distribution system. The Department issued a final order on June 12th , becoming the first state in the nation to require utilities to modernize the electric grid. The DPU’s order requires each utility to develop and implement a 10-year grid modernization plan, due on August 5, 2015, and to update that plan regularly.
  13. 13. 13 Community Clean Energy Resiliency Previous storms in Massachusetts and throughout the region have demonstrated the importance of maintaining energy resources at critical locations. In order to increase the resiliency of our grid, the Department of Energy Resources launched a $40 million municipal clean energy resilience grant program to protect citizens of the Commonwealth from interruptions in energy services due to severe storm events exacerbated by the effects of climate change. The funds were made available from Alternative Compliance Payments and are being distributed to municipalities and regional public entities to harden critical energy services using clean energy technology, including solar, electric storage, combined heat and power, renewable thermal, fuel cells, district energy, and micro grids. This unique program therefore contributes to the Commonwealth’s commitment to both mitigate and prepare for the impacts of climate change. Due to the complex nature of the program, DOER elected to make grants available for both technical assistance and project implementation. They officially launched the program on May 15, 2014 with the release of a solicitation. Throughout the summer, they awarded twenty-seven technical assistance grants, and on September 25, 2014 they announced the first round of project implementation grants for six communities. A second round of project implementation funding was awarded to thirteen additional communities on December 29, 2014. Each grant is described below. Source: DOER
  14. 14. 14 Round 1: Berkley/Taunton - $1.46 million The Berkley/Taunton Community Microgrid will be capable of providing near continuous emergency back-up services with a reduced carbon footprint while improving energy efficiency, reliability and resiliency to the towns of Berkley and Taunton. This project incorporates existing solar photovoltaics (PV) and diesel generation with a new battery array and control system within a microgrid configuration that will serve the middle school (a shelter), the Emergency Services Building, the Community School (a secondary evacuation shelter), the municipal fueling station/pump and the police/fire radio repeater. Boston - $1.32 million The City of Boston will install solar PV arrays with battery storage at four Boston Center for Youth and Families facilities that are designated emergency shelters and serve as local community centers for all ages. The solar PV with battery storage will enable the facilities to be islandable from the power grid, providing basic lighting, power and heating/cooling. Greater Lawrence Sanitary District (GLSD) - $611,000 The GLSD, a Regional Wastewater District, is pursuing a three phase construction project to accept source separated organics (SSO) and produce electricity and heat for its main plant and electricity for its pump station. With Phase 1 currently underway, DOER is looking to support Phase 2 by adding biogas metering and monitoring improvements, high pressure transfer pumps to move thicker SSO material and outside waste acceptance and blending tanks to move GLSD even closer to SSO acceptance and full utilization. This support will also prepare GLSD to embark on Phase 3, which will include the addition of a fourth anaerobic digester, gas storage, combined heat and power (CHP) generators (2), and biogas collection and safety equipment upgrades. This final phase will allow GLSD to operate completely separate from the grid during an outage. Northampton - $525,401 This project will incorporate solar PV and batteries with existing diesel generation at the Northampton Fire Department Headquarters, the sole city facility capable of providing a significant number of critical municipal services. The project will allow for diversified fuel sources available for power production during an extended outage, prioritize new emergency power generation systems, offset use of emergency fuel oil during long term power outages, reduce the environmental impacts from power generation for the facility and improve grid-tied power reliability by enabling peak-shaving and load shedding. South Essex Sewerage District - $700,000 This project is for the procurement and construction of a combined heat and power (CHP) facility at the South Essex Sewerage District, which includes Beverly, Danvers, Marblehead, Peabody and Salem. The CHP unit is designed to provide a portion of the electrical power, in parallel with the grid, to operate the District’s wastewater treatment
  15. 15. 15 process and pumping equipment. The unit is black-start capable and is anticipated to provide back-up power to some portion of the plant in the event of an outage. Additionally, heat generated by the unit will provide hot water for essential odor control and building space temperature control. Springfield - $2.79 million The City of Springfield, in partnership with Baystate Health, is currently designing a 4.6 megawatt CHP plant which will provide electricity, chilled water and steam to the hospital. The plant would include a gas turbine generator, heat recovery steam generator, absorption chiller, black-start diesel generator and load management system. The plant will produce 80 percent of the hospital’s annual energy consumption, 68 percent of electricity and 97 percent of steam. Round 2: Barnstable– $406,000 The Barnstable Intermediate School serves as a primary emergency shelter for the town. This project is for the procurement and construction of the resiliency equipment associated with a 60kW combined heat and power (CHP) system to support the school with both electric and thermal power. With the resiliency equipment, namely the islanding and black start features of the selected system, this unit will be able to operate in parallel with the utility grid or independently during a broad scale utility outage. This functionality will ensure that the shelter will be able to continue to provide critical services through a long-term outage event. Boston – $3.68 million The City of Boston is proposing to partner with Boston Medical Center to install a new 2MW co-generation system that is capable of black start and island operation at that facility. The system will be configured to, not only support the hospital, but to provide extended duration backup electric power in the event of a normal power outage to the regional emergency communications infrastructure located on the roof of the high rise housing building located at 35 Northampton St (across the street from the plant). Grant funding is requested for engineering, controls, electrical switchgear and wiring required for cogeneration machine black start and interconnection of city emergency communications infrastructure system. Cambridge – $851,868 Cambridge’s proposed project will involve installing battery storage to complement a planned 170kW solar PV system and other equipment to enable the system to island during an outage event. The project would enable the drinking water treatment system to operate during brief interruptions of the power supply and enable the Water and Electrical Department offices, water laboratory, and emergency operations center to operate during longer outages.
  16. 16. 16 Cape and Vineyard Electric Cooperative (CVEC) – $1.48 million The Dennis Yarmouth Regional High School is designated as a Regional Shelter by the Barnstable County Emergency Planning Committee (BCEPC). It is one of six regional shelters open to all residents and visitors to Barnstable County during an emergency. It also serves as a food preparation and distribution center for the remaining shelters due to its size and capacity. This project is for the addition of 512kW of battery back-up, energy management and islanding capability to its nearly complete solar array (split across a 715kW system and a 641kW system). In addition, the battery back-up system would be used, if possible, to reduce demand charges through peak load shedding at the school during regular, non-emergency operation. Chelmsford – $74,941 Chelmsford is looking to retrofit an existing solar PV system to provide emergency generation in island mode at the McCarthy Middle School, which serves as a community shelter. The integrated system will provide automated controls for grid and island mode. Greater Lawrence Sanitary District – $4.39 million The Greater Lawrence Sanitary District (GLSD), a Regional Wastewater District, is pursuing a three-phased construction project (the grant award is for resiliency components of Phase 2 and Phase 3 only) to accept source separated organics (SSO) and produce electricity and heat for its main plant and electricity for its pump station. Phase 2 includes biogas metering, monitoring, collection and safety improvements, high pressure transfer pumps, an outside waste acceptance and blending tank, two 1550 kW CHP units, and electrical feeds from the main plan to the pump station. Phase 3, includes the addition of a fourth anaerobic digester. Phase 3 includes the addition of a fourth anaerobic digester. The estimated cost to design and construct the entire project is estimated at $25M. Greenfield – $ 367,310 The City of Greenfield is awarded funding for battery storage to complement a proposed 207kW solar PV installation at its new LEED certified high school. Currently, the back- up power at the site is diesel powered generators that will operate for 2-3 days. With recent severe weather events and accompanying power outages for up to 1 week in some local areas, there is a strong need to have more resilient facilities that can meet the community’s needs. The new high school is in a perfect location to provide shelter and necessary services to the Town’s growing elderly population and high percentage of high-needs populations. Holyoke – $1.01 million Holyoke is awared funding at three different project sites all of which will provide resiliency through the combination of islandable renewable energy generation and battery storage. After in depth analysis at the Fire Headquarters serving Holyoke, the Cadmus Group recommended a 53 kW photovoltaic system be installed on the roof of the building, paired with a 300 kWh battery bank. This combination, along with the existing back-up generator, would be enough to cover 100% of the building’s load in a grid outage for approximately 3 days. Holyoke looks to pursue this recommendation and
  17. 17. 17 is granted funding for the battery bank. Holyoke also looks to install a combination of a small PV system, small wind turbine, and a 200 kWh battery (for which it is awarded funding) at the Mt. Tom Tower, the emergency communication tower for the city. This combination will be enough to cover 100% of the facility’s load in a grid outage for approximately 3 days. The city is also awarded funds to support pairing islanding equipment and a 483 kWh battery bank with a planned 600 kW PV array at the Dean School, a community shelter. This combination, along with the existing back-up generator, would be enough to cover 100% of the building’s load in a grid outage for approximately 3 days. Medford – $833,366 The City of Medford’s goal is to provide heat and power to as many of its key first responder facilities, critical infrastructure support buildings and potential large shelters as possible, during and after a major storm or grid-disrupting incident. Medford is currently engaging with the MAPC regional procurement project to install solar PV at the DPW and Andrews School and requests support in integrating resiliency work at these facilities. The awarded resiliency project would involve adding islanding equipment and battery storage at each of the independent sites. Metropolitan Area Planning Council – Beverly – $526,180 This project, which specifically focuses on four critical facilities at the Beverly Cache Site, proposes a 232kW PV array to be connected to the electric grid in a behind the meter configuration with 77kWh of battery storage. This system will be used to power the four critical facilities in the event that the power grid is not operational. This site serves as a Regional Equipment Cache for the Northeast Massachusetts Homeland Security Region, the location of the Beverly, MA Civil Defense Department, as well as the home base of Massachusetts Task Force 1. The Northeast Massachusetts Homeland Security Region Cache houses and coordinates the lending and delivery of critical emergency response equipment to communities within the Region, as well as state wide, during local and widespread emergencies. The Beverly, MA Civil Defense Department coordinates all emergency management activities for the City. Massachusetts Task Force 1 is one of the Nation's 28 FEMA Urban Search and Rescue Teams. Metropolitan Area Planning Council – Wayland – $264,627 The Metropolitan Area Planning Council project in Wayland is awarded funding for the implementation of islanding capability and advanced switches at Wayland Middle School. Wayland is seeking to augment a proposed PV carport at the school with switchgear and inverters that would allow solar to decrease the burden on the diesel back-up generator during an event. As the Town’s primary community shelter, Wayland’s Middle School has harbored folks in wheelchairs, people with their pets, senior citizens, and young families with children. As a regional shelter, it has hosted residents from other municipalities, including Weston, Framingham, and Sherborn. Adding resiliency features will leverage ongoing planning processes facilitated by MAPC to construct municipal solar installations. The proposed resiliency project will harden the clean energy infrastructure for the shelter while establishing an exciting demonstration
  18. 18. 18 of islanding/microgrid technology to which advanced battery storage systems can be added at a future date. While the requested amount is higher than the maximum award offered to Wayland, this facility does serve as a shelter for the region and is therefore eligible for a waiver of that maximum. Northampton – $3.08 million The goal of the project is to increase the resiliency of three of Northampton's high priority emergency facilities: the Smith Vocational and Agricultural High School (SVAHS), the Department of Public Works (DPW), and Cooley Dickinson Hospital (CDH). The city plans to identify, through an engineering study, specific critical loads and an appropriate control strategy, verify the feasibility of interconnecting across the public way, identify an economically sized natural gas generation configuration or possible alternative on-site generation and/or storage at CDH, and determine the system benefits and impacts on the combined microgrid. Based on the engineering study findings, the city will construct a microgrid with on-site RE and battery storage to serve the facilities. Sterling – $1.46 million This proposed battery storage project would deliver multiple layers of resiliency benefits to the Sterling community. First, the battery array would be designed to ensure that the battery array is sized to allow for islanding of critical services within the Sterling police station and dispatch center. The goal is to be able to continue to supply heat, water, cooking equipment and life safety services that require electricity for up to 100 hours. The battery array will be used daily to provide real-time demand response, frequency regulation services, and off-peak to on-peak load shifting to increase the resiliency of Sterling's solar-reliant microgrid. Energy Generation Resiliency Survey The ability to generate power during natural disasters and under predicted environmental stress is essential to the public safety, public health, and economic vitality in the Commonwealth. The New England Power Generators Association (NEPGA) represents ninety-two percent of all the generating capacity in the Commonwealth, with facilities located in twenty-five cities and towns across the state. Energy generators are not regulated by the Department of Public Utilities and include a diverse portfolio of natural gas, oil, coal, nuclear, biomass, and renewable energy. Oversight for reliability falls to the ISO New England and the North American Electric Reliability Corporation. However, state government plays an important role in communicating with these stakeholders and sharing information in order to protect its communities during future storms. EEA, in partnership with NEPGA has developed a survey identifying resiliency efforts taken or planned to date at generating facilities and soliciting feedback on recommended steps to improve the preparedness of these facilities. EEA anticipates distributing a final survey in 2015.
  19. 19. 19 Protecting Our Built and Natural Environments As a major asset holder and driver of land use decisions, the Commonwealth has an active role to play in increasing the resiliency of built and natural infrastructure across Massachusetts. This includes ensuring the resiliency of current and future assets by utilizing vulnerability assessments, planning tools, regulatory oversight, and grant programs to be sure Massachusetts is building in a manner that accounts for current and future impacts of climate change. Commonwealth of Massachusetts Facility Assessment and Mitigation Strategy Development Guidebook The Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency (MEMA) and Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR), in partnership with the Division of Capital Asset Management and Maintenance (DCAMM), has developed a project to reduce risk and increase resiliency to state owned and leased buildings and facilities to natural hazards. The project will commence in early 2015 with the formation of a Project Management Team (Team) that will include a range of state agencies. At least one state department or agency will serve as a pilot to conduct a detailed structure evaluation of up to three state buildings/facilities in high hazard areas. The Team will prepare reports on each building presenting the identified vulnerabilities to potential hazard damage and feasible mitigation measures that address those vulnerabilities. The results of the pilot and the description of the process developed will be incorporated into a guidebook which may be used by other agencies and organizations to conduct similar risk and vulnerability analyses for their own facilities. Ultimately this project will provide the knowledge and tools necessary to include a risk and vulnerability assessment during updates and changes to our building portfolio. MEMA applied for and was awarded funding for this project through Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP). EEA is supporting the match for this federal funding with $ 61,970 allocated from 2000-0101 in the Commonwealth’s FY15 Operating Budget. Hazard Mitigation in Smart Growth Planning The Patrick Administration’s Common Vision and Planning Ahead for Growth approach broke new ground by seamlessly integrating planning for transportation investments with economic and land use development on a regional scale. These sustainable development practices have yielded significant benefits for both our built and natural infrastructure. Going forward, we recognize that both will be under greater strain due to increasingly intense weather patterns. Therefore, when undertaking smart growth planning efforts the Administration recognized the importance of including additional hazard layers and building resiliency best practices when identifying areas best suited for development or preservation. Planners from the State’s Hazard Mitigation Program managed by Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency and Department of Conservation and Recreation have been incorporated into regional planning and other land use decision making efforts.
  20. 20. 20 The first plan released incorporating this new partnership was the Metro North Land Use Plan, and included nine communities: Chelsea, Everett, Malden, Medford, Melrose, Somerville, Revere, Winthrop, and the Boston neighborhoods of Charlestown and East Boston. The plan specifically addresses the vulnerabilities in these communities to climate change, particularly sea level rise and highlights the opportunity that the revitalization of this region presents in increasing resiliency along our coastline. Impacts of climate change are included in the evaluation of priority development areas, to be sure that designs take them into account as they move forward. This simple policy change will help ensure that the Commonwealth prioritizes the preservation and development of areas to protect against climate change. Coastal Community Resilience Program Not only are Massachusetts’ coastal cities and towns home to one third of the State’s population, our coast is lined with businesses, industrial operations, and critical public and private infrastructure. Anticipated sea level rise of up to 6 feet, will put hundreds of billions of assets at risk in Boston alone. Through its StormSmart Coasts Program, the Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and other partners have been working at the community and regional level; however, more can and should be done to assess the vulnerabilities of our coast on a holistic level and to identify and begin taking action on the best path forward. With this in mind, EEA created a $1 million municipal grants program at CZM to reduce or eliminate community risk associated with coastal storms and sea level rise. Through this program, supported by EEA’s Capital Budget, coastal communities are eligible to apply for up to $350,000 each to advance local efforts to Source: Metro North Land Use Priority Plan Source: Metro North Land Use Priority Plan
  21. 21. 21 adapt land use, infrastructure, policies, and programs to reduce the vulnerability of the built and natural environment to changing environmental conditions. CZM issued a Request for Responses on January 23, 2014. CZM received applications from nineteen communities, totaling nearly double the available funding. On April 4, 2014 EEA announced awards for ten communities. The first round of the adaptation assistance grants program was so successful and well-received that EEA elected to extend the program in FY15, allocating an additional $1.5 million. Requests were accepted for the second round and CZM received an additional eighteen applications. Awards were made to eleven communities, described below, on December 1, 2014. Each grant awarded is described below. Town of Barnstable—$52,560 Project: Community Rating System Application Assistance and Outreach, $52,560 The town will put together an application for the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Community Rating System (CRS), a program that encourages community floodplain management activities. CRS-rated communities receive discounted flood insurance premium rates to reflect the reduced flood risk. The application will include an analysis of existing and potential flood risks due to seal level rise to help the town better prepare future adaptation planning efforts. The project will also include a CRS application template for other communities and a workshop for regional and municipal officials on changing coastal flooding and sea level rise impacts and the CRS application process. City of Boston—$86,000 Project: Designing for the Rising Tide: A Climate Change Preparedness Competition for Boston Harbor The city will host a design competition with The Boston Harbor Association for three sites in Boston vulnerable to increasing risk of flooding from sea level rise and more extreme storm events. Town of Brewster—$200,000 Project: Building Coastal Resilience in Brewster The town will study sand volumes and movement along the shoreline, identify beaches and other natural systems at risk of erosion and sea level rise impacts, and plan to relocate or adapt most vulnerable beach parking areas and access sites. The project will include design plans to move one of the town’s largest beach parking lots to a more inland and elevated area. City of Gloucester—$50,000 Project: Gloucester Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment The city will conduct a climate change vulnerability assessment to develop targeted strategies aimed at reducing risks from flooding and increased storm intensity. The project will also use scenario planning to help the public and local officials understand the range of possible future conditions.
  22. 22. 22 Town of Hingham—$44,461 Project: Hingham Climate Change Vulnerability, Risk Assessment and Adaptation Study, $44,461 The town will identify infrastructure and facilities vulnerable to sea level rise and climate change. The goal of the project is to assess levels of impact in vulnerable areas, develop recommended strategies to manage existing infrastructure, and natural resources and plan for future adaptation. Town of Hull—$41,250 Project: Gun Rock/Atlantic Avenue Storm Damage Adaptation Project The town will redesign a revetment and seawall along Crescent Beach to account for sea level rise and reduce property damage, environmental impacts and public safety threats. The project will also include outreach to the neighborhood impacted by overwash during storm events to educate residents about strategies to limit the flow of overwash material into Straits Pond. - Town of Oak Bluffs—$200,000 Project: Town of Oak Bluffs Pump Station Hazard Mitigation Projects The town will improve three wastewater pump stations to mitigate existing flood hazards and address future sea level rise impacts. These pump stations serve nearly the entire sewered population in Oak Bluffs. Town of Provincetown—$100,000 Project: Coastal Resiliency Assessment and Strategic Beach Stabilization Pilot Project The town and its partners will complete an analysis of sand volumes and transport from Wellfleet to Provincetown and develop a management plan for Provincetown Harbor that identifies potential areas for dune restoration, beach stabilization and other natural approaches to mitigating coastal erosion and flooding problems. City of Salem—$200,000 Project: Rosies Pond Neighborhood Resiliency Project The city will redesign a flood control project for the Rosies Pond neighborhood to account for climate projections and increase the neighborhood’s ability to endure impacts associated with storms and the effects of flooding and sea level rise. The project will include public presentations and a workshop series, which will be open to other communities. Town of Weymouth—$22,605 Project: Fore River Avenue and Fort Point Road Seawall Reconstruction The town will develop final design plans, permit applications and bid package materials for seawall reconstruction projects at Fore River Avenue and Fort Point Road.
  23. 23. 23 Round 2: Town of Duxbury—$206,250 Project: Coastal Processes Study and Resiliency Recommendations for Duxbury Beach and Bay The town will study the effects of waves, tides and the movement of sand and other sediment on both the ocean and bay sides of Duxbury Beach to understand existing conditions and potential impacts from future storms and sea level rise. The town will evaluate restoration alternatives most likely to expand habitat and improve long-term capacity of the beach system to withstand these impacts. Town of Hull—$45,339 Project: Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning The town will identify and assess municipal infrastructure and natural resources at risk of impacts from flooding, storm surge, increased storm intensity and sea level rise. The town will develop and prioritize short-, mid- and long-term strategies that can be implemented to minimize future storm damage and disruption of services. Manchester-by-the-Sea—$154,950 Project: Sawmill Brook Culvert and Green Infrastructure Analysis - Vulnerability and Required Capacity under Climate Change The town will evaluate the capacity of bridges and culverts in the Sawmill Brook watershed to provide needed services during storms under future precipitation and sea level rise conditions. The town will prepare design plans, cost estimates and a permitting strategy for infrastructure improvements at key locations in the watershed. Town of Mattapoisett—$47,491 Project: Protecting Mattapoisett’s Potable Water and Sewer Infrastructure in the Face of Climate Change: Assessing Risk and Identifying Solutions The town will quantify potential impacts to critical water and wastewater infrastructure under a suite of sea level rise and hurricane conditions and develop priority actions to help ensure the resilience of the infrastructure to future storm and climate impacts. Town of Nantucket—$177,850 Project: Empowering Coastal Communities to Prepare for and Respond to Sea Level Rise and Storm-Related Inundation: A Pilot Project for Nantucket The town will implement flood- and erosion-control measures at three vulnerable and high-use public sites prioritized by the town’s Coastal Management Plan (CMP) and identify and map low-lying areas that act as pathways for storm tides to inundate inland areas. The inundation maps will be used to help the town prioritize the remaining 19 CMP action items. Town of Provincetown—$155,125 Project: Increasing Coastal Resiliency and Reducing Infrastructure Vulnerability by Mapping Inundation Pathways
  24. 24. 24 The town will identify and map low-lying areas that provide a direct pathway for flood waters to reach inland areas and install a tide gauge to provide real-time water level data. The goal of the project is to assess potential flood impacts to critical public infrastructure and recommend short- and long-term strategies for future protection of high risk assets. Town of Sandwich—$300,000 Project: Analyze and Permit a Nearshore Sediment Borrow Source for Sandwich Town Beaches The town will analyze a nearshore site adjacent to Scusset Beach to determine its viability as a source of sand for future placement on eroding public beaches downdrift of the Cape Cod Canal jetties. Results from the scientific and engineering analyses will support the town’s efforts to apply for and obtain required local, state and federal permits. Town of Swampscott—$70,100 Project: Climate Change Coastal Resiliency and Flood Control Plan The town will use storm surge and sea level rise inundation models to assess vulnerabilities of municipal infrastructure and natural resources. The project will develop conceptual engineering solutions and policy recommendations to help protect residents, property and infrastructure from extreme weather and climate change impacts. Town of Wareham—$93,750 Project: Wastewater Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment and Emergency Response Plan Related to Coastal Flooding and Climate Change The town will produce a vulnerability assessment and emergency management plan for critical wastewater infrastructure and identify necessary improvements to help the system endure future storm and climate change impacts. Town of Weymouth—$75,000 Project: Puritan Road Flood Mitigation and Ecological Resilience The town will study the existing drainage system and runoff characteristics between the Back River and an inland salt marsh and design adaptive solutions for retrofitting a persistently collapsing culvert to improve drainage and tidal flow capacity given anticipated climate impacts. Town of Winthrop—$173,845 Project: Veterans Road Drainage Improvements Design The town will model watershed drainage patterns, tidal influences and sea level rise as a basis for redesigning and permitting a tide gate at Lewis Lake to increase flood water drainage from low lying areas, improve water quality and possibly reduce the accumulation of sediment where the gate discharges to Winthrop Harbor.
  25. 25. 25 Green Infrastructure Pilot Program Natural and nonstructural approaches—called green infrastructure— can provide coastal storm damage protection and while enhancing natural habitat and public recreational values. To advance the understanding and implementation of natural approaches to mitigating coastal erosion and flooding problems, CZM also developed a Green Infrastructure for Coastal Resilience Grant Program through its Storm Smart Coasts Program. This grant program provides financial and technical resources to advance the understanding and implementation of natural approaches to mitigating coastal erosion and flooding problems. Grants support the planning, feasibility assessment, design, permitting, construction, and monitoring/evaluation of green infrastructure projects that implement natural or living shoreline approaches. “Green infrastructure” are natural features of the coastal landscape that have flood control and storm surge reduction functions as well ecosystem benefits. Examples of green infrastructure projects include beach and dune enhancement, bio-engineering with coir rolls, natural fiber blankets, and other organic, biodegradable materials combined with planting/re- vegetation, and fringing salt marsh creation or restoration. Brewster Natural Resources Director Chris Miller at the site of the town’s Breakwater Landing project which will relocate the parking lot to a less vulnerable location landward and restore dune habitat with sand, native vegetation and fencing Source: Elizabeth Hanson CZM released the first round of funding for this program on February 27, 2014, and received thirteen proposals, totaling nearly double the available funding, by the April 4, 2014 deadline. Ultimately, nine communities received grants. Similar to the Coastal Community Resiliency program, with the response and success of the first round of this grant program, EEA elected to extend it into FY15, allocating an additional $1.5 million. Grant applications for the second round were solicited by October 10, 2014 and CZM received an additional nine proposals. Seven more awards were made. Each grant is described below.
  26. 26. 26 Round 1: Town of Barnstable—$186,500 Project: Shoreline stabilization of North Barnstable public beaches using bioengineering solutions The town will stabilize Blish Point-Millway Beach using sand-filled coir bags, native plantings and sand fencing to protect substantial public access infrastructure and an engineered containment basin that has been used to store dredged sediments. Town of Brewster—$155,000 Project: Brewster green infrastructure project - coastal resilience at Breakwater Beach The town will remove an asphalt parking area at Breakwater Landing; restore dune habitat with sand, native vegetation and fencing; provide a seasonal boardwalk for beach access; and relocate 30 parking spaces to a less vulnerable location. Town of Chilmark - $20,000 The town will survey and map existing landscape conditions of the Squibnocket Town Beach, proposed new parking area, and skiff launch and prepare engineering design plans for future beach expansion and restoration efforts. Duxbury Beach Reservation, Inc.—$86,947 Project: Cobble berm restoration, construction of nurseries for native beach grass cultivation and Japanese Knotweed eradication The Duxbury Beach Reservation, in partnership with the towns of Duxbury and Kingston, will restore an eroded cobble berm along a critical access road, construct two beach grass nurseries to provide dedicated local sources of native vegetation and eradicate invasive Japanese knotweed that is competing with native beach grasses. Town of Gosnold—$205,875 Project: Improving the coastal resilience of Barges Beach on Cuttyhunk Island The town will evaluate beach nourishment, dune restoration and other green infrastructure options for Barges Beach on Cuttyhunk Island. Engineering plans and specifications will then be developed for the recommended alternative and advanced through permitting and selection of a contractor for construction. Martha's Vineyard Shellfish Group, Inc.—$35,262 Project: Demonstration of living shoreline technology and development of ribbed mussel seed production to protect and restore salt marsh in coastal Massachusetts The Martha’s Vineyard Shellfish Group, with many partners including the towns of Edgartown, Oak Bluffs and Tisbury, will conduct preliminary investigations into the hatchery production of ribbed mussels and test living shoreline techniques (using ribbed mussel, coir log and marsh grass for shoreline protection) at four pilot sites in embayments on Martha’s Vineyard.
  27. 27. 27 Town of Newbury—$145,000 Project: Building capacity for resilience of human and natural communities in the dune system of Newbury The town will restore dunes and public access paths using beach grass, fencing, invasive species removal and possibly other approaches with technical assistance from the University of New Hampshire. Town of Plymouth—$75,000 Project: Long Beach restoration/enhancement The town will redesign the Long Beach system using an offshore berm, beach nourishment and possible realignment of the mouth of the Eel River to protect a critical emergency evacuation route. Town of Scituate—$118,000 Project: North Scituate Beach nourishment The town will conduct sediment sampling, design and permitting for a beach nourishment project along Glades and Surfside Roads. Round 2: Town of Chilmark - $280,000 The town will complete permitting and construction activities based on surveying results and engineering design plans. Construction will include removal and relocation of the current parking area to a location more naturally resistant to erosion, installation of parking and public access amenities, removal of a rock revetment, and beach restoration with sand and native vegetation. The project will additionally support the Squibnocket Farm Homeowner’s Association’s plan to construct an elevated roadway that provides enhanced public access and protection for a coastal road. City of Gloucester—$310,000 Project: Little River Floodplain and Habitat Restoration The city will re-establish a coastal floodplain by removing obsolete concrete structures and fill associated with the original operations of the West Gloucester Water Treatment Plant. To provide additional storm damage protection to the shoreline and improve habitat for estuarine species, salt marsh will be created using bioengineering techniques. Town of Plymouth—$279,080 Project: Cobble Nourishment of Washover Areas at Plymouth Long Beach The town will fill seven severely eroded washover areas on Long Beach with rounded cobbles to increase storm damage protection and flood control for Plymouth Harbor. The cobble is of similar size and texture to the existing beach sediment and is less susceptible to erosion than sand.
  28. 28. 28 City of Salem—$75,000 Project: Green Infrastructure Feasibility Assessment The city will identify sites that are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and evaluate the feasibility of green infrastructure enhancements at these sites. Three sites are expected to be selected for detailed analysis, including conceptual designs of the green infrastructure enhancements, required permitting and estimation of the cost and timing of implementation. Save Popponesset Bay, Inc.—$194,188 Project: Improving the Coastal Resilience of Popponesset Spit and Bay Save Popponesset Bay, with support from the Town of Mashpee, Mass Audubon Society and Popponesset Beach Association, will evaluate, design and seek permits for an alternative beach nourishment and dune restoration strategy to stabilize and restore habitat for the publicly accessible barrier beach on Popponesset Spit. Town of Scituate—$241,163 Project: North Scituate Beach Nourishment The town will complete all necessary local, state and federal permits for future sand, gravel and cobble nourishment along 2,800 feet of severely eroding public beach at Glades and Surfside Roads in North Scituate. This project follows up on a grant last year to design the beach nourishment project. Town of Westport—$120,569 Project: Knubble Dune Restoration The town will rebuild 500 feet of dune within the eastern portion of Beach Avenue leading out to the “Point of Rocks” to increase the capacity of the barrier beach system to withstand storms and increasing sea level. Dam and Seawall Repair and Removal Fund Massachusetts faces a growing need for the repair of dams, coastal flood control structures, and inland flood control structures. In some cases, public safety and key economic centers are at risk due to deteriorating infrastructure. In other instances, the structures no longer serve their purpose and removal provides the opportunity to restore ecological systems. Flooding impacts of climate change are expected to make the proper repair and removal of these structures even more critical in the future, not only along our coastline but along inland river banks as well. The Dam and Seawall Repair or Removal Fund grants financial resources to qualified projects that share our mission to enhance, preserve, and protect the natural resources and scenic, historic and aesthetic qualities of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The Dam and Seawall Repair or Removal Fund was established in 2013 by the Massachusetts Legislature to promote public health, public safety, and ecological restoration. Under the authority created by M.G.L. c. 29, §2IIII and regulations issued under 301 CMR 15.00, EEA has entered into contracts with qualified organizations to
  29. 29. 29 implement projects for the repair and removal of dams, levees, seawalls, and other forms of flood control. In 2014 this included awarding 7 grants, totaling $13.2 million. A full report on this program is available at mass.gov/eea. Evaluation of Regulatory Changes The Massachusetts Environmental Policy Act’s (MEPA) primary purpose is to evaluate alternatives that avoid, minimize and mitigate the environmental impacts of projects and identify enforceable mitigation commitments. The MEPA Office is required by the GWSA to: “(1) consider the reasonably foreseeable climate change impacts and GHG emissions of projects subject to MEPA review (and effects such as predicted sea level rise); and (2) ensure that projects subject to MEPA take all feasible measures to avoid, minimize, or mitigate ‘Damage to the Environment’ (as defined in the MEPA statute), including GHG emissions.” The GWSA further amended Section 61 of Chapter 30 of the General Laws to require any agency, department, board, commission or authority to consider climate impacts, including sea level rise, in issuing permits licenses and other administrative approvals and decisions. Over the course of 2014 MEPA worked with stakeholders to develop a policy to implement these requirements. This Policy, which was released for a forty-five day public comment period on December 24, 2014, is intended to facilitate an assessment of the risk and vulnerabilities of a project or action under reasonably foreseeable scenarios and conditions associated with climate change. This assessment will assist in the identification and evaluation of measures to mitigate these risks and vulnerabilities to the extent feasible and appropriate. The MEPA Office will continue working with stakeholders to refine the draft proposal in 2015. The Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) is also engaged with stakeholders to determine how to incorporate new standards into the state’s Coastal Waterfront Act (Chapter 91) regulations to address coastal flooding and sea level rise (SLR). Efforts to assess and mitigate the impacts from sea level rise (SLR) on waterfront structures are underway, beginning with a review of the Chapter 91 regulations. MassDEP is looking closely at CZM’s new document titled Sea Level Rise: Understanding and Applying Trends and Future Scenarios for Analysis and Planning to determine what actions are appropriate to accommodate predicted sea level rise. DEP has also begun review of its Wetlands Protection Act Regulations in order to develop performance standards for “Land Subject to Coastal Storm Flowage,” commonly referred to as the coastal floodplain. Current literature and the state of the science will be reviewed, stakeholder interests will be identified, and recommendations of a previous advisory group on this topic will be considered for adoption or revision. Finally, throughout 2014 the DCR Flood Hazard Management Program and the Office of Coastal Zone Management have been working with the Board of Building Regulations and Standards, advising the BBRS of best available practices for buildings located in flood zones with the intention that such recommendations be incorporated into the latest version of the State Building Code, due to be released in 2015. This work is ongoing and will continue in 2015, at which point it is anticipated that the outcome of this effort will be resolved. To support this effort, CZM has issued an RFR to initiate mapping
  30. 30. 30 efforts to ensure those seeking to build in coastal A-zones have the best available information and meet standards that decrease vulnerability. .
  31. 31. 31 Protecting Public Health Anticipated changes in climate, including extreme weather events, heat-related illness and an increase in vector-borne diseases, will affect human health and welfare in Massachusetts. Climate change will affect the quality of the air we breathe, the condition of our homes and buildings, the quality and quantity of food and water we consume, and the incidence of vector-borne illnesses. To best prepare for the challenges of climate variability and health, the Department of Public Health (DPH) has been working to enhance key public resources to bolster food protection, toxicology, laboratory testing capacity, and assistance to local health. Evidence indicates that the health effects of climate change will be felt most directly and severely at the local level and hence, local health departments will need to work together within their respective regions to prepare to serve on the front line. The Commonwealth is committed to assisting local communities in addressing these needs, both through enhanced assessments at the state level and support for municipal officials as they address new issues in their communities. Bolstering Local Public Health Capacity Unlike many states in the U.S., Massachusetts has local boards of health for each of its 351 cities and towns. Although the public health infrastructure in Massachusetts is relatively well-established, climate change is expected to increase resource burdens associated with changes in chemical exposure, sanitation, and infectious disease incidence. For the past three years, the DPH, in partnership with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, surveyed boards of health to determine their capacity to address climate change impacts in the Commonwealth. In general, survey results, included in their 2014 report, Capacity to Address the Health Impacts of Climate Change in Massachusetts, indicated that most local health departments felt unprepared, under- resourced and that they lack expertise to address various health issues posed by climate variability. Based on these survey results, DPH has developed resources for local health officials; these resources help identify areas of special concern, provide model adaptation strategies that can be used by local health and other municipal officials, establish planning tools to help local officials most efficiently direct resources toward adaptation strategies, and enhance education and training. Source: MassDPHSource: MassDPHSource: MassDPH Source: MassDPH
  32. 32. 32 This year, DPH launched an updated Environmental Public Health Tracking Portal, matracking.ehs.state.ma.us, which is designed to provide access to health and environmental information for all Massachusetts municipalities. A key feature of the enhanced website is the ability to generate tables, charts, and maps of environmental and health data by community, an essential part of understanding climate impacts on health at the local level. Additionally, DPH hosted two Climate Change Symposiums, one on July 15, 2014 in Milton and the second on October 3, 2014 in Springfield. Both symposia focused on preparing for climate effects at the municipal level. The audience for each included municipal officials in public health, emergency preparedness, conservation commission, public works, and planning. Tracking Harmful Algae Blooms and Health Impacts In recent years, DPH has begun to conduct monitoring and surveillance of health impacts of harmful algae bloom (HAB). In fresh water bodies HABs are caused by rapidly expanding populations of cyanobacteria (sometimes referred to as blue-green algae), capable of producing toxins harmful to people and animals. Incidental ingestion of low-levels of the toxins produced by HABs may cause minor gastrointestinal symptoms, while ingesting higher levels may cause liver or neurological damage. In a warming climate, HABs have the potential to rapidly increase in response to higher water temperatures and cyclical growth-promoting nutrient levels. DPH has sought to prevent exposures to HABs through recreational activities and contamination of food and drinking water by collecting and analyzing environmental samples, responding to reports of HAB exposure, and collecting data on the reported health effects. DPH is working to develop adaptation strategies to address bacterial contamination of Massachusetts recreational waters, working with local health officials to implement potential strategies locally, and will oversee ongoing responses to contamination incidents. Through an interagency service agreement, EEA is supporting this work through an investment of $80,488 allocated from 2000-0101 of the Commonwealths’ FY15 Operating Budget. Enhancing Food Protection in a Changing Climate Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) is an emerging, naturally occurring bacterial pathogen often found in oysters harvested from warmer waters. It has caused illnesses in the Gulf Coast and West Coast of the United States for a number of years, but only recently has begun impacting Massachusetts shellfish. In 2011, Massachusetts had two individuals documented with Vp illness from consuming oysters harvested from the same growing area in Massachusetts. In response, DPH and the Department of Fish and Game’s (DFG) Division of Marine Fisheries (DMF) moved to establish a vibrio control plan in Eastern Cape Cod Bay in 2012. In 2012, 27 individuals were confirmed with a vibrio diagnosis in Massachusetts, due to which state health and fisheries officials moved to expand the vibrio control plan statewide in 2013. 2013 saw more than 50 confirmed cases of Vp, and Massachusetts officials – for the first time in the state’s history – took action to close several oyster harvest areas in the
  33. 33. 33 state to prevent further human illness. Oyster beds were closed again in the summer of 2014, but due to partnership with the oyster industry, these closures were limited to one week. With the small but continued rise in water temperatures, officials expect the presence of Vp bacteria in Massachusetts oysters to remain, if not increase. Massachusetts’ recent experience with Vp illustrates the challenges to food safety likely to emerge in a changing climate. In the coming years, enhancement of state capacity and resources for food protection activities will be needed to safeguard Massachusetts fisheries, agricultural activities, and the food that the public consumes. To best prepare for the challenges of climate variability and health, the DPH targeted expansion in key public resources to bolster food protection, toxicology, and laboratory testing capacity. Through an Interagency Service Agreement, EEA is supporting this work through an investment of $70,639 from 2000-0101 of the Commonwealth’s FY15 Operating Budget. Addressing Needs for Identifying Vector Borne Disease Recent experience with the spread of vector borne diseases by mosquitoes in Massachusetts also shows the potential for increases in infectious disease in a changing climate. DPH, in partnership with the Department of Agricultural Resources and regional Mosquito Control Programs, has worked to identify gaps that exist within the state’s current structure of monitoring and surveillance for mosquito-borne illness (e.g. West Nile Virus, Eastern Equine Encephalitis). Over 100 communities in the Commonwealth, including almost all in Western Massachusetts, are currently not part of a Mosquito Control Programs. DPH has also worked to enhance laboratory capacity as part of its enhanced monitoring and surveillance activities associated with vector borne disease. Addressing Indoor Air Quality in Public Buildings and Housing As a result of climate change, the frequency and severity of extreme weather events has also increased. It is expected that increases in flooding and damage to homes and buildings will occur. DPH has been actively working with communities in Massachusetts on how best to respond to these severe weather events. In recent years, DPH has routinely provided training and technical assistance to local boards of health on matters relating to indoor air quality in public buildings. For example, DPH’s technical staff has conducted indoor environmental investigations of schools and other public buildings that will include an evaluation of moisture levels, as well as potential exposure to volatile organic compounds and respirable particulate matter. DPH is also evaluating regulatory tools to ensure that appropriate actions are taken to remediate water-damaged building materials, including mold contamination in housing units. Assessing and Improving Wastewater and Drinking Water Resilience Maintaining infrastructure associated with assuring adequate potable water and proper wastewater management is critical to the public health and safety of Massachusetts residents. Wastewater and drinking water sites both along the coast and inland are subject to flooding and changing precipitation patterns caused by climate change.
  34. 34. 34 While the DEP has oversight of these systems, most are owned and operated at the local level and stand to benefit from increased capacity-building that helps communities identify and address vulnerable elements of their critical water infrastructure. DEP is bolstering its efforts to facilitate this capacity-building by offering direct assistance through circuit-rider support to help facilities with vulnerability analyses and resilience planning. At the end of 2014 DEP welcomed a new staff member to a Climate Change Circuit Rider position they created to lead this technical assistance effort. Through an Interagency Service Agreement, EEA is supporting this position and their work with $95,628 allocated from 2000-0101 in the FY15 Operating Budget.
  35. 35. 35 Improving Our Data The Patrick Administration recognized that complete and accurate data on the Commonwealth’s assets was important to ensure the success of a number of items in this initiative, as well as better planning moving forward. As such, a range of actions were pursued to ensure we have the best available data for Massachusetts. Completing LiDAR LiDAR, or Light Detection and Ranging, is a data gathering technology that generates precise, three-dimensional mapping of the Commonwealth’s topography and infrastructure. These data are essential for mapping products that support emergency response, floodplain modeling, infrastructure protection, and habitat classification, among others. Between 2002 and 2012, the Commonwealth entered into a number of partnerships to acquire LiDAR mapping for Massachusetts. Source: MassGIS To date mapping has been completed for most of Eastern Massachusetts and portions of Hampden County. Recognizing that elevation data will become increasingly important as communities assess their vulnerability to changes in precipitation and flooding, the Patrick Administration applied to the United States Geological Service (USGS) to complete the Commonwealth’s LiDAR terrain files. If approved, the project will complete the additional 3090 square miles that remain incomplete in the Commonwealth and will be supported by EEA through an approximately $325,000 match allocated from 2000-0101 in the FY15 Operating Budget. Expanding MassGIS Capabilities The Commonwealth’s MassGIS office plays an important role in understanding the impacts of climate change at both the state and local level. As communities grapple with more severe impacts, these services will become increasingly important to local decision makers. To prepare for this demand, MassGIS will convene an interagency working group of policy staff and GIS users with the goal of collectively defining and identifying the ways MassGIS can assist with mapping, maintaining and providing
  36. 36. 36 appropriate access to climate and infrastructure data. They will also work with communities to identify what resources would be most beneficial to those working to increase resilience. EEA is supporting this work with an investment of $130,000 funded through 2000-0101 of the Commonwealth’s FY15 Operating Budget. Downscaled Climate Change Mapping Tool for Local Communities The Commonwealth retains an impressive level of biodiversity, and the Patrick Administration has made conservation of these natural resources a priority. Further, Hurricane Sandy demonstrated that public lands and natural resources can provide defense to our built environment during storms. To ensure we are investing in the resiliency of these systems, DFG’s Division of Fisheries and Wildlife (DFW) is in the process of downscaling the Northeast Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies Climate Change Vulnerability Model web-based GIS tool. This will provide local decision- makers with access to the most current understanding of how climate change is likely to impact their important natural resources, the means to assess the vulnerability of these resources to climate change, and a menu of clear actions address these vulnerability factors. EEA is supporting this effort through a $100,000 interagency service agreement funded through 2000-0101 of the FY15 Operating Budget. In addition, DFG and DFW are supporting this effort through an additional $ 100,000 contribution from the FY15 Capital and Operating Budgets. This new mapping tool builds upon prior work of DFW and Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences, published in a series of three reports that address questions around the impact of climate change on ecosystems and species. Funded by the Wildlife Conservation Society and the Doris Duke Foundation, the objective was to ensure future conservation in the state considers climate impacts by incorporating their consideration into the Commonwealth’s existing State Wildlife Action Plan. Establishing a State Climatologist The Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) Amherst identified the need to have an officially appointed State Climatologist capable of analyzing complex climate data and science to assist both state agencies and local municipalities in understanding the anticipated climate change impacts. Because Massachusetts has been one of only a few states without an official State Climate Office, we have relied heavily on regional climate centers for data, which is not tailored specifically to Massachusetts. This puts the burden of bringing the information down to the local level on agency staff and municipalities, who often do not have the climate expertise necessary for this type of work. This in turn complicates efforts to ensure that we are using the best available science in considering changes to policies and programs regarding both climate change mitigation and adaptation. In partnership with the legislature, the position of State Climatologist at UMass Amherst’s Northeast Climate Science Center was formally created in the Commonwealth’s FY15 Operating Budget, Outside Section 42 and funded through line item 2000-1207. The position will be appointed jointly by the Chancellor of UMass Amherst and the Secretary of Energy and Environmental Affairs for a five year term.
  37. 37. 37 This person will be responsible for: gathering and archiving data on climate conditions around the Commonwealth; conducting and fostering research concerning the climate of the Commonwealth and looking for opportunities for climate-related sponsored research; coordinating with the North East Climate Science Center; and educating and informing citizens of the Commonwealth on matters related to climate. The Climatologist will also be responsible for advising all other branches of state and local government, concerning the climate of the Commonwealth and its implications for both economic and scientific needs. Finally, the state climatologist will act as a liaison with federal and other state and academic institutions and join federal and international climate interest groups. The position has formally been created and candidates are being reviewed.
  38. 38. 38 Additional Efforts Investing Wisely While it is essential that the Commonwealth looks at its current assets and develop plans to increase resiliency, we also recognize that moving forward we should begin to invest in a more climate resilient manner. Climate Preparedness was included as a Key Investment in the Commonwealth’s FY15-19 Capital Investment Plan. The Key Investment brief details capital investments being made within these fiscal years, as well as planning efforts that will influence future capital plans. Connecting with Our State and Federal Partners The Commonwealth has engaged with our partners from neighboring states and at federal agencies to share best practices on increasing resiliency in our communities. For example, EEA sits on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Region 1 Climate Leaders Steering Committee, which has worked throughout 2014 to determine how to best structure collaboration in the region among officials working on increasing resiliency at the local level. Work is ongoing to build this coalition to better serve our communities. Additionally, in 2014 the Commonwealth received a number of Sandy Recovery grants from a range of federal agencies to promote climate resiliency, including nearly $15 million awarded to the DFW’s Division of Ecological Restoration.
  39. 39. 39 Conclusion Through the development of smart, targeted policies Massachusetts has made great strides in addressing the challenge of climate change, by both reducing greenhouse gas emissions and increasing resiliency across the Commonwealth. In 2014, through the Coordinated Climate Preparedness Initiative, the Patrick Administration prioritized actions on key items to address pressing climate change concerns, including impacts on our transportation and energy assets, built and natural environments, and the public health of our residents. These actions included the development of new grant programs to assist communities, policy changes to better utilize best available information, trainings for practioners dealing with these issues on the ground and investments in the resources and data necessary to understand and address our risks. The initiative has brought together a range of Administration agencies, local, state, and federal leaders, stakeholders, and communities to advance this important work. While communities will undoubtedly still face impacts from climate change and more must be done to address their needs, these preparedness efforts help to decrease the overall risk to our residents, assets and way of life.

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