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Steiner proposed the appraisal of
various parts of the skull separately
Entails relating the upper and the lower
jaw to the skull and to each other
Entails relating the upper and lower
incisor teeth to their respective jaw and
to each other
Provide the means of assessing the
balance and harmony of lower facial
Used anterior cranial base (sella-nasion)
as a reference line
The advantage is the two midline points
moved minimal amount when the head
deviate from the true profile position
Point A is not an ideal reference point
SNA noted to determine maxilla is
positioned anteriorly or posteriorly to the
To determine is whether mandible is
protrusive or recessive related to cranial
base the SNB angle is noted.
Relationship of Maxilla and
According to steiner his major concern is
the ANB angle
ANB angle provide a general idea of the
anteroposterior discrepancy of the
maxillary to the mandibular apical bases
Drawn through the region of the
overlapping cusps of the first premolars
and first molars.
The mandibular plane is drawn between
gonion (GO) and gnathion (Gn).
Relating to anterior cranial base.
Is a graphic record of visual observation
of clinical examination of patients
lips should touch a line extending from
the soft tissue contour of the chin to the
middle of the lower boarder of the nose
Cephalometry must not be regarded as
a numbers game in which the measured
parameters of the tracing must
approximate those of normal occlusion
or the dentofacial skeletal pattern