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Knowledge and Attitude of Prosthodontic Post Graduates on COVID 19: A Qualitative Research

DrHeena tiwari
DrHeena tiwari
DrHeena tiwaripublic health student at thakur dental clinic

Knowledge and Attitude of Prosthodontic Post Graduates on COVID 19: A Qualitative Research

Knowledge and Attitude of Prosthodontic Post Graduates on COVID 19: A Qualitative Research

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Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN:1583-6258, Vol. 25, Issue 6, 2021, Pages. 10871 - 10878
Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021.
10871
http://annalsofrscb.ro
Knowledge and Attitude of Prosthodontic Post Graduates on COVID 19: A
Qualitative Research
Dr Vineet Sharma1
, Dr.Madhuri Rao2
, Dr Preeti Budhwar3
, Dr.KiranKunwar Rathore4
, Dr
Amrita Sandhu5
, Dr Kripal Rai6
, Dr.Heena Tiwari7
.
1
MDS Prosthodontics, Medical Officer (Dental), R.U.H.S. College of Dental Sciences,
Jaipur, Rajasthan.drvineetsharmaa@gmail.com
2
MDS, Private practioner, Consultant Prosthodontist, Udupi, Karnataka.
madhuri.rao169@gmail.com
3
MDS, Consultant Prosthodontist and Implantologist, Clove Dental Corporate Hospitals,
Rohtak, Haryana.dr.preeti1992@gmail.com
4
Senior Lecturer, Dept of Prosthodontics Crown Bridge and Implantalogy, Army College Of
Dental Sciences, secunderabad. Kiran1990.rathore@gmail.com
5
Senior Lecturer, Department of Prosthodontics,Srinivas Institute of Dental Sciences,
Mangalore, Karnataka. amritasandhu1509@gmail.com
6
Senior Lecturer, Department of Public Health Dentistry,Srinivas Institute of Dental
Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka. kripal2005@gmail.com
7
BDS, PGDHHM, MPH Student, ParulUniveristy, Limda, Waghodia, Vadodara, Gujrat,
India.drheenatiwari@gmail.com
Corresponding Author: Dr Vineet Sharma, MDS Prosthodontics, Medical Officer (Dental),
R.U.H.S. College of Dental Sciences, Jaipur, Rajasthan. drvineetsharmaa@gmail.com
ABSTRACT-
Background:The disease caused by novel corona virus (COVID-19) is a pandemic. The
World Health Organization officially declared COVID-19 as a pandemic on March 11, 2020.
The source of the disease is unknown but its routes of transmission are person to person via
hands, saliva, nasal droplets and surface contacts. Dental professionals are particularly at risk
due to the nature of their clinical work. The prosthodontic dentists have to deal with geriatric
patients who are at risk.
Materials and Methods:The risk factors are aged people with additional medical co-
morbidities like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease, and other cardiovascular conditions are more prone to develop a severe form of the
disease. Majority of these risk factors are seen in old patients who form a major part of
prosthodontic practise. Hence a survey was carried out to know the knowledge of the
prosthodontic post-graduate students on COVID-19.
Results:A total of 60 participants. 80% has adequate training in COVID 19. 61.6% were
confident managing patients with required precautions during COVID 19 pandemic. 63.6%
aware of the authority to contact if you come across a suspected COVID 19 patient. 96.6%
agreed that the pandemic has affected your academic activities
Conclusion:A better understanding of aerosol transmission and its implication in dentistry
can help us identify and rectify negligence in daily dental practice. In addition to the standard
precautions, implementation of special precautions could preventdisease transmission from
asymptomatic carriers. These special precautions would not only help control the spread of
COVID-19 but also serve as a guide for managing other respiratory diseases.
Keywords –Prosthodontic, coronavirus, social distancing, hand hygiene, disinfection
INTRODUCTION -
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 was first identified
in Wuhan. The World Health Organization officially declared COVID-19 as a pandemic on
Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN:1583-6258, Vol. 25, Issue 6, 2021, Pages. 10871 - 10878
Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021.
10872
http://annalsofrscb.ro
March 11, 2020 [1]. It is caused by a new strain of novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2). The
subgroups of coronaviruses family are alpha(a), beta (ß), gamma (.) and delta (d) coronavirus
. This virus affects humans infecting their respiratory, gastrointestinal and central nervous
system. All of these belong to ß-CoV Alpha and beta coronaviruses mainly cause disease.
Although the source of origin and transfer to humans is still unclear, current evidence has
confirmed that COVID-19 is highly transmittable and that the predominant route of
transmission is human-to-human[2,3] .SARS CoV-2 is phylogenetically related to the two
highly pathogenic respiratory coronaviruses i.e Severe acute respiratory syndrome
coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS -
CoV)[4,5]. Structurally, COVID-19 is an ss-RNA, enveloped virus with a size of ~350
kilobase-pair (kbp). COVID-19 has the potential to cause severe acute respiratory tract
infection among infected humans and is commonly transmitted from person to person via
hands, saliva, nasal droplets, and surface contacts. The average incubation period ranges of
COVID-19 from 4 to 14 days . The infectedperson usually presents with upper respiratory
tract infection (RTI) and complaints of high-grade fever, a dry cough, and dyspnoea. It is
highly recommended to keep any suspected individuals in quarantine (isolation) and under
observation until further investigation by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
can take place [2]. COVID can progress in different stages, such as mild, moderate, and
severe.[6,7,8] Dental professionals are particularly at risk due to the nature of their clinical
work. Well-meaning dentists who want to serve the needs of their patients as they should may
be spreading the virus faster and extensively, without being aware of it. [9,10] The
prosthodontist defiance will be more because of many elements; exposure to blood during
pre-prosthetic surgery and implant placement, exposure to aerosols during tooth preparation
for crown and bridge, and abundant salivary concentration in dentures and measurement
trays. All of these mentioned factors with the majority of prosthesis patients who belongs to
old age group mainly susceptible to infection easily and long multiple visiting appointments
making the prosthodontist in front of distinctive challenge to guarantee dual safety at every
appointment and in every step of work [5]. The prosthodontist is very familiar with universal
personal protective equipment and other cross infection control measures and risk assessment
[6]. The current epidemiological data shows COVID-19 has higher transmissibility than
SARS-CoV and MERS CoV. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the saliva and faeces has been
identified in infected patients. Incubation period for COVID-19 is between 2 to 14 days and it
can also be transmitted through asymptomatic patients. Thus, social distancing, proper hand
hygiene and surface disinfection are highly recommended to stop its rapid spread. In this
process, dentists may provide routes for virus transmission from unrecognized COVID-19-
infected patients and patients under surveillance [7,8]
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A survey questionnaire was circulated amongst the post graduate students of the prosthetic
department.The provider’s demographics of gender, age and the year they are studying in
during COVID pandemic is to be filled in. Also, the respondents consent regarding their
participation in the survey – “ if they are willing to participate in the survey ? “ is recorded.
The remaining seven questions were to assess the practise, knowledge and experience of the
respondents regarding the ongoing COVID pandemic. The questions were mostly based on
the behaviour of the prosthodontic students and how they carried themselves and practised
during the ongoing COVID pandemic.
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS :
The data was obtained and analysed.(Table 1,2). A total of 60 participants. 80% has adequate
training in COVID 19. 61.6% were confident managing patients with required precautions
Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN:1583-6258, Vol. 25, Issue 6, 2021, Pages. 10871 - 10878
Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021.
10873
http://annalsofrscb.ro
during COVID 19 pandemic. 63.6% aware of the authority to contact if you come across a
suspected COVID 19 patient. 96.6% agreed that the pandemic has affected your academic
activities.
TABLE 1: CUMULATIVE RESPONSES FOR DIFFERENT BATCHES OF POST
GRADUATE STUDENTS
Questionnaire Total post graduate
students (n=60)(%)
Attending college/university 60 (100%)
Are you awareness of the guidelines issued by the DCI for dental
colleges
60 (100%)
Do you follow the guidelines in your department? 60 (100%)
The training provided to me in COVID 19 infection prevention
and control was
adequate – 48 (80%)
inadequate- 12 (20%)
Are you confident managing patients with required precautions
during COVID 19 pandemic?
Yes -37 (61.6%)
No-20(33.3%)
Maybe-3(5%)
Are you aware of the authority to contact if you come across a
suspected COVID 19 patient?
Yes -38(63.3%)
No-15(25%)
Maybe-7(11.6%)
Do you agree the pandemic has affected your academic
activities?
Strongly agree-58(96.6%)
Agree-2(3.4%)
Neutral -0
Disagree-0
Strongly disagree-0
TABLE 2: RESPONSES FOR DIFFERENT BATCHES OF POST GRADUATE
STUDENTS
Questionnaire I MDS
(n=20)(%)
II MDS
(n=20)(%)
III MDS
(n=20)(%)
Attending college/university 20 (100%) 20 (100%) 20 (100%)
Are you awareness of the guidelines
issued by the DCI for dental colleges
20 (100%) 20 (100%) 20 (100%)
Do you follow the guidelines in your
department?
20 (100%) 20 (100%) 20(100%)
The training provided to me in COVID 19
infection prevention and control was
adequate –
15(75%)
inadequate-
5(25%)
Adequate-
18(90%)
Inadequate-
2(10%)
adequate –
15(75%)
inadequate-
5(25%)
Are you confident managing patients with
required precautions during COVID 19
pandemic?
Yes -10 (50%)
No-8(40%)
Maybe-2(10%)
Yes -
12(60%)
No-7(35%)
Maybe-
1(5%)
Yes -15(75%)
No-5(25%)
Maybe-0
Are you aware of the authority to contact
if you come across a suspected COVID 19
patient?
Yes -8(40%)
No-5(25%)
Maybe-7(35%)
Yes -
15(75%)
No-5(25%)
Yes -15(75%)
No-5(25%)
Maybe-0
Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN:1583-6258, Vol. 25, Issue 6, 2021, Pages. 10871 - 10878
Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021.
10874
http://annalsofrscb.ro
Maybe-0
Do you agree the pandemic has affected
your academic activities?
Strongly agree-
18(90%)
Agree-2(10%)
Neutral -0
Disagree-0
Strongly
disagree-0
Strongly
agree-
20(100%)
Agree-0
Neutral -0
Disagree-0
Strongly
disagree-0
Strongly
agree-
20(100%)
Agree-0
Neutral 0-
Disagree-0
Strongly
disagree-0
TABLE 3. COMMON TREATMENT URGENCIES IN PROSTHODONTIC
CLINICAL PRACTICE
• Pain with
diffuse
infection-
causing
extraoral and/
or intraoral
swelling that can
compromise the
patient’s airway
• Fractured
prosthesis
or soft tissue
trauma from
denture
• Cementation of
crown or bridge
• Severe pain
from
tooth fracture
from
biting or trauma
• Severe pain
from
pulpal infection
or
inflammation
• Localized
dental/
periodontal
abscess
• Fracture of
removable or
fixed
prosthesis
causing
soft tissue injury
• Deboned fixed
prosthesis
cleaning
and cementation
• Severe pain
from
tooth fracture
that
need to be
managed
by generating
aerosol
• Severe pain
from
pulpal
inflammation
that need to
be managed by
generating
aerosol
• Removable
dentures
adjustments for
radiation
• Removable
dentures
adjustments or
repairs for
normal
patients
•Asymptomatic
fractured or
defective
restoration
or prosthesis
• Chronic
periodontal
disease
•Examination of
the fully
edentulous
patient
• Restorative
treatments
• Aesthetic
dental
procedures
• Teeth
bleaching
• Dental implant
surgery
Emergency
Treatments
Managed with
Minimally
Invasive
Procedures and
Without Aerosol
Generation
Managed with
Invasive
and/or Aerosol-
Generating
Procedures
Nonroutine
Treatments
Routine
Treatments
Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN:1583-6258, Vol. 25, Issue 6, 2021, Pages. 10871 - 10878
Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021.
10875
http://annalsofrscb.ro
therapy
patients
TABLE 4 : PROTOCOL FOR THE STERILIZATION OF THE DENTAL
IMPRESSION.
Type of
disinfection
Disinfectant Recommended
concentration
Type of
impression
material
Time of
exposure
Commercial
preparation
High level
disinfection
Glutaraldehyde 2% Irreversible
hydrocolloid
10 min Cidex
Zinc oxide
eugenol
10 min
Poysulfide
Polyether
10 min
Addition
silicone
10 min
Intermediate
level
disinfection
Sodium hypo-
chlorite
0.5 %
Or
200 – 5000
PPM
Impression
compound.
Irreversible
hydrocolloid,
Zinc oxide
Eugenol.
Polysulfide’
Polyether,
Addition
silicone
10 min Purex
Clorox
Chloramine
T
Iodophores 1 – 2% 10 min Betadine
Hy-sine
Ioprep
Phenols 1 – 3% 10 min Lysol
Dettol
Hi-phene
Alcohols 60 – 90% 10 min Isopropyl alcohol
Chlorhexidine 2 – 4% 10 min Savlon
Low level disinfection Quaternary ammonium
compounds
Simple phenol detergents
Not recommended for
impression disinfection
Stone casts Spray or immerse in hypochlorite or
iodophor
Fixed (metal/porcelain) Immerse in gutaraldehyde
Wax rims or bites Spray-wipe-spray with iodophors
DISCUSSION:
Pandemic of COVID-19 has led to global crisis. The rapid surge of COVID-19 disease has
not only raised widespread public health concerns but has collapsed world’s economy. It has
put immense strain on social stability and the global health systems. When a person coughs,
sneezes, laughs, or talks, large (>5 µm diameter) and small (=5 µm diameter) droplets or
Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN:1583-6258, Vol. 25, Issue 6, 2021, Pages. 10871 - 10878
Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021.
10876
http://annalsofrscb.ro
aerosols are generated. Due to gravity, larger droplets fall to the ground quickly;
therefore,droplet transmission requires close physical proximity between an infected
individual and a susceptible individual. On the other hand, small droplets or small particle
residues of evaporated droplets have a low settling velocity, so they may remain in the air for
alonger time and travel further before they can enter the respiratory tract or contaminate
surfaces (WHO, 2014) [9]. The risk factors are aged people with additional medical co-
morbidities like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease, and other cardiovascular conditions are more prone to develop a severe form of the
disease [2]. Majority of these risk factors are seen in old patients who form a major part of
prosthodontic practise. Hence, it is essential for the practising prosthodontic dentists to take
utmost care to contract COVID-19 as well as pass it to other geriatric patients. (Table 3)
Hand Hygiene
Hand washing is one of the most frequently emphasized measures by WHO and healthcare
authorities to limit the spread of coronavirus. Reinforcement of good hand hygiene for both
patients and dental professionals is vital as appropriate hand washing protocol may not be
followed on some occasions which can create unnecessary challenges for infection control
during a pandemic. It has been suggested that dental professionals must wash their hands
before examining a patient, prior to any dental procedure, after contacting the patient, and
after touching any equipment and surrounding surfaces without disinfection. Hands must be
washed also after any direct contact with oral mucosa, wounds or damaged skin, blood, body
fluid, saliva and excreta. Dental professionals must avoid touching their own eyes, nose and
mouth until it safe to do so[12].During the pandemic too, prosthodontic postgraduate
students have to deal with emergency like situations. The various procedures undertaken by
a prosthodontist can be classified asAlso, it becomes very essential that all the prosthetic
procedures carried out for should be carried out under proper and appropriate
protocol.Various protocols have been suggested for different clinical procedures. Different
procedures like impression making, tooth preparation for crown and bridge prosthesis,
denture try-in and trimming, etc. require proper sterilization. An example of the protocol for
the sterilization of the dental impression is given below in Table 4. Also, the disinfection of
wax rims, casts, prosthesis and cast is to be done by the given protocol. Currently, there is not
a practical solution to avoid generation of aerosols mixed with patient’s blood and saliva, and
this creates great concerns regarding transmission of COVID-19 pathogenic agents to the
dental team and patients. Moreover, aerosol can stay airborne for an extended length of time
entering the patients’ and dental professionals’ body through respiratory tract. The aerosol
can also settle on the surfaces of the dental surgery and instruments making cross-
contamination between the attendees to the dental surgery highly possible in the absence of.
Effective and rigorous cross-infection control protocols [12,15]. Use of alcohol-based hand
rubs with at least 60% ethanol or isopropanol has also been documented as a simple and
effective cross-infection control technique which can inactivate enveloped viruses, including
coronaviruses [12].
CONCLUSION-
As COVID-19 has altered the lifestyle all over the globe. Considering the routes of COVID-
19 transmission, even we as dental professionals have to alter and follow standard protocols
for preventing the spread of infection. Dentists must have thorough knowledge about the
signs and symptoms and follow strict infection control measures in such clinical situations.
Without the potential to prevent community infection, prevention of health care transmission
will remain a challenge [2,5,10]. It is advisable to instruct the patients before attending the
dental office to take clinical screening and it’s preferred for both dentalprofessionals and

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Knowledge and Attitude of Prosthodontic Post Graduates on COVID 19: A Qualitative Research

  • 1. Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN:1583-6258, Vol. 25, Issue 6, 2021, Pages. 10871 - 10878 Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021. 10871 http://annalsofrscb.ro Knowledge and Attitude of Prosthodontic Post Graduates on COVID 19: A Qualitative Research Dr Vineet Sharma1 , Dr.Madhuri Rao2 , Dr Preeti Budhwar3 , Dr.KiranKunwar Rathore4 , Dr Amrita Sandhu5 , Dr Kripal Rai6 , Dr.Heena Tiwari7 . 1 MDS Prosthodontics, Medical Officer (Dental), R.U.H.S. College of Dental Sciences, Jaipur, Rajasthan.drvineetsharmaa@gmail.com 2 MDS, Private practioner, Consultant Prosthodontist, Udupi, Karnataka. madhuri.rao169@gmail.com 3 MDS, Consultant Prosthodontist and Implantologist, Clove Dental Corporate Hospitals, Rohtak, Haryana.dr.preeti1992@gmail.com 4 Senior Lecturer, Dept of Prosthodontics Crown Bridge and Implantalogy, Army College Of Dental Sciences, secunderabad. Kiran1990.rathore@gmail.com 5 Senior Lecturer, Department of Prosthodontics,Srinivas Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka. amritasandhu1509@gmail.com 6 Senior Lecturer, Department of Public Health Dentistry,Srinivas Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka. kripal2005@gmail.com 7 BDS, PGDHHM, MPH Student, ParulUniveristy, Limda, Waghodia, Vadodara, Gujrat, India.drheenatiwari@gmail.com Corresponding Author: Dr Vineet Sharma, MDS Prosthodontics, Medical Officer (Dental), R.U.H.S. College of Dental Sciences, Jaipur, Rajasthan. drvineetsharmaa@gmail.com ABSTRACT- Background:The disease caused by novel corona virus (COVID-19) is a pandemic. The World Health Organization officially declared COVID-19 as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. The source of the disease is unknown but its routes of transmission are person to person via hands, saliva, nasal droplets and surface contacts. Dental professionals are particularly at risk due to the nature of their clinical work. The prosthodontic dentists have to deal with geriatric patients who are at risk. Materials and Methods:The risk factors are aged people with additional medical co- morbidities like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other cardiovascular conditions are more prone to develop a severe form of the disease. Majority of these risk factors are seen in old patients who form a major part of prosthodontic practise. Hence a survey was carried out to know the knowledge of the prosthodontic post-graduate students on COVID-19. Results:A total of 60 participants. 80% has adequate training in COVID 19. 61.6% were confident managing patients with required precautions during COVID 19 pandemic. 63.6% aware of the authority to contact if you come across a suspected COVID 19 patient. 96.6% agreed that the pandemic has affected your academic activities Conclusion:A better understanding of aerosol transmission and its implication in dentistry can help us identify and rectify negligence in daily dental practice. In addition to the standard precautions, implementation of special precautions could preventdisease transmission from asymptomatic carriers. These special precautions would not only help control the spread of COVID-19 but also serve as a guide for managing other respiratory diseases. Keywords –Prosthodontic, coronavirus, social distancing, hand hygiene, disinfection INTRODUCTION - The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 was first identified in Wuhan. The World Health Organization officially declared COVID-19 as a pandemic on
  • 2. Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN:1583-6258, Vol. 25, Issue 6, 2021, Pages. 10871 - 10878 Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021. 10872 http://annalsofrscb.ro March 11, 2020 [1]. It is caused by a new strain of novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2). The subgroups of coronaviruses family are alpha(a), beta (ß), gamma (.) and delta (d) coronavirus . This virus affects humans infecting their respiratory, gastrointestinal and central nervous system. All of these belong to ß-CoV Alpha and beta coronaviruses mainly cause disease. Although the source of origin and transfer to humans is still unclear, current evidence has confirmed that COVID-19 is highly transmittable and that the predominant route of transmission is human-to-human[2,3] .SARS CoV-2 is phylogenetically related to the two highly pathogenic respiratory coronaviruses i.e Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS - CoV)[4,5]. Structurally, COVID-19 is an ss-RNA, enveloped virus with a size of ~350 kilobase-pair (kbp). COVID-19 has the potential to cause severe acute respiratory tract infection among infected humans and is commonly transmitted from person to person via hands, saliva, nasal droplets, and surface contacts. The average incubation period ranges of COVID-19 from 4 to 14 days . The infectedperson usually presents with upper respiratory tract infection (RTI) and complaints of high-grade fever, a dry cough, and dyspnoea. It is highly recommended to keep any suspected individuals in quarantine (isolation) and under observation until further investigation by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) can take place [2]. COVID can progress in different stages, such as mild, moderate, and severe.[6,7,8] Dental professionals are particularly at risk due to the nature of their clinical work. Well-meaning dentists who want to serve the needs of their patients as they should may be spreading the virus faster and extensively, without being aware of it. [9,10] The prosthodontist defiance will be more because of many elements; exposure to blood during pre-prosthetic surgery and implant placement, exposure to aerosols during tooth preparation for crown and bridge, and abundant salivary concentration in dentures and measurement trays. All of these mentioned factors with the majority of prosthesis patients who belongs to old age group mainly susceptible to infection easily and long multiple visiting appointments making the prosthodontist in front of distinctive challenge to guarantee dual safety at every appointment and in every step of work [5]. The prosthodontist is very familiar with universal personal protective equipment and other cross infection control measures and risk assessment [6]. The current epidemiological data shows COVID-19 has higher transmissibility than SARS-CoV and MERS CoV. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the saliva and faeces has been identified in infected patients. Incubation period for COVID-19 is between 2 to 14 days and it can also be transmitted through asymptomatic patients. Thus, social distancing, proper hand hygiene and surface disinfection are highly recommended to stop its rapid spread. In this process, dentists may provide routes for virus transmission from unrecognized COVID-19- infected patients and patients under surveillance [7,8] MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey questionnaire was circulated amongst the post graduate students of the prosthetic department.The provider’s demographics of gender, age and the year they are studying in during COVID pandemic is to be filled in. Also, the respondents consent regarding their participation in the survey – “ if they are willing to participate in the survey ? “ is recorded. The remaining seven questions were to assess the practise, knowledge and experience of the respondents regarding the ongoing COVID pandemic. The questions were mostly based on the behaviour of the prosthodontic students and how they carried themselves and practised during the ongoing COVID pandemic. DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS : The data was obtained and analysed.(Table 1,2). A total of 60 participants. 80% has adequate training in COVID 19. 61.6% were confident managing patients with required precautions
  • 3. Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN:1583-6258, Vol. 25, Issue 6, 2021, Pages. 10871 - 10878 Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021. 10873 http://annalsofrscb.ro during COVID 19 pandemic. 63.6% aware of the authority to contact if you come across a suspected COVID 19 patient. 96.6% agreed that the pandemic has affected your academic activities. TABLE 1: CUMULATIVE RESPONSES FOR DIFFERENT BATCHES OF POST GRADUATE STUDENTS Questionnaire Total post graduate students (n=60)(%) Attending college/university 60 (100%) Are you awareness of the guidelines issued by the DCI for dental colleges 60 (100%) Do you follow the guidelines in your department? 60 (100%) The training provided to me in COVID 19 infection prevention and control was adequate – 48 (80%) inadequate- 12 (20%) Are you confident managing patients with required precautions during COVID 19 pandemic? Yes -37 (61.6%) No-20(33.3%) Maybe-3(5%) Are you aware of the authority to contact if you come across a suspected COVID 19 patient? Yes -38(63.3%) No-15(25%) Maybe-7(11.6%) Do you agree the pandemic has affected your academic activities? Strongly agree-58(96.6%) Agree-2(3.4%) Neutral -0 Disagree-0 Strongly disagree-0 TABLE 2: RESPONSES FOR DIFFERENT BATCHES OF POST GRADUATE STUDENTS Questionnaire I MDS (n=20)(%) II MDS (n=20)(%) III MDS (n=20)(%) Attending college/university 20 (100%) 20 (100%) 20 (100%) Are you awareness of the guidelines issued by the DCI for dental colleges 20 (100%) 20 (100%) 20 (100%) Do you follow the guidelines in your department? 20 (100%) 20 (100%) 20(100%) The training provided to me in COVID 19 infection prevention and control was adequate – 15(75%) inadequate- 5(25%) Adequate- 18(90%) Inadequate- 2(10%) adequate – 15(75%) inadequate- 5(25%) Are you confident managing patients with required precautions during COVID 19 pandemic? Yes -10 (50%) No-8(40%) Maybe-2(10%) Yes - 12(60%) No-7(35%) Maybe- 1(5%) Yes -15(75%) No-5(25%) Maybe-0 Are you aware of the authority to contact if you come across a suspected COVID 19 patient? Yes -8(40%) No-5(25%) Maybe-7(35%) Yes - 15(75%) No-5(25%) Yes -15(75%) No-5(25%) Maybe-0
  • 4. Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN:1583-6258, Vol. 25, Issue 6, 2021, Pages. 10871 - 10878 Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021. 10874 http://annalsofrscb.ro Maybe-0 Do you agree the pandemic has affected your academic activities? Strongly agree- 18(90%) Agree-2(10%) Neutral -0 Disagree-0 Strongly disagree-0 Strongly agree- 20(100%) Agree-0 Neutral -0 Disagree-0 Strongly disagree-0 Strongly agree- 20(100%) Agree-0 Neutral 0- Disagree-0 Strongly disagree-0 TABLE 3. COMMON TREATMENT URGENCIES IN PROSTHODONTIC CLINICAL PRACTICE • Pain with diffuse infection- causing extraoral and/ or intraoral swelling that can compromise the patient’s airway • Fractured prosthesis or soft tissue trauma from denture • Cementation of crown or bridge • Severe pain from tooth fracture from biting or trauma • Severe pain from pulpal infection or inflammation • Localized dental/ periodontal abscess • Fracture of removable or fixed prosthesis causing soft tissue injury • Deboned fixed prosthesis cleaning and cementation • Severe pain from tooth fracture that need to be managed by generating aerosol • Severe pain from pulpal inflammation that need to be managed by generating aerosol • Removable dentures adjustments for radiation • Removable dentures adjustments or repairs for normal patients •Asymptomatic fractured or defective restoration or prosthesis • Chronic periodontal disease •Examination of the fully edentulous patient • Restorative treatments • Aesthetic dental procedures • Teeth bleaching • Dental implant surgery Emergency Treatments Managed with Minimally Invasive Procedures and Without Aerosol Generation Managed with Invasive and/or Aerosol- Generating Procedures Nonroutine Treatments Routine Treatments
  • 5. Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN:1583-6258, Vol. 25, Issue 6, 2021, Pages. 10871 - 10878 Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021. 10875 http://annalsofrscb.ro therapy patients TABLE 4 : PROTOCOL FOR THE STERILIZATION OF THE DENTAL IMPRESSION. Type of disinfection Disinfectant Recommended concentration Type of impression material Time of exposure Commercial preparation High level disinfection Glutaraldehyde 2% Irreversible hydrocolloid 10 min Cidex Zinc oxide eugenol 10 min Poysulfide Polyether 10 min Addition silicone 10 min Intermediate level disinfection Sodium hypo- chlorite 0.5 % Or 200 – 5000 PPM Impression compound. Irreversible hydrocolloid, Zinc oxide Eugenol. Polysulfide’ Polyether, Addition silicone 10 min Purex Clorox Chloramine T Iodophores 1 – 2% 10 min Betadine Hy-sine Ioprep Phenols 1 – 3% 10 min Lysol Dettol Hi-phene Alcohols 60 – 90% 10 min Isopropyl alcohol Chlorhexidine 2 – 4% 10 min Savlon Low level disinfection Quaternary ammonium compounds Simple phenol detergents Not recommended for impression disinfection Stone casts Spray or immerse in hypochlorite or iodophor Fixed (metal/porcelain) Immerse in gutaraldehyde Wax rims or bites Spray-wipe-spray with iodophors DISCUSSION: Pandemic of COVID-19 has led to global crisis. The rapid surge of COVID-19 disease has not only raised widespread public health concerns but has collapsed world’s economy. It has put immense strain on social stability and the global health systems. When a person coughs, sneezes, laughs, or talks, large (>5 µm diameter) and small (=5 µm diameter) droplets or
  • 6. Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN:1583-6258, Vol. 25, Issue 6, 2021, Pages. 10871 - 10878 Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021. 10876 http://annalsofrscb.ro aerosols are generated. Due to gravity, larger droplets fall to the ground quickly; therefore,droplet transmission requires close physical proximity between an infected individual and a susceptible individual. On the other hand, small droplets or small particle residues of evaporated droplets have a low settling velocity, so they may remain in the air for alonger time and travel further before they can enter the respiratory tract or contaminate surfaces (WHO, 2014) [9]. The risk factors are aged people with additional medical co- morbidities like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other cardiovascular conditions are more prone to develop a severe form of the disease [2]. Majority of these risk factors are seen in old patients who form a major part of prosthodontic practise. Hence, it is essential for the practising prosthodontic dentists to take utmost care to contract COVID-19 as well as pass it to other geriatric patients. (Table 3) Hand Hygiene Hand washing is one of the most frequently emphasized measures by WHO and healthcare authorities to limit the spread of coronavirus. Reinforcement of good hand hygiene for both patients and dental professionals is vital as appropriate hand washing protocol may not be followed on some occasions which can create unnecessary challenges for infection control during a pandemic. It has been suggested that dental professionals must wash their hands before examining a patient, prior to any dental procedure, after contacting the patient, and after touching any equipment and surrounding surfaces without disinfection. Hands must be washed also after any direct contact with oral mucosa, wounds or damaged skin, blood, body fluid, saliva and excreta. Dental professionals must avoid touching their own eyes, nose and mouth until it safe to do so[12].During the pandemic too, prosthodontic postgraduate students have to deal with emergency like situations. The various procedures undertaken by a prosthodontist can be classified asAlso, it becomes very essential that all the prosthetic procedures carried out for should be carried out under proper and appropriate protocol.Various protocols have been suggested for different clinical procedures. Different procedures like impression making, tooth preparation for crown and bridge prosthesis, denture try-in and trimming, etc. require proper sterilization. An example of the protocol for the sterilization of the dental impression is given below in Table 4. Also, the disinfection of wax rims, casts, prosthesis and cast is to be done by the given protocol. Currently, there is not a practical solution to avoid generation of aerosols mixed with patient’s blood and saliva, and this creates great concerns regarding transmission of COVID-19 pathogenic agents to the dental team and patients. Moreover, aerosol can stay airborne for an extended length of time entering the patients’ and dental professionals’ body through respiratory tract. The aerosol can also settle on the surfaces of the dental surgery and instruments making cross- contamination between the attendees to the dental surgery highly possible in the absence of. Effective and rigorous cross-infection control protocols [12,15]. Use of alcohol-based hand rubs with at least 60% ethanol or isopropanol has also been documented as a simple and effective cross-infection control technique which can inactivate enveloped viruses, including coronaviruses [12]. CONCLUSION- As COVID-19 has altered the lifestyle all over the globe. Considering the routes of COVID- 19 transmission, even we as dental professionals have to alter and follow standard protocols for preventing the spread of infection. Dentists must have thorough knowledge about the signs and symptoms and follow strict infection control measures in such clinical situations. Without the potential to prevent community infection, prevention of health care transmission will remain a challenge [2,5,10]. It is advisable to instruct the patients before attending the dental office to take clinical screening and it’s preferred for both dentalprofessionals and
  • 7. Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN:1583-6258, Vol. 25, Issue 6, 2021, Pages. 10871 - 10878 Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021. 10877 http://annalsofrscb.ro patients to take the test rCOVID-19 before dental treatment. Unless COVID-19 test of a patient has been negative, elective treatments should be performed following the infection control measures presented in above recommendations [5,10]. A better understanding of aerosol transmission and its implication in dentistry can help us identify and rectify negligence in daily dental practice. In addition to the standard precautions, implementation of special precautions could preventdisease transmission from asymptomatic carriers. These special precautions would not only help control the spread of COVID-19 but also serve as a guide for managing other respiratory diseases. Some of the key points for improvement of the practise are as follows-[12]Preparedness and contingency planning for modifying clinical practice in dentistry.Optimization of cross-infection control protocols.Further focus on prevention and oral health promotion for the public.Patient empowerment and education.The long-term consequences of this pandemic are currently unknown, but they will undoubtedly result in a ‘new normal’ for the provision of dental care [6]. REFERENCES: 1. Zhao D, Yu J, Zhang T, Du M, Yang Q, Li Z et al. Impact of COVID‐19 on advanced dental education: Perspectives of dental residents in Wuhan. Journal of Dental Education. 2021;. 2. Thammareddy T, M S, C R, Zakkula S. Occupational risk factors and preventive measures for COVID-19 in prosthodontics. International Journal of Dental Materials. 2020;02(04):135-144. 3. Ahmed M, Jouhar R, Ahmed N, Adnan S, Aftab M, Zafar M et al. Fear and Practice Modifications among Dentists to Combat Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Outbreak. International Journal of nvironmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(8):2821. 4. Ataş O, TaloYildirim T. Evaluation of knowledge, attitudes, and clinical education of dental students about COVID-19 pandemic. PeerJ. 2020;8:e9575. 5. Abdulrahim R. How Can We Handle Pandemic in the Dentistry and Prosthetic Clinic? Recommendations and New Approaches. Online Journal of Dentistry & Oral Health. 2021;4(3). 6. Abdulrahim R. How Can We Handle Pandemic in the Dentistry and Prosthetic Clinic? Recommendations and New Approaches. Online Journal of Dentistry & Oral Health. 2021;4(3).. 7. Sa Y, Lin W, Morton D, Huang C. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Experiences and protocols from the Department of Prosthodontics at the Wuhan University. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. 20. 8. Dental Faculty’s Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Covid 19 Disease in Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. Medico-Legal Update. 2020;20(4). 9. Ge Z, Yang L, Xia J, Fu X, Zhang Y. Possible aerosol transmission of COVID-19 and special precautions in dentistry. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE B. 2020;21(5):361-368. 10. Farooq I, Ali S, Moheet I, AlHumaid J. COVID-19 outbreak, disruption of dental education, and the role of teledentistry. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2020;36(7). 11. Ahmed N, Shakoor M, Vohra F, Abduljabbar T, Mariam Q, Abdul Rehman M. Knowledge, Awareness and Practice of Health care Professionals amid SARS-CoV-2, Corona Virus Disease Outbreak. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2020;36(COVID19-S4). 12. Barabari P, Moharamzadeh K. Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Dentistry–A Comprehensive Review of Literature. Dentistry Journal. 2020;8(2):53.
  • 8. Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN:1583-6258, Vol. 25, Issue 6, 2021, Pages. 10871 - 10878 Received 25 April 2021; Accepted 08 May 2021. 10878 http://annalsofrscb.ro 13. Kathree B, Khan S, Ahmed R, Maart R, Layloo N, Asia-Michaels W. COVID-19 and its impact in the dental setting: A scoping review. PLOS ONE. 2020;15(12):e0244352. 14. Rokaya D. COVID-19: Prosthodontic Challenges and Opportunities in Dental Practice. Journal of Advanced Oral Research. 2020;11(2):113-116. 15. Papi P, Di Murro B, Penna D, Pompa G. Digital prosthetic workflow during COVID‐19 pandemic to limit infection risk in dental practice. Oral Diseases. 2020;27(S3):723-726.