How Universities Should Teach Entrepreneurship


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The reason for this Presentation is to highlight the fundamental and demanding role that educators have in entrepreneurship education. It unveils the delivery techniques that motivate students to stay connected to school and learn the skills required for entrepreneurial success. And the key components to results oriented entrepreneurship program. The Presentation also highlights a potential entrepreneurship training model based on pragmatic learning which will facilitate the “production” of business owners or entrepreneurs.

How Universities Should Teach Entrepreneurship

  1. 1. How UniversitiesShould TeachEntrepreneurship
  3. 3. Presented ByChinedum Azuh
  4. 4. Direct ContactMobile:
  5. 5. Purpose of PresentationThe reason for this Presentation is to highlight thefundamental and demanding role that educators havein entrepreneurship education. It unveils the deliverytechniques that motivate students to stay connected toschool and learn the skills required for entrepreneurialsuccess. And the key components to results orientedentrepreneurship program. The Presentation alsohighlights a potential entrepreneurship training modelbased on pragmatic learning which will facilitate the“production” of business owners or entrepreneurs.
  6. 6. What is Entrepreneurship Education?Entrepreneurship Education seeks toprovide students with the knowledge,skills and motivation to encourageentrepreneurial success in variations
  7. 7. Challenges Faced By Educators The success of entrepreneurship education begins with University Educators. Here are some of the challenges we need to tackle to achieve success in our entrepreneurship programs:1. Shortage of Quality Teaching Materials2. Challenge to Provide students with Real-world Experiences3. Shortage of Funds4. Most People (Parents, Students, etc.) Believe More in Job Security than Entrepreneurship5. Technology is not Fully Integrated into the Program
  8. 8. Underlying Logic in DesigningEntrepreneurship CurriculumThe courses that constitute the entrepreneurship educationcurriculum should be designed to capture two keyconsiderations: Contexts and Facilitators. First, the Facilitatorscurriculum should reflect the many organizational Contextsin which entrepreneurship can be applied. In this regard,entrepreneurship is concerned not only with start-ups butother key areas that will be outlined in the Diagram below.Second, the curriculum should reflect key Facilitators ofthe entrepreneurial process. Facilitators are concerned withinputs that are vital for making entrepreneurship happendespite the context. Let’s look at the Diagram for details.
  9. 9. Underlying Logic in DesigningEntrepreneurship Curriculum Contexts FacilitatorsStart-up Ventures Entrepreneurship within Opportunity Identification Creativity/Ideation Professions & DisciplinesEarly growth firms Planning Resource Leveraging Non-Profit & Social Risk ManagementFamily Businesses Networking EntrepreneurshipRapid Growth Guerrilla Techniques Public sector Entrepreneurship Legal & Ethical InsightsVentures Building the E Team Cultural Entrepreneurship New Product- Service- TechnologyCorporate Process DevelopmentEntrepreneurship Academic Entrepreneurship Venture Financing Implementation Skills
  10. 10. Integration of Technology into Entrepreneurship EducationTechnology is a gift of God. After the gift of life it is perhaps the greatest of Gods gifts. It is the mother of civilizations, of arts and of sciences. - Freeman Dyson.Another critical factor in the landscape of entrepreneurship education is theintegration of technology, especially in the method of program delivery. As inother educational arenas, technology offers the benefits of cutting long-termcosts while expanding training capabilities and opportunities. Other than theuse of computer-business tools, the most prevalent cutting-edge technology inentrepreneurship education is virtual learning.Technology has revolutionized the field of education. The importance oftechnology in schools cannot be ignored. In fact, with the onset of computers ineducation, it has become easier for teachers to impart knowledge and forstudents to acquire it.
  11. 11. Integration of Technology into Entrepreneurship EducationThe use of technology has made the process of teaching and learningenjoyable. Entrepreneurship cannot be a field that succumbs to stagnation. Itmust recognize and apply technologies in the educational setting. In manyrespects entrepreneurship education may actually transform the educationalsetting.For example, some universities are applying unique technological applicationssuch as the George Washington University. They developed a software toolentitled, “Prometheus.” In addition to offering students and teachers theopportunity to interact via e-mail, bulletin boards and live discussion formats,Prometheus and other course management programs also integratemultimedia options into the course. Students can access a course site, downloada posted journal article, watch an instructional video or DVD and return acompleted assignment from any Internet connections. Educators can follow up
  12. 12. Teaching With Enterprise ModulesThis system has to do with tailoring start-up and entrepreneurshipmodules to specific academic subjects.It will show students in the sciences for instance, how to turn theirresearch into successful commercial products that can be used byprivate and public organizations. What is important about thisinitiative is that it gives a broader scope to enterprise, taking it awayfrom the bias that entrepreneurship is only of interest to businessstudents. Entrepreneurship education, because it is especially wellsuited to interdisciplinary approaches, can be most effective when itis integrated into various courses in the school curriculum.
  13. 13. Creating an Entrepreneurial NetworkFirst and foremost, entrepreneurship educationrequires close cooperation between academia andbusiness. Entrepreneurship Education thrives innetworks in which multiple stakeholders play keyroles. Academic institutions are central in shapingyoung people’s attitudes, skills and behaviors.However, actors outside of the education systemsplay an increasingly critical roles in promotingentrepreneurial education by providing knowledge,expertise, mentoring and social capital.
  14. 14. Creating an Entrepreneurial NetworkMENTORSHIP. Universities should create networks of accessibleexperts, and bring these people into the university so that studentscan learn from their ACTUAL experiences. This can be donethrough Seminars, Workshops, any events that allow for offlinecollaboration. Mentoring occurs naturally when students andexperts have the ability to meet in person. Through suchpartnerships, instructors can expose students to successful smallbusinesses, provide opportunities for students to practice theirskills, enable students to become familiar with entrepreneurial andmanagement tasks, and introduce students to contacts that they candraw upon to pursue their entrepreneurial dreams.
  15. 15. Creating an Entrepreneurial NetworkCollaboration With Entrepreneurs. Each department should actas a pipeline into entrepreneurship. For instance, health and nursingdepartments should partner with local small businesses within thehealthcare space to give their students hands-on experienceworking with individuals who started healthcare companies. It’s awin-win situation for everyone. Students get the desired experienceand connections, business owners get matched with ambitiousyoung people who they could work with.
  16. 16. Case Study on Creating Entrepreneurial NetworkThe Donald H. Jones Center for Entrepreneurship atCarnegie Mellon University’s Tepper School ofBusiness delivers cutting-edge innovations to theglobal marketplace and groundbreaking research bybringing together students, faculty and practitioners.The center’s interdisciplinary academic approach,coupled with experiential learning, is gearedtowards students leading innovation, change, andgrowth in start-ups, emerging companies, andmature organizations.
  17. 17. Start-up Simulation in Entrepreneurship EducationThis simulation is designed to involve all participants in the Entrepreneurshipprogram in the activities of setting up a business. It can be used for instructortraining workshops or for actual students in the entrepreneurship program.The tasks can be divided into work for three teams (Management Team, MarketingTeam, and Finance Team). Also there are tasks for the entire class that willintegrate the decisions of the whole business team. Depending on the number ofstudents in your class you could have them organize one, two, or three businesses. Itis more competitive if there is more than one business.This activity is designed to give students a real experience in starting a businesswhile they are learning about the skills and planning their own business. Werecommend that the simulation be scheduled as a learning experience for the wholegroup after the class has studied some of the elements of starting a business. Bythen they will have spent time on planning their own business and learning aboutmarketing, finance, and legal issues. At the same time they will also work on theunit on record keeping and continue to develop their own business plans during thisperiod.
  18. 18. Start-up Simulation in Entrepreneurship EducationThis system will help you to identify a few of your students who are having troublegetting a real business idea that they can start. You may consider putting themtogether in one group with the idea of using the simulation, and group thinking, tocome up with an idea they can continue after the simulation.The instructor acts as banker or potential investor for the companies, approving ornot approving their decisions. You may wish to provide a small amount of seedcapital for each company that should be repaid after the grand opening. Develop anappropriate contract with the group for repayment of this investment.You may want to have a supply of colored markers and poster paper for the groupsto use as well as access to a copy machine and perhaps computers. It is your optionto charge the groups for use of these materials. Having them handy will facilitatethe activity.The Grand Opening of each business should be scheduled for the last day of thesimulation. You will need to think about getting permission to use other teachers orstudents in the school as your potential customers. Of course, anyone in thecommunity could also be the target audience. They will actually prepare for onlyone day of operation, but their plans will represent what the business would do forat least a year.
  19. 19. Start-up Simulation in Entrepreneurship EducationEach business will be expected to make a 20-minute presentationto the "potential investors" in a group session on the last day.This should be seen as a role-playing demonstration of the grouppresenting their business plan to a real banker or investor.Actually the instructor, other teachers or community advisors willserve in this role. They should be prepared to ask the businessteams some questions about their plans.You may want to think about this simulation as an opportunity topromote your program with the local news media or with othersin your school or community.
  20. 20. Integrating Startup & Income Opportunity Seminars Into The Entrepreneurial ProgramThese are meetings on specialized subjects: a single session orshort, often one-day or half-day meeting devoted to a presentation onand discussion of a specialized topic. For instance a seminar onDeveloping a Career in Public Speaking is an income opportunityseminar while Creating a Distinctive Brand is an example of astartup seminar. I have a joint venture deal with Success AttitudeDevelopment Centre (SADC) an NGO devoted to nurturingentrepreneurs. We run series of Income Opportunity seminars called“Be Your Own Boss”. And we also organize startup seminars. Thisyear alone (2012) I have done over 5 seminars with them that havehelped over 500 Nigerians start their own businesses. And I have acolumn in this NGO’s publication (Success Digest) called StartupTips.
  21. 21. ConclusionThese are ideas garnered from some of the mostsuccessful entrepreneurship centers in Europe,Asia and America. And as an entrepreneur andentrepreneurship programs facilitator I haveseen these ideas at work in so many scenarios.These ideas are tested and proven. Integratethem into your programs today and you will seeamazing results.Thank You!
  22. 22. ReferenceNational Alliance of Business. "Training Young Entrepreneurs to Get Down to Business." Workforce Economics 5, no. 3 (December 1999): 9-11. (ED 436 675) Nelson, R. E., and Johnson, S. D. "Entrepreneurship Education as a Strategic Approach to Economic Growth in Kenya." Journal of Industrial Teacher Education 35, no. 1 (Fall 1997): 7-21., E. "Owning Their Education." Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers 75, no. 4 (April 2000): 26-29. Saboe, L. R.; Kantor, J.; and Walsh, J. "Cultivating Entrepreneurship." Educational Leadership 59, no. 7 (April 2002): 80-82. Scherrer, B. "Making Entrepreneurship Come Alive in the Classroom: How to Develop a National Award-Winning Entrepreneurship Program." Business Education Forum 56, no. 3 (February 2002): 40-42. Stanforth, N., and Muske, G. "Family and Consumer Sciences Students Interest in Entrepreneurship Education." Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences: From Research to Practice 91, no. 4 (1999): 34-38. ReferencesBillett, S. "Increasing Small Business Participation in VET: A Hard Ask." Education + Training 43, no. 8-9 (2001): 416- 425.
  23. 23. ReferencesEntrepreneurship Education in Norway.The Educators Corner: A Response toNeeds in Entrepreneurship Education by Katherine A. Emery, & John FelandStanford Technology Ventures Program/Center for Design Research Stanford University.ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS DRIVER OF B-SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY TRANSFORMATION Dr. Michael H. Morris Professor and N. Malone Mitchell Chair Dept. of Entrepreneurship Oklahoma State University Stillwater, Oklahoma, USAEntrepreneurship Education in China-----------Boethel, M. Rural Student Entrepreneurs: Linking Commerce and Community. (Benefits)(Squared): The Exponential Results of Linking School Improvement and Community Development, Issue no. 3. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Lab, 2000. (ED 440 805), C. Curriculum for Entrepreneurship Education: A Review. CELCEE Digest 00-8. Los Angeles, CA: Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Entrepreneurship Education, 2000a. (ED 452 897)
  24. 24. ReferencesDaly, S. P. "Student-Operated Internet Businesses: True Experiential Learning in Entrepreneurship and Retail Management." Journal of Marketing Education 23, no. 3 (December 2001): 204-215. Dwerryhouse, R. "Real Work in the 16-19 Curriculum: AVCE Business and Young Enterprise." Education + Training 43, no. 3 (2001): 153-161. FastTrac™ Fact Sheet. Kansas City, MO: FastTracTM National Headquarters, 2001., A. C.; Loveridge, S.; and Richardson, B. "A National School-Based Entrepreneurship Program Offers Promise." Journal of the Community Development Society 30, no. 2 (1999): 115-130. Kavan, C. B., and OHara, M. T. "Stimulating Entrepreneurship in the Classroom." Business Education Forum 57, no. 3 (February 2003): 41-43.National Alliance of Business. "Training Young Entrepreneurs to Get Down to Business." Workforce Economics 5, no. 3 (December 1999): 9-11. (ED 436 675)Harvard Business Review published an article by Babson Global Professor Daniel IsenbergCreating an Entrepreneurial Environment in Egypt -- Egypt Human Development Report 2010