Beyond marriage: LGBT families in Spain. José Ignacio Pichardo Galán, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid [email_address]   Con...
Changes <ul><li>From Franco’s dictatorship: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic conceptions of family. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Changes <ul><li>Adoption Law (1987): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>any single person, heterosexual or not, is allowed to adopt a c...
Changes <ul><li>Adoption Law (1987). </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Assisted Reproductive Techniques (1988): </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Changes <ul><li>10% of the women who use these techniques are not married. </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage of lesbians? </li>...
Changes <ul><li>Adoption Law (1987). </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Assisted Reproductive Techniques, (1988). </li></ul><ul><li>...
Changes 1.Changes  2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and f...
Changes <ul><li>Adoption Law (1987). </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Assisted Reproductive Techniques, (1988). </li></ul><ul><li>...
Changes <ul><li>Adoption Law (1987). </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Assisted Reproductive Techniques (1988). </li></ul><ul><li>R...
Changes <ul><li>Adoption Law (1987). </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Assisted Reproductive Techniques (1988). </li></ul><ul><li>R...
Changes <ul><ul><li>Do you think homosexual couples should have the right to marry? </li></ul></ul>CIS, June 2004 1.Change...
Changes <ul><li>Adoption Law (1987). </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Assisted Reproductive Techniques (1988). </li></ul><ul><li>R...
Changes <ul><ul><li>Arguments against gay-marriage: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is unnatural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Changes <ul><li>Madrid, 18 th  June 2005, anti-gay marriage demonstration: </li></ul><ul><li>“ FAMILY DOES MATTER” </li></...
Changes <ul><li>Adoption Law (1987). </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Assisted Reproductive Techniques (1988). </li></ul><ul><li>R...
Changes <ul><ul><li>Democracy / Spanish Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International influence: </li></ul></ul><u...
Changes <ul><li>Madrid Gay Pride Demonstration Attendance </li></ul>1.Changes  2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3....
Changes <ul><li>Adoption Law (1987). </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Assisted Reproductive Techniques, (1988). </li></ul><ul><li>...
Queers and families <ul><li>Not a discourse about “chosen families”. </li></ul><ul><li>Friends are friends, not family, al...
Queers and families <ul><li>Paternity among Spanish LGBs (N=263) </li></ul>1.Changes  2.Specificity or queer families in S...
Queers and families <ul><li>Schools as a mayor preocupation for LGBTs with children. </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Education (2...
<ul><li>Students conceptions of family (N=4,643): </li></ul><ul><li>85% students wouldn’t find relevant the fact that a cl...
Queers and families <ul><li>Not a detachment between the groups they create and biological families. </li></ul><ul><li>Rec...
Queers and families <ul><li>Discourses about “new families”. </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction for recognition. </li></ul><ul...
Norms in practice <ul><li>2001 - Census:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10,474 homosexual couples (0.11%). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>...
Norms in practice <ul><li>Who is getting married? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people in long-term relationships with common poss...
Norms in practice 1.Changes  2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challe...
Norms in practice 1.Changes  2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challe...
Norms in practice <ul><li>Homophobia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence or members of the family during the wedding. </li></ul...
Challenges and future <ul><li>Not legal equality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filiation rights  recognized  but only  automatica...
Challenges and future <ul><li>Judge Calamita: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevented a woman to adopt her spouse biological daugh...
Challenges and future <ul><li>Not legal equality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filiation rights  recognized  but only  automatica...
Challenges and future <ul><li>“ I won’t allow the conservative candidate to deny rights to any single family” </li></ul>1....
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Presentacion Jose Ignacio Pichardo Spain Beyond Marriage

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Presentacion de Jose Ignacio Pichardo de la UAM, en "Conference on LGBT families in Europe"
4-6 March 2008 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

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Presentacion Jose Ignacio Pichardo Spain Beyond Marriage

  1. 1. Beyond marriage: LGBT families in Spain. José Ignacio Pichardo Galán, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid [email_address] Conference on LGBT families in Europe 4-6 March 2008 Ljubljana (Slovenia)
  2. 2. Changes <ul><li>From Franco’s dictatorship: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic conceptions of family. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persecution of homosexualiy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To the newly democratic Spain’s 1978 Constitution : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerance and openness to sexuality (heterosexuality). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End of 1970s: legalization of homosexuality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1980s: fall in LGBT activism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AIDS epidemic: discrimination and visibility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From 1995: LGBT movement boomed. </li></ul></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  3. 3. Changes <ul><li>Adoption Law (1987): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>any single person, heterosexual or not, is allowed to adopt a child individually. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unmarried different-sex couples are allowed to adopt jointly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain is the 2nd country in the world for international adoptions: multiracial families. </li></ul></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  4. 4. Changes <ul><li>Adoption Law (1987). </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Assisted Reproductive Techniques (1988): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>any woman, married or not, heterosexual or homosexual, can use ART. </li></ul></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  5. 5. Changes <ul><li>10% of the women who use these techniques are not married. </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage of lesbians? </li></ul><ul><li>20% foreigners (Portugal, Italy, France, Morocco and United Kingdom). </li></ul><ul><li>Surrogate motherhood is not allowed. </li></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  6. 6. Changes <ul><li>Adoption Law (1987). </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Assisted Reproductive Techniques, (1988). </li></ul><ul><li>Regional laws for registered partnership (1998-2005): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>same-sex couples can register themselves. </li></ul></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  7. 7. Changes 1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  8. 8. Changes <ul><li>Adoption Law (1987). </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Assisted Reproductive Techniques, (1988). </li></ul><ul><li>Regional laws for registered partnership (1998-2005): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>same-sex couples can register themselves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in some regions, they can adopt jointly (without marrying). </li></ul></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  9. 9. Changes <ul><li>Adoption Law (1987). </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Assisted Reproductive Techniques (1988). </li></ul><ul><li>Regional laws for registered partnership (1998-2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Same-sex marriage (2005): </li></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  10. 10. Changes <ul><li>Adoption Law (1987). </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Assisted Reproductive Techniques (1988). </li></ul><ul><li>Regional laws for registered partnership (1998-2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Same-sex marriage (2005): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social consensus (3% in 1973 / 66% in 2004), </li></ul></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  11. 11. Changes <ul><ul><li>Do you think homosexual couples should have the right to marry? </li></ul></ul>CIS, June 2004 1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  12. 12. Changes <ul><li>Adoption Law (1987). </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Assisted Reproductive Techniques (1988). </li></ul><ul><li>Regional laws for registered partnership (1998-2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Same-sex marriage (2005): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social consensus (3% in 1973 / 66% in 2004), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservative and Catholic Church resistances, </li></ul></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  13. 13. Changes <ul><ul><li>Arguments against gay-marriage: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is unnatural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The best interest of children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not having appropriate gender models </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confused </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can get bullied </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homosexuals are prone to: promiscuity, drugs, sexual abuse, mental instability, higher rates of HIV-AIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No society recognizes same-sex marriage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threatens the economic system (social security will bankrupt) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A virus on society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not recognized outside the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why being experimental? </li></ul></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  14. 14. Changes <ul><li>Madrid, 18 th June 2005, anti-gay marriage demonstration: </li></ul><ul><li>“ FAMILY DOES MATTER” </li></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  15. 15. Changes <ul><li>Adoption Law (1987). </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Assisted Reproductive Techniques (1988). </li></ul><ul><li>Regional laws for registered partnership (1998-2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Same-sex marriage (2005): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social consensus (3% in 1973 / 66% in 2004), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservative and Catholic Church resistances, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>overcoming resistances. </li></ul></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  16. 16. Changes <ul><ul><li>Democracy / Spanish Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International influence: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European resolutions and declarations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LGBT and Human Rights movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reason vs religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens defines “marriage”: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A majority of Spaniards voted for same-sex marriage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gay and lesbian activist in political parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visibility: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social acceptance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Love” as a symbol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LGBT movement presented as united for “gay marriage” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizenship: no equal but separate rights. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children living in LGBT families: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Andalusia and Madrid Study (2002): no significant differences </li></ul></ul></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  17. 17. Changes <ul><li>Madrid Gay Pride Demonstration Attendance </li></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  18. 18. Changes <ul><li>Adoption Law (1987). </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Assisted Reproductive Techniques, (1988). </li></ul><ul><li>Regional laws for registered partnership (1998-2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Same-sex marriage (2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Identity Law (2007): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2006 New Law on ART was revised to automatically recognize filiation rights for married lesbian couples. </li></ul></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  19. 19. Queers and families <ul><li>Not a discourse about “chosen families”. </li></ul><ul><li>Friends are friends, not family, although they can be “as family”: they are important anyway. </li></ul><ul><li>What’s a family? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partners, sometimes family, sometimes not. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than two to be family (children). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Having children in LGBT’s life horizons. </li></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  20. 20. Queers and families <ul><li>Paternity among Spanish LGBs (N=263) </li></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  21. 21. Queers and families <ul><li>Schools as a mayor preocupation for LGBTs with children. </li></ul><ul><li>Law on Education (2006): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect for sexual and familiar diversity has to be taught at school . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education for Human Rights and Citizenship: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fight against homophobia and recognition of diverse forms of families. </li></ul></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  22. 22. <ul><li>Students conceptions of family (N=4,643): </li></ul><ul><li>85% students wouldn’t find relevant the fact that a classmate lives in an LGBT family and/or they would support him/her. </li></ul><ul><li>2,8% would not talk to him/her, and 2,6% would bully him/her </li></ul>Queers and families 1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future A couple of man and woman with their children (nuclear heterosexual) 89,6% A single mother with her children (monoparental) 73,4% A divorced man with children married with a woman with children (step family) 65,9% A couple of two women and their children that live together without getting married (homoparental) 55,8% A child living with his foster father (non biological paternity) 54,1% A couple of man and woman without children (heterosexual de facto couple) 53,9% A couple of two married men without children (homosexual couple) 40,1% A person with no couple that lives alone (unipersonal) 10,5%
  23. 23. Queers and families <ul><li>Not a detachment between the groups they create and biological families. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition from and integration with their biological families: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as a homosexual person, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of their partner (if they have one), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of their offspring if they have any (or their partner’s). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ritual moments. </li></ul><ul><li>Important for the biological family to keep their relation with the homosexual member. </li></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  24. 24. Queers and families <ul><li>Discourses about “new families”. </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction for recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking the link of heterosexuality-filiation-alliance-intercourse. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Life experiments”. </li></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  25. 25. Norms in practice <ul><li>2001 - Census: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10,474 homosexual couples (0.11%). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2005 - Spanish National Statistic Institute : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1,275 homosexual couples got married (0.61%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2006 - Spanish National Statistic Institute : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4,574 homosexual couples got married ( 2.16 %) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By Dec 2007 - Spanish LGBT Federation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>150 same-sex joint adoption, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>42 divorces. </li></ul></ul>UK: 31.344 inscriptions in the first year! 1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  26. 26. Norms in practice <ul><li>Who is getting married? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people in long-term relationships with common possessions, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>couples in which one member is ill or about to die, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>couples with offspring (in order to adopt the other partner’s son/daughter), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>couples in which one of the partners needs to solve their immigration situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some couples refer to a “romantic activism” to get married. Social recognition. </li></ul></ul>* * * * 1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  27. 27. Norms in practice 1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future Marriages in 2006
  28. 28. Norms in practice 1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  29. 29. Norms in practice <ul><li>Homophobia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence or members of the family during the wedding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not taking days off / Not saying it at work. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reasons not to marry: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public outing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International adoption. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homosexuality illegal in home country. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not sharing marriage values. </li></ul></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  30. 30. Challenges and future <ul><li>Not legal equality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filiation rights recognized but only automatically if married and using ART in clinics . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unmarried, unregistered same-sex couples cannot adopt jointly. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public policies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No budget and many resistances. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homophobic judges. </li></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  31. 31. Challenges and future <ul><li>Judge Calamita: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevented a woman to adopt her spouse biological daughter (ART). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took away custody of her daughter from a mother because of being lesbian. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fined and suspended. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fear from LGBT parents </li></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  32. 32. Challenges and future <ul><li>Not legal equality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filiation rights recognized but only automatically if married and using ART in clinics . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unmarried, unregistered same-sex couples cannot adopt jointly. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public policies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No budget and many resistances. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homophobic judges. </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative party (Rajoy): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abolish same-sex marriage. </li></ul></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future
  33. 33. Challenges and future <ul><li>“ I won’t allow the conservative candidate to deny rights to any single family” </li></ul>1.Changes 2.Specificity or queer families in Spain 3.Norms in practice: getting married or not 4.Challenges and future

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