International Adoption in the age of Assisted Reproductive Technologies: the Spanish case<br />Diana Marre (UAB-AFIN)<br /...
‘New’ assisted reproductive technologies<br /><ul><li>donor insemination (DI)
in vitro fertilization (IVF)
donor ova
donor embryo
gestational surrogacy
adoption, domestic and transnational</li></li></ul><li>Glossary (Wade 2007)<br />Donor Gametes: Gametes (sperm, eggs) that...
Surrogacy: Shorthand for surrogate motherhood, in which a woman gestates an embryo on behalf another couple who have ferti...
Since 2004 Spain has been the second country in the world, after the USA, and the first European country, in front of Fran...
Reproductive changes in Spain after Franco’s dictatorship<br />1975: at the end of Franco’s dictatorship Spain had the EU ...
1981: the Divorce Act was approved. <br />1983: The voluntary sterilization surgery was legalized by a modification of Pen...
1985: the abortion was legalized for three causes: - to avoid a risk for the life or the physic or psychological health of...
1991: the sell of the RU-486 pill, “the pill of the day after” was authorised<br />1995: Spain had the lowest EU birth rat...
1996: a new law of Minor Legal Protection was approved <br />1997: the regions of Madrid and Catalonia did not accept more...
recorded intercountry adoptions doubled between 1998 and 2000 and reached 5,541 by 2004<br />2004: Spain was the second co...
Spanish Authorities regarding Intercountry Adoptions<br />
Children adopted by year in Spain1997-2008<br />
Children under any kind of state protection=Officially: 22.862Unofficially: more than 33.000<br />
Parents’ narratives regarding international adoption:<br />Many adoptive parents and their associations still link the beg...
16 %<br />
16 %<br />
31 %<br />
2005 April: Catalan Government approved an Act allowing to homosexual couples to adopt.<br />2005 July: Spanish Government...
2006: only the 35% of adoptive families had done some infertility treatment before in Catalonia.<br />2007: Spain had the ...
To adopt a child: <br />another way to became parents<br />Adopting a child <br />is a way to become parents <br />that in...
Adopt a kid<br />Redecorate your life<br />
Children come <br />from too far<br />
Sweetie, don’t you think it’s high time we start trying for a baby?<br />Sure, I’ll just log on www.adoption.org...<br />
Half of children adopted<br />abroad come from Russia and China<br />
International adoptions in Spain by continent and country of origin of children<br />
Source: Ministery of Labour and Social Issues. Yearbook 2004<br />
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International adoption in the age of assisted reproductive technologies. the spanish case 2

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International adoption in the age of assisted reproductive technologies. the spanish case 2

  1. 1. International Adoption in the age of Assisted Reproductive Technologies: the Spanish case<br />Diana Marre (UAB-AFIN)<br />diana.marre@uab.es<br />
  2. 2. ‘New’ assisted reproductive technologies<br /><ul><li>donor insemination (DI)
  3. 3. in vitro fertilization (IVF)
  4. 4. donor ova
  5. 5. donor embryo
  6. 6. gestational surrogacy
  7. 7. adoption, domestic and transnational</li></li></ul><li>Glossary (Wade 2007)<br />Donor Gametes: Gametes (sperm, eggs) that have been donated by men and women for use in assisted reproduction technologies<br />Egg donation: The giving of eggs (ova) by one woman to another who has fertility problems<br />IVF: In vitro fertilization. The fertilization of ova by sperm ‘in a test-tube’, i.e. in the laboratory<br />
  8. 8. Surrogacy: Shorthand for surrogate motherhood, in which a woman gestates an embryo on behalf another couple who have fertility problems. The embryo can be formed from the surrogate’s egg artificially fertilized with the sperm of the couple, or can be formed from the couple’s own gametes.<br />Transnational adoption: Adoption in which the adoptin parents come from a different nation-state (usually in Europe and North America) from the adopted child (who usually comes from a developing country, Eastern Europe, Russia or Asia)<br />
  9. 9. Since 2004 Spain has been the second country in the world, after the USA, and the first European country, in front of France, in terms of number of adopted children received. <br />What is the difference between Spain and these two countries? <br />The United States scored the highest birth rate amongst the rich countries in 2007: 2,1 children per woman and the number of domestic adoptions doubled the sum of international adoptions.<br />In 2007, France registered the highest birth rate in the European Union: 2,0 children per woman. <br />In the same year 2007 the Spanish birth rate reached 1,46 children per woman as a direct consequence of the immigrant maternity (1,97 children per women as opposed to the 1,33 registered by no immigrant population). <br />Furthermore, very few domestic adoptions take place every year. <br />
  10. 10. Reproductive changes in Spain after Franco’s dictatorship<br />1975: at the end of Franco’s dictatorship Spain had the EU highest birth rate (2,8 children/woman)<br />1976: the woman’s age at first maternity was 26.<br />1978: contraception was legalized. Until then according to the Penal Code “to sell, to prescribe, to disseminate or to offer anything to avoid procreation was considered a crime”.<br />
  11. 11. 1981: the Divorce Act was approved. <br />1983: The voluntary sterilization surgery was legalized by a modification of Penal Code<br />1984: the first Spanish’s IVF baby born in Barcelona, Catalonia <br />1985: Spain was a destinity to European families looking for a child to adopt<br />
  12. 12. 1985: the abortion was legalized for three causes: - to avoid a risk for the life or the physic or psychological health of the woman, - if pregnancy was a result of a rape and - to prevent physic or psychological problems in the foetus.<br />1987: a new Act on child protection was approved. It was “excessively” protective of the right of biological parents, so in the practice it not allowed domestic adoptions<br />1988: the first law on Assisted Reproduction was approved<br />
  13. 13. 1991: the sell of the RU-486 pill, “the pill of the day after” was authorised<br />1995: Spain had the lowest EU birth rate (1,17 children/woman)<br />1995: Spain subscribed The Hague Convention<br />1995: a British television’s programme, The Rooms of Death, on the life in China’s orphanages was aired in prime time TV several times. <br />
  14. 14. 1996: a new law of Minor Legal Protection was approved <br />1997: the regions of Madrid and Catalonia did not accept more applications to domestic adoption due to the lack of Spanish children given up for adoption.<br /> 1997: the first statistics regarding international adoption was published<br />
  15. 15. recorded intercountry adoptions doubled between 1998 and 2000 and reached 5,541 by 2004<br />2004: Spain was the second country in the world, after USA, in number of international adoptees and immigrants received.<br />2004: Catalans were the 16% of Spanish’s inhabitants but they adopted the 31% of children adopted internationally in Spain<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Spanish Authorities regarding Intercountry Adoptions<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Children adopted by year in Spain1997-2008<br />
  20. 20. Children under any kind of state protection=Officially: 22.862Unofficially: more than 33.000<br />
  21. 21. Parents’ narratives regarding international adoption:<br />Many adoptive parents and their associations still link the beginning and continuity of international adoption to the repeated broadcasting at the end of 1995 of the British television’s programme, The Rooms of Death, on the life in China’s orphanages<br />many families mention solidarity and the need to help the poor and abandoned children as the main objective to adopt: “to give to a child a better future”<br />
  22. 22. 16 %<br />
  23. 23. 16 %<br />
  24. 24. 31 %<br />
  25. 25. 2005 April: Catalan Government approved an Act allowing to homosexual couples to adopt.<br />2005 July: Spanish Government approved and Act allowing homosexual marriage and, as a direct consequence allowing children adoption<br />2005. Spain had the second place in Europe right after France in assisted reproductive treatments in relationship to the total population followed by Germany and United Kingdom<br />
  26. 26. 2006: only the 35% of adoptive families had done some infertility treatment before in Catalonia.<br />2007: Spain had the EU highest woman’s first maternity age: 31<br />2007: The birth rate is the highest in the last 14 years in Spain: 1,37 children by woman (18% of children born have an immigrant mother)<br />
  27. 27. To adopt a child: <br />another way to became parents<br />Adopting a child <br />is a way to become parents <br />that in recent times <br />has become popular <br />
  28. 28. Adopt a kid<br />Redecorate your life<br />
  29. 29. Children come <br />from too far<br />
  30. 30.
  31. 31. Sweetie, don’t you think it’s high time we start trying for a baby?<br />Sure, I’ll just log on www.adoption.org...<br />
  32. 32. Half of children adopted<br />abroad come from Russia and China<br />
  33. 33. International adoptions in Spain by continent and country of origin of children<br />
  34. 34. Source: Ministery of Labour and Social Issues. Yearbook 2004<br />
  35. 35. Imported<br />Generation<br />
  36. 36. Imagine how much ‘ours’ we feel her, that we don’t even see her black anymore. I'm not kidding. You don't see the color, it's just love, says a professor, mother to an adopted child of Ethiopian origin who, already having two biologic sons, decided to adopt because they wanted to be parents again and give a child a home.<br />
  37. 37. “I’m black because<br /> I’m haitian”<br />
  38. 38. 2007: The Spanish Parliament aprpved an International Adoption Act<br />2010. The Parliamente aproved a new abortion law which legalized abortion on demand for women from 16 years old until 14 week of pregnancy and until 21 in certain circunstances<br />

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