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Evaluation of Efficiency of Composite Veneers Vs Porcelain Veneers in Dental Aesthetics-An Original Study

Evaluation of Efficiency of Composite Veneers Vs Porcelain Veneers in Dental Aesthetics-An Original Study

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Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN: 1583-6258, Vol. 24, Issue 2, 2020 Pages. 702 - 708
Received 24 October 2020; Accepted 15 December 2020
http://annalsofrscb.ro
http://annalsofrscb.ro
702
Evaluation of Efficiency of Composite Veneers Vs Porcelain
Veneers in Dental Aesthetics-An Original Study
Dr.Akanksha Kumari1
, Dr. JaydipMarvaniya2
,DrManojkumarYasangi3
, Dr.
AkritiMahajan4
,Dr. HarjotKaur5
, Dr. Moon Ramraika6
, Dr. HeenaDixit Tiwari7
.
1
MDS, Department of Conservative and Endodontics, PHC, Barh, Patna,
Bihar.akanksha.aki06@gmail.com;
2
MDS, Assistant Professor, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics,
TeerthankerMahaveer Dental College and Research Centre,
Moradabad.jaydipmarvaniya@gmail.com;
3
Reader, Department of Prosthodontics, MNR Dental College and Hospital,
Telangana.drmanoj5672@gmail.com;
4
MDS, Oral medicine and radiology, Private consultant, Jammu and
Kashmir.akritim709@gmail.com;
5
B.D.S, Guru Nanak Dev Dental College &Research Institute, Sunam, Punjab, India.;
6
MDS, Senior Lecturer, Department of Orthodontics and dentofacialorthopedics, Ram
Krishna Dharmarth Foundation University, Bhopal, M.P. drmoonramraika@gmail.com;
7
BDS, PGDHHM, Final year Student, Master of Public Health,ParulUniveristy, Limda,
Waghodia, Vadodara, Gujrat, India.drheenatiwari@gmail.com
Corresponding author:
Dr.AkankshaKumari, MDS, Department of Conservative and Endodontics, PHC, Barh,
Patna, Bihar.akanksha.aki06@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Introduction: The clinical success of restorations depends on technical aspects, aesthetic
result and performance in time. The aim of this study was to evaluation of efficiency of
composite veneers vs porcelain veneers.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty VRs of three different types (direct
composite, indirect composite and porcelain) were placed on anterior teeth. Patients were
asked to fill in questionnaires at baseline and at one- and two-year recalls.
Results: At baseline the overall satisfaction was 76%, after two years this was 78%. The
variable ‘type of VR’ was the only factor measured that had a significant in8uence on the
satisfaction of the patient. At the two-year evaluation patients with porcelain VRs were more
satisfied than those with direct composite VRs (P<0.05).
Conclusions: From the results of this study it is concluded that differences in clinical
procedures had no effect on satisfaction. Also the number of VRs had not influenced the level
of satisfaction. After two years a significant difference was observed for the variable ‘type of
VR’, with the best results for porcelain.
KEY WORDS: Veneer restoration, Clinical evaluation, Satisfaction.
INTRODUCTION
About one third of the adult population in the USA is dissatisfied with the colour or shape of
one or more of their natural or restored teeth . The same conclusion was found in the
National Dental Survey which was preformed in l9861-3
. The growing importance placed
Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN: 1583-6258, Vol. 24, Issue 2, 2020 Pages. 702 - 708
Received 24 October 2020; Accepted 15 December 2020
http://annalsofrscb.ro
http://annalsofrscb.ro
703
on aesthetics may result in an increased demand for cosmetic dental treatment. Cosmetic
dentistry has the purpose to maintain or improve the aesthetic appearance of the teeth. A
good option to restore unaesthetic anterior teeth is a veneer restoration (VR). Both direct
and indirect bonding techniques can be used for this type of restoration. The technique of
VR is not new, but the materials and preparation design have changed over time.
The clinical success of restorations depends on technical aspects, aesthetic result and
performance in time. Most of the studies dealing with evaluations of VR have been
performed by dentists4-7
. These studies report the survival rate of VR with or without well
described evaluation criteria. If evaluation criteria were used they often differ from
standardized criteria, for example as in Quality Evaluation for Dental Care of the California
Dental Association or United States Public Health Service Criteria (USPHS)8-10
. The
parameters employed were mostly surface characteristics, marginal integrity, anatomic form
and the colour of the restoration. Except for the criterion ‘colour’ these are all objective
parameters and the levels are relatively easy to quantify. The criterion ‘colour’ is difficult to
describe without the use of colorimetric devices'. Also the criteria ‘aesthetic result’ and
‘satisfaction’ evaluated by dentists or patients are not objective but subjective criteria11-12
.
Nevertheless, the judgement of the patient regarding aesthetic outcome and their satisfaction
is most important to the success of aesthetic restorations. The aesthetic requirements of
dentists are not the same as those of patients2
. They vary not only from person to person but
are also dependent on professional interests. There is only one study performed to investigate
the patients’ satisfaction with bonded restorations l
. This study showed a relative high level of
satisfaction (96% satisfied). Nordba’ reported that the acceptance of porcelain VRs were
judged to be good. The aim of this study was to evaluation of efficiency of composite veneers
vs porcelain veneers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This analysis was part of a clinical trial which was originally designed to test the influence of
a number of clinical variables on the survival of VRs. This trial involved 180 VRs of three
different materials using two preparation designs, one with and the other without incisal
reduction. The VRs were placed by seven dentists in the Dental School of Nijmegen on
maxillary central and lateral incisors for aesthetic reasons (62% discoloration, 24% deviation
of position and 14% deviation of shape).
The three types of VR were:
(1) Direct resin composite (DC; Silux Plus, 3M Co., St. Paul, MN, USA)
(2) Indirect resin composite (IC; Dentacolor, HereausKulzer GmbH, Wehrheim, Germany)
(3) Porcelain (P; Flexo-ceram, Elephant Ceramics, Hoorn, The Netherlands).
A factorial design of the different treatment combinations is presented in Table I. Details
about the materials, operators, assigning of the experimental variables, preparation and
clinical procedures for fabrication of the VR have been previously published 4
.
The patients’ satisfaction with their VR was assessed using questionnaires with precoded
categories. Patients were asked to fill in the questionnaires at baseline (one month after the
placement of the VRs) and at recalls one and two years after placement of the VRs.
Table 1. Factorial design and sample sizes of the different treatment combinations
Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN: 1583-6258, Vol. 24, Issue 2, 2020 Pages. 702 - 708
Received 24 October 2020; Accepted 15 December 2020
http://annalsofrscb.ro
http://annalsofrscb.ro
704
A number of patient-dependent and experimental variables were tested if they influenced the
patients’ satisfaction. These factors, including levels and distributions, are presented in Table
II.
Subjects for this study were 112 patients taking part in the clinical trial on VRs. These
patients were treated with one or more restorations with a maximum of six. However, to
avoid unwanted dependencies, a maximum of two VRs per patient were evaluated in the
study. In cases where more than two VRs were made, two VRs made on the same tooth type
were included in the trial (first preference) and/or two VRs were randomly selected (second
preference). The other VRs were excluded for analyses.
In nine cases a protoColdeviation occurred. In these cases the teeth were restored with
another type of VR than assigned because during the treatment it appeared impossible to
obtain a good colour match of the VRs. In all these cases the operator decided to make a
direct composite VR instead of an IC- or P-VR. During the treatment phase one tooth
fractured. A non-vital lateral incisor, which was intended to be restored with an indirect
composite VR, fractured during the removal of the temporary restoration and was
subequently excluded for further evaluation.
At the one-year recall, 107 patients were evaluated. Three patients were lost to follow-up and
one VR failed. At the two-year recall only 100 patients were seen. The VRs of five
patients failed and six patients were lost to follow-up. One patient who was absent at the one-
year recall was present at the two-year recall.
In this study the treatment demand was 100%. Since all treatments were carried out, the
treatment need was also 100%. The type of disorder in aesthetic appearance might have on
influence on the level of satisfaction of the patient. However, the dentist judgement (objective
need) and the patient demand (subjective need) might vary and thus influence the results.
Therefore the patient demands were compared with the dentists opinion.
Table IIIshows a comparison of the reason for treatment as judged by the dentists and
patients.
Statistical tests for factors at the same time point were done by means of the Chi-square test.
A paired f-test was done for each level of a factor to test differences between two time points.
All statistical tests were performed at a significance level o=0.05.
Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN: 1583-6258, Vol. 24, Issue 2, 2020 Pages. 702 - 708
Received 24 October 2020; Accepted 15 December 2020
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http://annalsofrscb.ro
705
Table 2: Factors tested for influence on the patients’ satisfaction, including different
levels and distributions
Table III. Agreement between dentists' and patients’ diagnoses of treated teeth (colour,
shape or position) in per cent
Patient
Dentist No reason Reason Total
Colour
No reason 55 45 44
Reason 2 98 56
Total 25 75 100
Shape
No reason 88 12 88
Reason 21 79 12
Total 79 21 100
Position
No reason 90 10 69
Reason 49 51 31
Total 77 23 100
Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN: 1583-6258, Vol. 24, Issue 2, 2020 Pages. 702 - 708
Received 24 October 2020; Accepted 15 December 2020
http://annalsofrscb.ro
http://annalsofrscb.ro
706
RESULTS
The comparison of the reason for treatment as judged by the dentists and patients is given in
Table III. Although, the indications (discoloration, deviation of shape or deviation of
position) for treatment varied, in 71-84% of the cases there was an agreement be- tween the
dentist and patient. In further analyses the judgement of the dentists has been used.
Table IV. Percentages of satisfied persons according to the vari- ables ‘type of VR' and
‘number of VRs’ at different measurement points
DISCUSSION
Every change in the dentition will require habituation. Especially when there is a change in
position or shape it will take some time before the patient does not feel the restoration any
more and will look at their dentition in total. Once the patients are getting used to the
restoration, they will see that the aesthetics of the tooth is improved.13-15
The result may be a
more satisfied patients’ population at the one-year recall. Then, after a certain adaptation
period, the aesthetic judgement may change again as the patients may become aware of the
aesthetics of the adjacent teeth as well. When the patient is no longer satisfied with the
aesthetics of the dentition as a whole, the aesthetic satisfaction of the restored teeth will
decrease as well. This period will vary from person to person and depends on the adaptation
ability of the patient. At the two-year evaluation the restored tooth will be compared with the
adjacent teeth. Our results support this theory since, with an increasing number of VRs the
difference between the satisfaction at one and two years recall was not so pronounced as in
the case of one tooth being restored.16-19
The significant decrease in the satisfaction with direct veneers between one and two years is
difficult to explain. Several reports mentioned colour changes of light-cured composite resins
influenced by time of light exposure and time after curing, while another study showed no
significant difference between some composite resins after five years 17-20
. It is not very likely
that a change in the colour of the restoration material will be noticeable after two years. Other
problems with composite resin veneering which were described were roughening of the
surfaces, chipping, fracture and staining20-23
. However, in this population the occur- rence
of chipping or fracture had no influence on the satisfaction of the patient. Surface
Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN: 1583-6258, Vol. 24, Issue 2, 2020 Pages. 702 - 708
Received 24 October 2020; Accepted 15 December 2020
http://annalsofrscb.ro
http://annalsofrscb.ro
707
roughening and staining was not investigated in this study.
Several studies report a discrepancy between treatment need of the dentist and treatment
demand of the patient1,5,23
. The agreement between dentist and patient in case of cosmetic
dental treatment was 72% in the National Dental Survey. If there was a disagreement, the
objective need of cosmetic treatment as judged by the dentist was higher (44%) than the
treatment demand of the patient (14%)23
. Several other articles have also reported a higher
treatment need than treatment demand4,5
. In this study, the reasons for treatment by the
dentist and the patient were compared. The agreements varied from 84 to 71%. Comparison
of the reasons for treatment revealed that the reason ‘shape’ and ‘position’ were more
important for the dentist than for the patient, while the reason ‘colour’ was more important
for the patient. The overall satisfaction can not be completely explained by the satisfaction of
colour and shape. It seems that other factors play a role in this matter. Goldstein suggested
that the conservative approach and relative low costs of these restorations are appreciated by
the patients and this may influence the satisfaction.
The use of a questionnaire to evaluate the treatment with VR at baseline, one and two years
after the completion of treatment, is a procedure that may introduce some kind of bias. For
example, selection on a population level: the population of the trial with a higher or
university education is 44% and the male and female ratio is also not representive for the
population.
CONCLUSIONS
From the results of this study it is concluded that differences in clinical procedures for VRs
had no effect on satisfaction. Also the number of VRs had not influenced the level of
satisfaction. After two years a significant difference was observed for the variable ‘type of
VR’. The best results were found for porcelain VRs. With longer follow-up it is expected that
the influence of ‘type of VR’ will become more apparent when the property of the materials
will in8uence the process of ageing, discoloration or strength.
REFERENCES
1. Goldstein, R. E., Survey of patient attitudes toward current esthetic procedures.
Journal of Prosthetic Den- tistry, 1984, 52, 775-780.
2. Truin, G. J., Burgersdijk, R. C. W., Kalsbeek H. andvan’t Hof M. A.,
Landelijkepidemiologischonderzoektandheelkunde. Deel VIII.
Kosmetischetandheelkunde. NVTT, 1989, 96, 378-381.
3. Willemsen, W. L., Burgersdijk, R. C. W., Truin, G. J. and Mulder, J., Cosmetic
dental treatment in an adult Dutch population. Communit y Dental Health, 1994,
11, 156-160.
4. Nordbo, H., Rygh-Thoresen, N. and Henaug, T., Clinical performance of porcelain
laminate veneers without incisal overlapping: 3-year results. Journal of Dentistry,
1994, 22, 342-345.
5. Rucker, L. M., Richter, W. R., MacEntee, M. and Richardson, A., Porcelain and resin
veneers clinical evaluated: 2-year result. Journal of the American Dental Association,
1990, 121, 59W596.
6. Dunne, S. M. and Millar, B. J. A., Longitudinal study of the clinical performance of
porcelain veneers. British Dentistry Journal, 1993, 175, 317-321.
7. Karlsson, S., Lindahl, I., Stegersjo, G. and Milleding, P., A clinical evaluation of
ceramic laminate veneers. Inter- national Journal of Prosthodontics, 1992, 55, 447—
451.

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Evaluation of Efficiency of Composite Veneers Vs Porcelain Veneers in Dental Aesthetics-An Original Study

  • 1. Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN: 1583-6258, Vol. 24, Issue 2, 2020 Pages. 702 - 708 Received 24 October 2020; Accepted 15 December 2020 http://annalsofrscb.ro http://annalsofrscb.ro 702 Evaluation of Efficiency of Composite Veneers Vs Porcelain Veneers in Dental Aesthetics-An Original Study Dr.Akanksha Kumari1 , Dr. JaydipMarvaniya2 ,DrManojkumarYasangi3 , Dr. AkritiMahajan4 ,Dr. HarjotKaur5 , Dr. Moon Ramraika6 , Dr. HeenaDixit Tiwari7 . 1 MDS, Department of Conservative and Endodontics, PHC, Barh, Patna, Bihar.akanksha.aki06@gmail.com; 2 MDS, Assistant Professor, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, TeerthankerMahaveer Dental College and Research Centre, Moradabad.jaydipmarvaniya@gmail.com; 3 Reader, Department of Prosthodontics, MNR Dental College and Hospital, Telangana.drmanoj5672@gmail.com; 4 MDS, Oral medicine and radiology, Private consultant, Jammu and Kashmir.akritim709@gmail.com; 5 B.D.S, Guru Nanak Dev Dental College &Research Institute, Sunam, Punjab, India.; 6 MDS, Senior Lecturer, Department of Orthodontics and dentofacialorthopedics, Ram Krishna Dharmarth Foundation University, Bhopal, M.P. drmoonramraika@gmail.com; 7 BDS, PGDHHM, Final year Student, Master of Public Health,ParulUniveristy, Limda, Waghodia, Vadodara, Gujrat, India.drheenatiwari@gmail.com Corresponding author: Dr.AkankshaKumari, MDS, Department of Conservative and Endodontics, PHC, Barh, Patna, Bihar.akanksha.aki06@gmail.com ABSTRACT Introduction: The clinical success of restorations depends on technical aspects, aesthetic result and performance in time. The aim of this study was to evaluation of efficiency of composite veneers vs porcelain veneers. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty VRs of three different types (direct composite, indirect composite and porcelain) were placed on anterior teeth. Patients were asked to fill in questionnaires at baseline and at one- and two-year recalls. Results: At baseline the overall satisfaction was 76%, after two years this was 78%. The variable ‘type of VR’ was the only factor measured that had a significant in8uence on the satisfaction of the patient. At the two-year evaluation patients with porcelain VRs were more satisfied than those with direct composite VRs (P<0.05). Conclusions: From the results of this study it is concluded that differences in clinical procedures had no effect on satisfaction. Also the number of VRs had not influenced the level of satisfaction. After two years a significant difference was observed for the variable ‘type of VR’, with the best results for porcelain. KEY WORDS: Veneer restoration, Clinical evaluation, Satisfaction. INTRODUCTION About one third of the adult population in the USA is dissatisfied with the colour or shape of one or more of their natural or restored teeth . The same conclusion was found in the National Dental Survey which was preformed in l9861-3 . The growing importance placed
  • 2. Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN: 1583-6258, Vol. 24, Issue 2, 2020 Pages. 702 - 708 Received 24 October 2020; Accepted 15 December 2020 http://annalsofrscb.ro http://annalsofrscb.ro 703 on aesthetics may result in an increased demand for cosmetic dental treatment. Cosmetic dentistry has the purpose to maintain or improve the aesthetic appearance of the teeth. A good option to restore unaesthetic anterior teeth is a veneer restoration (VR). Both direct and indirect bonding techniques can be used for this type of restoration. The technique of VR is not new, but the materials and preparation design have changed over time. The clinical success of restorations depends on technical aspects, aesthetic result and performance in time. Most of the studies dealing with evaluations of VR have been performed by dentists4-7 . These studies report the survival rate of VR with or without well described evaluation criteria. If evaluation criteria were used they often differ from standardized criteria, for example as in Quality Evaluation for Dental Care of the California Dental Association or United States Public Health Service Criteria (USPHS)8-10 . The parameters employed were mostly surface characteristics, marginal integrity, anatomic form and the colour of the restoration. Except for the criterion ‘colour’ these are all objective parameters and the levels are relatively easy to quantify. The criterion ‘colour’ is difficult to describe without the use of colorimetric devices'. Also the criteria ‘aesthetic result’ and ‘satisfaction’ evaluated by dentists or patients are not objective but subjective criteria11-12 . Nevertheless, the judgement of the patient regarding aesthetic outcome and their satisfaction is most important to the success of aesthetic restorations. The aesthetic requirements of dentists are not the same as those of patients2 . They vary not only from person to person but are also dependent on professional interests. There is only one study performed to investigate the patients’ satisfaction with bonded restorations l . This study showed a relative high level of satisfaction (96% satisfied). Nordba’ reported that the acceptance of porcelain VRs were judged to be good. The aim of this study was to evaluation of efficiency of composite veneers vs porcelain veneers. MATERIALS AND METHODS This analysis was part of a clinical trial which was originally designed to test the influence of a number of clinical variables on the survival of VRs. This trial involved 180 VRs of three different materials using two preparation designs, one with and the other without incisal reduction. The VRs were placed by seven dentists in the Dental School of Nijmegen on maxillary central and lateral incisors for aesthetic reasons (62% discoloration, 24% deviation of position and 14% deviation of shape). The three types of VR were: (1) Direct resin composite (DC; Silux Plus, 3M Co., St. Paul, MN, USA) (2) Indirect resin composite (IC; Dentacolor, HereausKulzer GmbH, Wehrheim, Germany) (3) Porcelain (P; Flexo-ceram, Elephant Ceramics, Hoorn, The Netherlands). A factorial design of the different treatment combinations is presented in Table I. Details about the materials, operators, assigning of the experimental variables, preparation and clinical procedures for fabrication of the VR have been previously published 4 . The patients’ satisfaction with their VR was assessed using questionnaires with precoded categories. Patients were asked to fill in the questionnaires at baseline (one month after the placement of the VRs) and at recalls one and two years after placement of the VRs. Table 1. Factorial design and sample sizes of the different treatment combinations
  • 3. Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN: 1583-6258, Vol. 24, Issue 2, 2020 Pages. 702 - 708 Received 24 October 2020; Accepted 15 December 2020 http://annalsofrscb.ro http://annalsofrscb.ro 704 A number of patient-dependent and experimental variables were tested if they influenced the patients’ satisfaction. These factors, including levels and distributions, are presented in Table II. Subjects for this study were 112 patients taking part in the clinical trial on VRs. These patients were treated with one or more restorations with a maximum of six. However, to avoid unwanted dependencies, a maximum of two VRs per patient were evaluated in the study. In cases where more than two VRs were made, two VRs made on the same tooth type were included in the trial (first preference) and/or two VRs were randomly selected (second preference). The other VRs were excluded for analyses. In nine cases a protoColdeviation occurred. In these cases the teeth were restored with another type of VR than assigned because during the treatment it appeared impossible to obtain a good colour match of the VRs. In all these cases the operator decided to make a direct composite VR instead of an IC- or P-VR. During the treatment phase one tooth fractured. A non-vital lateral incisor, which was intended to be restored with an indirect composite VR, fractured during the removal of the temporary restoration and was subequently excluded for further evaluation. At the one-year recall, 107 patients were evaluated. Three patients were lost to follow-up and one VR failed. At the two-year recall only 100 patients were seen. The VRs of five patients failed and six patients were lost to follow-up. One patient who was absent at the one- year recall was present at the two-year recall. In this study the treatment demand was 100%. Since all treatments were carried out, the treatment need was also 100%. The type of disorder in aesthetic appearance might have on influence on the level of satisfaction of the patient. However, the dentist judgement (objective need) and the patient demand (subjective need) might vary and thus influence the results. Therefore the patient demands were compared with the dentists opinion. Table IIIshows a comparison of the reason for treatment as judged by the dentists and patients. Statistical tests for factors at the same time point were done by means of the Chi-square test. A paired f-test was done for each level of a factor to test differences between two time points. All statistical tests were performed at a significance level o=0.05.
  • 4. Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN: 1583-6258, Vol. 24, Issue 2, 2020 Pages. 702 - 708 Received 24 October 2020; Accepted 15 December 2020 http://annalsofrscb.ro http://annalsofrscb.ro 705 Table 2: Factors tested for influence on the patients’ satisfaction, including different levels and distributions Table III. Agreement between dentists' and patients’ diagnoses of treated teeth (colour, shape or position) in per cent Patient Dentist No reason Reason Total Colour No reason 55 45 44 Reason 2 98 56 Total 25 75 100 Shape No reason 88 12 88 Reason 21 79 12 Total 79 21 100 Position No reason 90 10 69 Reason 49 51 31 Total 77 23 100
  • 5. Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN: 1583-6258, Vol. 24, Issue 2, 2020 Pages. 702 - 708 Received 24 October 2020; Accepted 15 December 2020 http://annalsofrscb.ro http://annalsofrscb.ro 706 RESULTS The comparison of the reason for treatment as judged by the dentists and patients is given in Table III. Although, the indications (discoloration, deviation of shape or deviation of position) for treatment varied, in 71-84% of the cases there was an agreement be- tween the dentist and patient. In further analyses the judgement of the dentists has been used. Table IV. Percentages of satisfied persons according to the vari- ables ‘type of VR' and ‘number of VRs’ at different measurement points DISCUSSION Every change in the dentition will require habituation. Especially when there is a change in position or shape it will take some time before the patient does not feel the restoration any more and will look at their dentition in total. Once the patients are getting used to the restoration, they will see that the aesthetics of the tooth is improved.13-15 The result may be a more satisfied patients’ population at the one-year recall. Then, after a certain adaptation period, the aesthetic judgement may change again as the patients may become aware of the aesthetics of the adjacent teeth as well. When the patient is no longer satisfied with the aesthetics of the dentition as a whole, the aesthetic satisfaction of the restored teeth will decrease as well. This period will vary from person to person and depends on the adaptation ability of the patient. At the two-year evaluation the restored tooth will be compared with the adjacent teeth. Our results support this theory since, with an increasing number of VRs the difference between the satisfaction at one and two years recall was not so pronounced as in the case of one tooth being restored.16-19 The significant decrease in the satisfaction with direct veneers between one and two years is difficult to explain. Several reports mentioned colour changes of light-cured composite resins influenced by time of light exposure and time after curing, while another study showed no significant difference between some composite resins after five years 17-20 . It is not very likely that a change in the colour of the restoration material will be noticeable after two years. Other problems with composite resin veneering which were described were roughening of the surfaces, chipping, fracture and staining20-23 . However, in this population the occur- rence of chipping or fracture had no influence on the satisfaction of the patient. Surface
  • 6. Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN: 1583-6258, Vol. 24, Issue 2, 2020 Pages. 702 - 708 Received 24 October 2020; Accepted 15 December 2020 http://annalsofrscb.ro http://annalsofrscb.ro 707 roughening and staining was not investigated in this study. Several studies report a discrepancy between treatment need of the dentist and treatment demand of the patient1,5,23 . The agreement between dentist and patient in case of cosmetic dental treatment was 72% in the National Dental Survey. If there was a disagreement, the objective need of cosmetic treatment as judged by the dentist was higher (44%) than the treatment demand of the patient (14%)23 . Several other articles have also reported a higher treatment need than treatment demand4,5 . In this study, the reasons for treatment by the dentist and the patient were compared. The agreements varied from 84 to 71%. Comparison of the reasons for treatment revealed that the reason ‘shape’ and ‘position’ were more important for the dentist than for the patient, while the reason ‘colour’ was more important for the patient. The overall satisfaction can not be completely explained by the satisfaction of colour and shape. It seems that other factors play a role in this matter. Goldstein suggested that the conservative approach and relative low costs of these restorations are appreciated by the patients and this may influence the satisfaction. The use of a questionnaire to evaluate the treatment with VR at baseline, one and two years after the completion of treatment, is a procedure that may introduce some kind of bias. For example, selection on a population level: the population of the trial with a higher or university education is 44% and the male and female ratio is also not representive for the population. CONCLUSIONS From the results of this study it is concluded that differences in clinical procedures for VRs had no effect on satisfaction. Also the number of VRs had not influenced the level of satisfaction. After two years a significant difference was observed for the variable ‘type of VR’. The best results were found for porcelain VRs. With longer follow-up it is expected that the influence of ‘type of VR’ will become more apparent when the property of the materials will in8uence the process of ageing, discoloration or strength. REFERENCES 1. Goldstein, R. E., Survey of patient attitudes toward current esthetic procedures. Journal of Prosthetic Den- tistry, 1984, 52, 775-780. 2. Truin, G. J., Burgersdijk, R. C. W., Kalsbeek H. andvan’t Hof M. A., Landelijkepidemiologischonderzoektandheelkunde. Deel VIII. Kosmetischetandheelkunde. NVTT, 1989, 96, 378-381. 3. Willemsen, W. L., Burgersdijk, R. C. W., Truin, G. J. and Mulder, J., Cosmetic dental treatment in an adult Dutch population. Communit y Dental Health, 1994, 11, 156-160. 4. Nordbo, H., Rygh-Thoresen, N. and Henaug, T., Clinical performance of porcelain laminate veneers without incisal overlapping: 3-year results. Journal of Dentistry, 1994, 22, 342-345. 5. Rucker, L. M., Richter, W. R., MacEntee, M. and Richardson, A., Porcelain and resin veneers clinical evaluated: 2-year result. Journal of the American Dental Association, 1990, 121, 59W596. 6. Dunne, S. M. and Millar, B. J. A., Longitudinal study of the clinical performance of porcelain veneers. British Dentistry Journal, 1993, 175, 317-321. 7. Karlsson, S., Lindahl, I., Stegersjo, G. and Milleding, P., A clinical evaluation of ceramic laminate veneers. Inter- national Journal of Prosthodontics, 1992, 55, 447— 451.
  • 7. Annals of R.S.C.B., ISSN: 1583-6258, Vol. 24, Issue 2, 2020 Pages. 702 - 708 Received 24 October 2020; Accepted 15 December 2020 http://annalsofrscb.ro http://annalsofrscb.ro 708 8. California Dental Association: quality evaluation for dental care. In Guidelines for the Assessment of Clinical Qualit y and Performance. California Dental Association, Los Angeles, 1977. 9. Ryge, G., Snyder, M., Evaluating the clinical quality of restorations. Journal of the American Dental Association, 1973, 87, 369—377. 10. Ryge, R., Clinical criteria. International Journal of Dentistry, 1980, 30, 347-358. 11. Ruyter, I. E., Nilner, K. and Moller, B., Color stability of dental composite resin materials for crown and bridge veneers. Dental Materials, 1987, 3, 24H251. 12. Graber, L. W. and Lucker, G. W., Dental esthetic self- evaluation and satisfaction. American Journal of Ortho- dontolog y, 1980, 75, 163-173. 13. Brisman, A. S., Esthetics: a comparison of dentists’ and patients’ concepts. Journal of the American Dental Association, 1988, 100, 345-352. 14. Meijering, A. C., Creugers, N. J. H., Mulder, J. and Roeters, F. J. M., Treatment times for three different types of veneer restorations. Journal of Dentistry, 1995, 23, 21-26. 15. Baat, C. de.,Eenkunstgebitbijoudereneenkwestie van aanpassen? Thesis. Nijmegen, The Netherlands. 16. Rossum, G. M. J. M., van, Het kunstgebit, eennoodza- kelijkkwaad? Thesis. Nijmegen, The Netherlands. 17. Hosoya, Y. and Goto, G., Color changes of light-cured composite resins. Journal oJ’ Clinical Pediatric Dentistr y, 1992, 16, 247-252. 18. Asmussen, E., Factors affecting the color stability of restorative resins. ActaOdontologicaScandinavica, 1983, 41, 11-18. 19. Tyas, M. J., Colour stability of composite resins: a clinical comparison. Austrian Dental Journal, 1992, 37, 88-90. 20. Strassler, H. E. and Moffitt, W. C., The surface texture of composite resin after polishing with commercially avail- able toothpastes. Compendium of Continuing Educational Dentistry, 1987, 8, 826-830. 21. Ronk, S. L., Dental lamination: clinical problems and solutions. Journal of the American Dental Association, 1992, 104, 84W846. 22. Smales, R. J., Effects of enamel-bonding, type of restora- tion, patient age and operator on the longevity of an anterior composite resin. American Journal of Dentistry, 1991, 4, 130-133. 23. Strassler, H. E. and Nathanson, D., Clinical evaluation of etched porcelain veneers over a period of 18 to 42 months. Esthetic Dentistry, 1989, 1, 21-28.