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Deaths in Police Custody
Derrick Campbell
IPCC Commissioner
Introduction
• Statutory duty to refer deaths and serious injury to IPCC
• IPCC considers circumstances of all referrals t...
Deaths during or following police
contact - 2012/13
• 15 deaths in or following police custody, the same
figure as the pre...
Trend data - 2004/05 to
2012/13
Category
Fatalities
04/05 05/06 06/07 07/08 08/09 09/10 10/11 11/12 12/13
Road traffic
fat...
Incidents by type of death and
investigation type, 2012/13
Road traffic
fatalities

Fatal
shootings

Deaths in or
followin...
Road Traffic Fatalities (RTI)
2012/13
• 30 people, 24 men and six women, died in 23 police-related
road traffic incidents
...
Deaths in or following police custody
2012/13
• 14 men and one woman died in police custody
• Four were known to have been...
Deaths in or following police
custody: cause of death, 2012/13
Cause of death
Heart disease / cardiac arrest
Asphyxiation*...
Other deaths following police
contact 2012/13
• In 17 of the 21 deaths police were contacted as a
result of concerns being...
Apparent suicides following police
custody: reason for detention, 2012/13
Reason for detention
Sexual offences
Violence re...
Type of death by ethnicity,
2012/13
Road traffic
fatalities
Ethnic
group
White

N
22

%
73

Fatal
shootings

N
0

%
-

Dea...
IPCC investigations
Investigator
responsibilities:
- Undertakes investigation
- Family liaison
- Final report

Commissione...
Learning
• Head injuries being masked by alcohol or drugs
• Intoxication changed to drunk and incapable
• Adherence to PAC...
Learning the Lessons
• The IPCC publishes a regular
bulletin to help the police
service learn lessons from
investigations ...
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A presentation detailing the numbers of death following or during police contact and trends by IPCC Commissioner Derrick Campbell to a conference hosted by the west Midlands Police and Crime Commissioner.

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A presentation detailing the numbers of death following or during police contact and trends by IPCC Commissioner Derrick Campbell to a conference hosted by the west Midlands Police and Crime Commissioner.

  1. 1. Deaths in Police Custody Derrick Campbell IPCC Commissioner
  2. 2. Introduction • Statutory duty to refer deaths and serious injury to IPCC • IPCC considers circumstances of all referrals to determine if they meet criteria for inclusion in the annual report under the following categories: • Road traffic fatalities • Fatal shootings • Deaths in or following police custody • Other deaths following police contact • Apparent suicides following police custody
  3. 3. Deaths during or following police contact - 2012/13 • 15 deaths in or following police custody, the same figure as the previous year • No fatal police shootings, for the first time since the IPCC started work in 2004 • 30 road traffic fatalities, up from 19 the previous year • 64 apparent suicides following police custody, up from 39 the previous year • 21 other deaths following police contact that were subject to an IPCC independent investigation, down from 47 the previous year • Mental health continued to be a key factor in deaths
  4. 4. Trend data - 2004/05 to 2012/13 Category Fatalities 04/05 05/06 06/07 07/08 08/09 09/10 10/11 11/12 12/13 Road traffic fatalities Fatal shootings Deaths in or following police custody Apparent suicides following custody Other deaths following police contact 44 48 36 24 40 29 26 19~ 30 3 5 1 5 3 2 2 2 0 36 28 27 22 15 17 21 15 15 46 40 47 45^ 56 54 46 39 64 24 40 22 30 35 38 52* 47 21
  5. 5. Incidents by type of death and investigation type, 2012/13 Road traffic fatalities Fatal shootings Deaths in or following police custody N % Apparent suicides following custody N % N % N % 10 43 0 - 9 60 4 0 - 0 - 0 - 0 - 0 - 0 12 52 0 - 1 Type of investigation Independent 4 0 23 100 0 Other deaths following police contact* N % 6 19 100 0 - 0 - - 0 - 0 - 6 40 15 23 0 - - 0 - 45 70 0 - - 15 100 64 100 19 100 Managed Supervised Local Back to force Total incidents
  6. 6. Road Traffic Fatalities (RTI) 2012/13 • 30 people, 24 men and six women, died in 23 police-related road traffic incidents • There were 19 fatal police pursuit incidents accounting for 26 of the deaths – 13 of the deaths were from six such incidents • 18 of the deceased were the driver/passenger in a pursued vehicle and died when their vehicle crashed • Eight people died as a pedestrian/cyclist or after their vehicle was hit by a car being pursued by police
  7. 7. Deaths in or following police custody 2012/13 • 14 men and one woman died in police custody • Four were known to have been restrained by police officers at some point prior to their death • Nine people had a link to alcohol and drugs
  8. 8. Deaths in or following police custody: cause of death, 2012/13 Cause of death Heart disease / cardiac arrest Asphyxiation* Multiple injuries Drug / alcohol overdose Gun shot wound Long-term illness Inconclusive Awaited Total fatalities Number of fatalities 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 5 15
  9. 9. Other deaths following police contact 2012/13 • In 17 of the 21 deaths police were contacted as a result of concerns being raised over an individual’s safety or well-being • Domestic-related concern for welfare cases generally account for the highest proportion of incidents in this category, followed by health / injuries / general and then self-harm / suicide risk / mental health.
  10. 10. Apparent suicides following police custody: reason for detention, 2012/13 Reason for detention Sexual offences Violence related (non sexual) / threatening behaviour / harassment Driving offence, including drink driving Detained under the Mental Health Act Theft / shoplifting Breach of peace / public order / criminal damage Drug / alcohol related (exc. drink driving) Breach of bail / orders Other Total fatalities Number of fatalities 18 17 8 7 5 4 2 2 1 64
  11. 11. Type of death by ethnicity, 2012/13 Road traffic fatalities Ethnic group White N 22 % 73 Fatal shootings N 0 % - Deaths in or following police custody N 14 % 93 Apparent suicides following custody N 57 % Other deaths following police contact N 18 % 86 1 5 1 5 0 - 1 5 0 - 21 100 89 Asian 4 13 0 - 0 - 3 5 Black 3 10 0 - 0 - 1 2 Mixed 0 - 0 - 1 7 1 2 Chinese / Other Not known 1 3 0 - 0 - 1 2 0 - 0 - 0 - 1 2 Total fatalities 30 100 0 - 15 100 64 100
  12. 12. IPCC investigations Investigator responsibilities: - Undertakes investigation - Family liaison - Final report Commissioner responsibilities: - Agrees Mode of Investigation Agrees terms of reference Media handling Appoints Lead Investigator Agrees final report Powers: -Arrest and detention -Require production of material -Entry into police premises -Surveillance
  13. 13. Learning • Head injuries being masked by alcohol or drugs • Intoxication changed to drunk and incapable • Adherence to PACE code C Annex H with respect to risk assessing, checking and rousing • Risk assessments should be passed on throughout different custody environments • Contracted staff should be trained and aware of role • Restraint used during arrest should be provided to the custody officer during risk assessment
  14. 14. Learning the Lessons • The IPCC publishes a regular bulletin to help the police service learn lessons from investigations and other operations of the police complaints and conduct system. • Bulletin 16 covers custody

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