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FOOD DEFENSE
TRAINING
FOOD PROTECTION TASK FORCE & RAPID RESPONSE TEAM
MEETING
Brandon Sauceda, MPH
RRT Program Manager
Georgia Department of Agriculture
Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness CARVER+Shock Exercise
1
Overview
Food Defense:
protection from
contamination
• Biological, chemical,
physical, radiological
agents
Food Security: access to sufficient
quantity / quality of nutritious food
Food Safety: protection
from
contamination
• Agents likely to occur
in food supply
unintentional
intentional
2
Accidents
Disgruntled Employee
Terrorism
Economically Motivated
Adulteration
Mother Nature
Overview
3
Overview
- “Figure 2: Confirmed malicious contaminations of food around the world.” Frederickson, N.R. (2014). Chapter 36: Food Security:
Biosecurity. In Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems (Vol. 3 pp. 311-323)
4
Economically Motivated Adulteration
• aka “Food Fraud”
• Definition: “surreptitious addition of non-authentic substances,
unwarranted substitution of ingredients, or mislabeling of food
products to gain inequitable financial advantage”
—Frederickson, N.R. (2014). Chapter 36: Food Security: Biosecurity. In Encyclopedia of
Agriculture and Food Systems (Vol. 3 pp. 311-323)
• As opposed to other intentional contamination events
(terrorism), EMA is not intended to be discovered
• As a result, EMA can maintain longevity
• Fish / Seafood is most often adulterated for economic gain
Overview
5
Incidents of Intentional Contamination
• 1981, Spain
• Cooking oil adulterated with industrial rapeseed triggered toxic oil
syndrome
• 20,000 illnesses
• 800 deaths
Overview Incidents
6
http://www.thegrocer.co.uk/fmcg/rapeseed-oil-at-tipping-point-as-it-woos-olive-oil-fans/351716.article
Incidents of Intentional Contamination
• 1984, Oregon USA
• Salmonella typhimurium introduced into 10 salad bars by Rajneeshee
cult
• Aiming to influence a local election
• 751 illnesses
Overview Incidents
7
https://people.uwec.edu/piercech/bio/Rajneeshee%20Cult.htm
Incidents of Intentional Contamination
• 2008-2009, China
• Melamine illegally added to milk products to falsify protein content
• 300,000 illnesses
• 6 deaths
Overview Incidents
8
http://www.investigativescience.com/CON-290408p1.html
Incidents of Intentional Contamination
• October, 2012, New Jersey USA
• Cheaper ketchup repackaged into bottles for more expensive ketchup
• None made it to market
Overview Incidents
9
http://abcnewsradioonline.com/business-news/hundreds-of-fake-heinz-ketchup-bottles-discovered-in-new-jer.html
Incidents of Intentional Contamination
• October 2013, Japan
• Malathion added to frozen foods by disgruntled production line
employee
• ≤ 2,800 illnesses
• Major Recall
Overview Incidents
10
http://www.medicaldaily.com/over-1000-sick-after-eating-contaminated-food-japans-largest-seafood-
producer-266606
• Designed to improve global food protection and prevent
foodborne illness
• Ratified 2011, rule-making process underway
• Updated previous policy (1938) to reflect more high-tech and
complex food industry
Overview Incidents Policy Response
11
• Proposed Rules:
• Focused mitigation strategies to protect food against intentional
adulteration (IA)
• Foreign supplier verification
• Preventative controls for
• Human food
• Animal feed
• Standards for produce safety
• Accreditation of 3rd party auditors
• Sanitary transportation of human and animal food
Overview Incidents Policy Response
12
Food Defense Plan Builder
• Food defense plan – written document recording practices
implemented to control and/or minimize the risk of
intentional contamination
• Available through FDA
• Incorporates:
• Broad mitigation strategies
• Vulnerability assessment
• Focused mitigation strategies
• Emergency contact network
• Action plans
Overview Incidents Policy Response
13
Food Defense Preparedness System
Based on Presidential Policy Directive 8
1. Prevent
2. Protect
3. Mitigate
4. Respond
5. Recover
Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness
Comprehensive food defense
strategy incorporates all 5
frameworks
14
Food Defense Preparedness System
• Prevention
Adversary does not attempt to adulterate food
• How do we eliminate the opportunity to adulterate?
• How do we remove the motivation to adulterate?
Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness
15
Food Defense Preparedness System
• Protection
Block the adversary’s attempt
• What needs securing?
• How do we vigilantly look for anomalies?
Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness
16
Food Defense Preparedness System
• Mitigation
Minimize the adverse health and economic effects
• What can we do to lessen the impact?
Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness
17
Food Defense Preparedness System
• Response
Stop the spread of adverse effects, provide care to
those affected
• What response actions are needed?
• How do we inform / instruct the public?
Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness
18
Food Defense Preparedness System
• Recovery
Return to normal commerce, better prepared
• How do we return to normal?
• How do we gather lessons learned and adapt?
Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness
19
CARVER+Shock
• Risk Assessment tool – vulnerability assessment:
• Criticality – degree of public health or economic consequence
• Accessibility – ability of adversary to access / egress point of contamination
• Recuperability – delay required to bring system back into recovery
• Vulnerability – potential for successful attack – ability to introduce enough of
agent to survive control steps and cause harm to consumer.
• Effect – direct loss from attack, measured in lost production in food system
• Recognizability – ease of target identification
• Shock – combined health, economic, and psychological impacts of attack
Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness CARVER+Shock
20
CARVER+Shock
• Facility vs. Supply Chain
Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness CARVER+Shock
Vulnerability
• Gaps in
defense
Threat
• Adversary’s
resources and
capacities
Consequence
• Human & economic
impact of attack
RISK
21
CARVER+Shock Exercise
• Study the flow-map of the Frozen Pizza Plant
• Consider the following: environment, location, timing,
equipment, barriers, worker observation, etc.
• For each station (#1-#15) score for Vulnerability and for
Accessibility
• There is no wrong answer, use your professional
judgment
Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness CARVER+Shock Exercise
22
23
Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness CARVER+Shock Exercise
References
• Slides adapted from the National Center for Food Protection and Defense’s “Food
Defense Training” slides from the Food Defense Conference (September 17,2014) and
Jon Woody / USDA’s “Vulnerability Assessment” slides (same date / location).
Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness CARVER+Shock Exercise
24

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Food Defense Presentation.pptx

  • 1. FOOD DEFENSE TRAINING FOOD PROTECTION TASK FORCE & RAPID RESPONSE TEAM MEETING Brandon Sauceda, MPH RRT Program Manager Georgia Department of Agriculture Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness CARVER+Shock Exercise 1
  • 2. Overview Food Defense: protection from contamination • Biological, chemical, physical, radiological agents Food Security: access to sufficient quantity / quality of nutritious food Food Safety: protection from contamination • Agents likely to occur in food supply unintentional intentional 2
  • 4. Overview - “Figure 2: Confirmed malicious contaminations of food around the world.” Frederickson, N.R. (2014). Chapter 36: Food Security: Biosecurity. In Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems (Vol. 3 pp. 311-323) 4
  • 5. Economically Motivated Adulteration • aka “Food Fraud” • Definition: “surreptitious addition of non-authentic substances, unwarranted substitution of ingredients, or mislabeling of food products to gain inequitable financial advantage” —Frederickson, N.R. (2014). Chapter 36: Food Security: Biosecurity. In Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems (Vol. 3 pp. 311-323) • As opposed to other intentional contamination events (terrorism), EMA is not intended to be discovered • As a result, EMA can maintain longevity • Fish / Seafood is most often adulterated for economic gain Overview 5
  • 6. Incidents of Intentional Contamination • 1981, Spain • Cooking oil adulterated with industrial rapeseed triggered toxic oil syndrome • 20,000 illnesses • 800 deaths Overview Incidents 6 http://www.thegrocer.co.uk/fmcg/rapeseed-oil-at-tipping-point-as-it-woos-olive-oil-fans/351716.article
  • 7. Incidents of Intentional Contamination • 1984, Oregon USA • Salmonella typhimurium introduced into 10 salad bars by Rajneeshee cult • Aiming to influence a local election • 751 illnesses Overview Incidents 7 https://people.uwec.edu/piercech/bio/Rajneeshee%20Cult.htm
  • 8. Incidents of Intentional Contamination • 2008-2009, China • Melamine illegally added to milk products to falsify protein content • 300,000 illnesses • 6 deaths Overview Incidents 8 http://www.investigativescience.com/CON-290408p1.html
  • 9. Incidents of Intentional Contamination • October, 2012, New Jersey USA • Cheaper ketchup repackaged into bottles for more expensive ketchup • None made it to market Overview Incidents 9 http://abcnewsradioonline.com/business-news/hundreds-of-fake-heinz-ketchup-bottles-discovered-in-new-jer.html
  • 10. Incidents of Intentional Contamination • October 2013, Japan • Malathion added to frozen foods by disgruntled production line employee • ≤ 2,800 illnesses • Major Recall Overview Incidents 10 http://www.medicaldaily.com/over-1000-sick-after-eating-contaminated-food-japans-largest-seafood- producer-266606
  • 11. • Designed to improve global food protection and prevent foodborne illness • Ratified 2011, rule-making process underway • Updated previous policy (1938) to reflect more high-tech and complex food industry Overview Incidents Policy Response 11
  • 12. • Proposed Rules: • Focused mitigation strategies to protect food against intentional adulteration (IA) • Foreign supplier verification • Preventative controls for • Human food • Animal feed • Standards for produce safety • Accreditation of 3rd party auditors • Sanitary transportation of human and animal food Overview Incidents Policy Response 12
  • 13. Food Defense Plan Builder • Food defense plan – written document recording practices implemented to control and/or minimize the risk of intentional contamination • Available through FDA • Incorporates: • Broad mitigation strategies • Vulnerability assessment • Focused mitigation strategies • Emergency contact network • Action plans Overview Incidents Policy Response 13
  • 14. Food Defense Preparedness System Based on Presidential Policy Directive 8 1. Prevent 2. Protect 3. Mitigate 4. Respond 5. Recover Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness Comprehensive food defense strategy incorporates all 5 frameworks 14
  • 15. Food Defense Preparedness System • Prevention Adversary does not attempt to adulterate food • How do we eliminate the opportunity to adulterate? • How do we remove the motivation to adulterate? Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness 15
  • 16. Food Defense Preparedness System • Protection Block the adversary’s attempt • What needs securing? • How do we vigilantly look for anomalies? Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness 16
  • 17. Food Defense Preparedness System • Mitigation Minimize the adverse health and economic effects • What can we do to lessen the impact? Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness 17
  • 18. Food Defense Preparedness System • Response Stop the spread of adverse effects, provide care to those affected • What response actions are needed? • How do we inform / instruct the public? Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness 18
  • 19. Food Defense Preparedness System • Recovery Return to normal commerce, better prepared • How do we return to normal? • How do we gather lessons learned and adapt? Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness 19
  • 20. CARVER+Shock • Risk Assessment tool – vulnerability assessment: • Criticality – degree of public health or economic consequence • Accessibility – ability of adversary to access / egress point of contamination • Recuperability – delay required to bring system back into recovery • Vulnerability – potential for successful attack – ability to introduce enough of agent to survive control steps and cause harm to consumer. • Effect – direct loss from attack, measured in lost production in food system • Recognizability – ease of target identification • Shock – combined health, economic, and psychological impacts of attack Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness CARVER+Shock 20
  • 21. CARVER+Shock • Facility vs. Supply Chain Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness CARVER+Shock Vulnerability • Gaps in defense Threat • Adversary’s resources and capacities Consequence • Human & economic impact of attack RISK 21
  • 22. CARVER+Shock Exercise • Study the flow-map of the Frozen Pizza Plant • Consider the following: environment, location, timing, equipment, barriers, worker observation, etc. • For each station (#1-#15) score for Vulnerability and for Accessibility • There is no wrong answer, use your professional judgment Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness CARVER+Shock Exercise 22
  • 23. 23 Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness CARVER+Shock Exercise
  • 24. References • Slides adapted from the National Center for Food Protection and Defense’s “Food Defense Training” slides from the Food Defense Conference (September 17,2014) and Jon Woody / USDA’s “Vulnerability Assessment” slides (same date / location). Overview Incidents Policy Response Preparedness CARVER+Shock Exercise 24

Editor's Notes

  1. Not listed: extortion, political assassination or coercion, interpersonal conflict
  2. Note that this does NOT contain EMA