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Brunswick intelligence - Brexit in perspective

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Europe is edging closer to an event once unthinkable in post-war politics – the possible retreat of arguably the continent’s greatest triumph. With the unilateral triggering of Article 50, expected in March 2017, the United Kingdom would present itself as the first Member State to declare its intention to withdraw membership of the European Union.
An inside view from Brussels.

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Brunswick intelligence - Brexit in perspective

  1. 1. Episode1:Keepcalmandnegotiate AninsideviewfromBrussels Brexitinperspective January 2017
  2. 2. © Brunswick 2016 | 2 Howeverunprecedented, themechanicsfor withdrawalarenow underway.Theroadwill notbeeasyfor eitherparty. Itremainstobeseen whetherthemotto‘united indiversity’willholdtrue overthecourseof any futurenegotiationsbut,as thingsstand,theEuropean institutionsareholding firm onaresoluteposition towardsanexitpartner thatissettingnoclear negotiationsobjective. Therearetobeno negotiationsbeforethe formalnotificationof Article50of theTreatyon EuropeanUnion(TEU),and oncenegotiationsstartthe Europeaninstitutionswill worktopreservethe interestsof theremaining Members.Decadesof equal partnershipamongst Europeannationsaresetto beunravelledas discussionspittheUnited Kingdomagainstthe remainingMemberStates. 2016:Theyearof revolt. 2017:Theyearof uncertainty? Postulating outcomesover thenext fewmonths highlights thatuncertainty remains theelephant in theroom for many factors in aBrexit negotiation. Europe is hosting numerous elections in its Member States over thecourse of 2017. These range from local elections to elections for President in all parts of Europe; North to South,East to West. Of key importance will be votes in France and Germany, thetraditional ‘driver states’ of theEuropean Union. Just like in theBritish referendum vote on EUmembership, and therecent Presidential elections in theUnited States,there is aquestion mark over likely outcomes in almost all of these popular votes. Whereas asolid lead in thepolls traditionally meant guaranteed wins, today’s political climate seems like shakier ground. Whatwe can be sure of however is that,whether in March or later on, the UK Government will trigger Article 50. There isthena clear process for this withdrawal of EUmembership, with theexpectation of avery strict – and tight –timetable, unless theparties agree to extend it as set outin paragraph 3 of Article 50. Europe is edging closer to an event once unthinkable in post-war politics – the possible retreat of arguably the continent’s greatest triumph. Withthe unilateraltriggering of Article 50, expectedin March 2017, the United Kingdom would present itselfas the first Member State to declare its intention to withdraw membership of the European Union.
  3. 3. Brunswick Group Brexit in perspective © Brunswick 2016 | 3 Phase 5: October 2018 – March 2019 Phase 3: June – August 2017 Phase 4: August 2017 – October 2018 Negotiations begin with the UK (topics include the EU budget, financial settlement, acquired rights of citizens and business and borders) Donald Tusk European Council Article 50 TaskForce Guy Verhofstadt will act as “observer” for the European Parliament Adedicated Council Working Group will provide guidance for the negotiator and EU’s negotiating team ona regular basis RepresentativeoftheCouncil Presidencywillalsositinthe negotiatingteam Michel Barnier PrimeMinister Westminster OR Phase 1: March 2017 ? UK Supreme CourtCase: Who can trigger Article50? European Council to adopt broad, principle based guidelines for Article 50 framework (which can be revised if needed) At the recommendation of the European Commission, the Council will open negotiations and nominate the Union negotiator The UK formallynotifiesthe EuropeanCouncil of itsintention to withdrawfrom EU membership(“triggersArticle50”) Phase 2: March – June 2017 European Council formallynominate Barnier as chief negotiator and agree procedural working relationshipbetween institutions Interinstitutionalcooperation The Article 50 Task Force (European Commission) will keep the EU27 and the European Parliament informed. Representatives of Donald Tusk will be present in a supporting role. Transitional arrangement and new relationship OR Phase 6: March 2019 - ? Hard Brexit? European Parliament,European Council and the UK to agree to any Article 50 Agreement or decide to extend the negotiations. The agreement process depends on whetherit is an EU or “mixed” competency agreement. EuropeanCouncil European Council The official “Brexit” procedure TriggeringArticle50 © Brunswick 2016 | 3
  4. 4. Brunswick Group Brexit in perspective © Brunswick 2016 | 4 Immediatelyfollowingthe announcementof theUK referendumresult,the EuropeanCounciltook charge.Thedayafterthe referendum,aCouncilTask Force wascreatedto plan theupcomingnegotiations. Ithasbeenagreedthata specific‘Brexit’Working Groupwillbesetup but onlystartafterformal notification of Article50by theUnitedKingdom.In September,European CommissionPresident Jean-ClaudeJuncker announcedthecreationof anArticle50TaskForce to laythegroundworkfor impendingnegotiationsto begin.FormerInternal MarketCommissioner, FrenchmanMichelBarnier, istoheadoperationswitha Germantradeexpert deputy,SabineWeyand, guidinghimthroughthe process.TheUnion negotiatingteamwillthen beCommissionled (by Barnier)withinvolvement from Council representatives. 1/ EuropeanCommission Thewider European Commission will feed input into theArticle 50 Task Force through headsof European Commission departments (so-called Director-Generals) and specific “single contact points”, one additional official for each Directorate-General (department). On6 December, theEuropean Commission’s ChiefBrexit negotiator, MichelBarnier, delivered his opening press statement on thepreparations underway at EUlevel for any notification of Article 50 by theUK. He took thetime to outline theprocess which would dictate thefuture negotiations. According to Barnier, if theUK notifies Article 50 in March 2017, then agreement must bereached on the leaving arrangement by October 2018. This datewould thenallow for ratification by theEU27 (depending on which competences theagreement covers), theUKParliament and with theconsent (asimple majority) of the European Parliament before theMarch 2019 deadline. Any futuretransitional arrangement would thendepend on whetherthe EU27 think thatit would be usefulto pursue one. Their decision will depend on what sort of relationship theUK asks for after “Brexit” (and what the other EU27 are prepared to give). Any post-Brexit agreement will haveto be concluded aswith a third country. This means thatnew negotiations cannot start until thefinal Brexit process is completed (i.e. after March 2019). Outsidethetiming issues,we can expect adegree of balkanisation – Germany, France, Visegrad, Netherlands and Ireland, Nordics and Baltics, Southern periphery: but these groups will likely shiftand change depending on theissue being discussed. 2/ MemberStates (EuropeanCouncil;Council of the EuropeanUnion) TheEU27 Member Stateswill set upa dedicated committee (Council Working Group) of dedicated officials from their Permanent Representations (whichact asMember Statefootprints in Brussels) to cover Brexit matters. Chief Negotiator Barnier will thenregularly update and discuss issueswith this Working Group over thecourse of the Article 50 negotiations; and Sherpas (who inform theHeads of Government and States). On15 December, theEuropean Council President Donald Tusk made a statement after ameeting of theEU27. Tusk outlined that theUnion negotiating teamwill have a representative of therotating Council Presidency, and that representatives of European Council President Donald Tusk will have asupporting role in the negotiations themselves. There will also be broad political guidelines, and more detailed directives, drafted bythe Member Statesto give theUnion negotiating teamguidance over the course of negotiations. Intelligence update
  5. 5. © Brunswick 2016 | 5 3/ EuropeanParliament GuyVerhofstadt was appointed by the European Parliament’s political Groups to report back on thenegotiations once theyget underway. This will bea restricted dialogue between Verhofstadt and thepolitical Group heads. TheParliament’s far right EFDD Group (Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy) nominated Nigel Farage asits own Brexit observer, causing some political complications. On15 December, it wasagreed between theinstitutions that Verhofstadt will have accessto the same briefings as theCouncil sherpas. TheUnited Kingdom’s “Brexit Minister” David Davis, was recently in Strasbourg to discuss negotiations with theMembers of theEuropean Parliament. During Davis’ talks with Verhofstadt theofficial line stood for, that Brexit talks will becompleted before the2019 European Parliament elections. TheEuropean Parliament’s elections for President (a role with increased powers over theyears) will come up for grabs in January 2017, which may see some shifting in alliances to try and secure thetopspot. Expectations so far point to thecentre-right EPPGroup candidate, Italian Antonio Tajani, taking theposition. The European Parliament isset to adopt a resolution in Spring 2017 which is expected to feed into thenegotiating guidelines offered bytheEuropean Council. Issuessuch astheUK’s external borders (particularly with Ireland) are expected to feature. There are however some indications that tensions between political Groups are not asunified over theBrexit issues as Verhofstadt’s rhetoric implies. Thelargest political Group, theEPP, is known to be less enthusedabout upcoming negotiations –particularly Members coming from non-Eurozone countries. They fear thatwithout a strong non-Eurozone voice like theUK alongside them,their clout risks being reduced in EUdebates. Theresolution will be an important indicator of what theEuropean Parliament will expect in any final discussion (it hasaveto over any agreement) butultimately it will only influence theEuropean Commission’s recommendations to theMember Statesabout whatto mandate in discussions. It is unlikely theMember Stateswill take kindly to any perception theyare being held to ransom by theEuropean Parliament.
  6. 6. Brunswick Group Brexit in perspective © Brunswick 2016 | 6  The “negotiationperiod”under Article50 will not take up the full 2 years.The Member States(EU27)will onlybegin to drafttheir guidelinesfor the EuropeanCommissionto negotiatewith afterofficialnotification is given by the United Kingdom signalingitsintent to withdraw membershipfrom the European Union.Institutionalestimatesexpect theseguidelinesto be readywithin three to five weeks afternotification– but more cautious estimatessuggest thattheywill not be readyuntil Mayor August2017.  The Article50 negotiationswill be a broad exitarrangement.Boththe United Kingdom,and EU27havesaid thatthesediscussionswill focuson the mechanics of withdrawal– and not the foundations of anew relationship. Thatagreement will come later,if at all.The Article50 agreement will focus on issues likehow to deal with budget contributions,borders,any ongoing casesin the EuropeanCourtof Justice, EU buildingand infrastructure settlementsand citizens'rights(such asthe futurestatusof EU27nationals in the UK; and viceversa). Depending on whether the UK indicatesit wants some form of post-Article50 agreement; any transitional arrangement will likelybe more status quo (equivalenceregime) than “bespoke”.  The UK's constitutionwill be of utmost importance.Core overlappingconcernsfor the UK, EU and other Member Stateswill need to be handledcarefullyif and when the UK extractsitselffrom the EU framework.A coreconcernfor Chief NegotiatorMichelBarnier - and British neighbor the IrishRepublic -is the implicationsof withdrawalon NorthernIreland.A “hardborder” is a concernfor both partiesgiven the perceived backwardstepsucha border wouldsend aboutrelations between the two countries;aswell as for logisticalsecurityand defence implications.Even within the mainlandUK,many constitutional issues– suchasthe statusof Scotland and Wales – will likelyrequire further clarity.Theseissueswill not be solved quicklyand may involvetimely legal challenges.  The Article50 timetablewill put pressureon a principlebased negotiation. The two year – or less than two year– negotiationperiodwill not involveany "tweakingof issues”, or reopening of complexlegislationor files.There will likely bea broad sweeping approachmeaning that industrywill be haveto waititsturn if it wants to cherrypick or influence existinglegislation.  A successfulArticle50 requiresa constructiveapproach from both sides. To make any significant headway inthe tighttimeframe for withdrawal,there is a need for a reasonedand dispassionate discussion.The tensionsare currently riding highand whilstboth parties remain adamantthatthere is no desire to “punish” theother– the atmosphere will donothing to fostercompromise.  Can Article 50 be revoked?The reversibilityof Article50 will likely proveincreasingly importantgoing forward.To achievesomuch,in so littletime, there is a risk thatthe UK will be pushedinto revokingArticle50 – or into walkingawayfrom a last minute deal withthe EU27.The ability to ‘undo’ Article50 once triggered still needs to be legallyanalysed. Assumptions about the Article 50 process
  7. 7. Brunswick Group Brexit in perspective © Brunswick 2016 | 7 Article 50 process in action 1. TheMember Staterepresentatives feed into theEuropean Council position through their respective channels. Sherpas help to feedback and update Heads of Member Statesand Government on this process. 2. TheEuropean Council provides negotiating directives to provide guidance to theUnion negotiators for usein thenegotiating sessions. 3. Negotiating sessions take place; on theEuropean side MichelBarnier from theEuropean Commission takes thelead role, with representatives of Donald Tusk and theCouncil Presidency also present in theroom. The United Kingdom’s negotiating set up isstill to be defined. 4. TheEuropean Union negotiating team reports information back to theEuropean Parliament who provide soft feedback. The team also reports back to theCouncil Working Party on theUK, who are consulted about developments. EU steering process Article 50 negotiations 3. Negotiation sessions 1. 2. 4. 4. Sherpas European Council (EU 27) General Affairs Council COREPER Council Working Group on the Brexit EU Negotiating Team Article 50 Task Force (Barnier led). Representatives of Donald Tusk and Council Presidency. European Parliament Brexit negotiator UK Negotiating Team DExEU and Cabinet Office UK Permanent Representation to the EU European Parliament
  8. 8. Brunswick Group Brexit in perspective © Brunswick 2016 | 8 In focus TheEuropean Council will maintain control of the“Brexit” process through aset of broad negotiating guidelines – initially principle based, and then supplemented by specific “directives” (drawn upby national Ministers for the EU)containing greater detail asand when it is needed over thecourse of negotiations. This work is expected to be coordinated by Didier Seeuws and hisinternal task force team in the Council. Aside from setting thebroad framework of negotiations, Member Stateswill havea presence in the negotiation process, albeit of a less practical nature thanMichelBarnier (who will negotiate on behalf of the whole European Union, not just the European Commission). Withinthe European Union’s negotiating team, thelead negotiator will be MichelBarnier. A representative of theCouncil Presidency (who havea coordinating role for ministerial discussions on a six month rotation) will be present in the Union negotiating team and therefore directly involved with thecoordination work taking place between the European Commission’s core Brexit team and theEuropean Commission’s own departments. Representatives of Donald Tusk are also beto present, with observer status,in any negotiating rounds between Michel Barnier and theUK negotiating team. “Sherpas” (thechief foreign policy/EU policy advisors of thePrime Ministers) will brief theHeads of State or Government on what isgoing on. OntheEuropean Parliament side, Guy Verhofstadt, and therefore the Conference of Presidents (heads of political Groups) are expected to receive thesame level of briefing as the Member States.The European Parliament hasno functional role in the negotiation process itself, but will need to give consent by simple majority to any final agreement. Europeaninstitutionalframework(declaredor probable) European Council European Commission Departments European Parliament Single Contact Points Council of the EU: Council Working Group 5.6.7.8.9.10.11. 2.1. 3.4. Article 50 Task Force Council Presidency Representatives Representatives of Donald Tusk Union negotiating team Personalities: 1.Donald Tusk(President, EuropeanCouncil); 2.Didier Seeuws (Brexit Coorindator, European Council);3.Sabine Weyand (Deputy ChiefNegotiator, EuropeanCommission); 4.Michel Barnier (ChiefNegotiator, EuropeanCommission); 5.GuyVerhofstadt (Chiefliaison fortheEuropean Parliament/Leader,ALDE Group);6.Manfred Weber (Leader,EPPGroup);7.Gianni Pittella (Leader,S&DGroup); 8.SyedKamall (Leader;ECR Group);9.Gabriele Zimmer(Leader,GUE Group);10.Ska Keller (Co-leader,Greens Group); 11.Philippe Lamberts (Co-leader,Greens Group);12.Jean-Claude Juncker (President, EuropeanCommission); 13 Martin Selmayr (HeadofCabinet, Jean-Claude Juncker) 12. 13. European Commission
  9. 9. Brunswick Group Brexit in perspective © Brunswick 2016 | 9 In focus Asof 2017, a new Unit isto beset upin theCabinet Office(department supporting thework of thePrime Minister and Cabinet) to cover Brexit. It will comprise civil servants from the Cabinet Officeproper, theTreasury and theForeign and Commonwealth office. Oliver Robbins is thePermanent Secretary (Department Head) under David Davis in theso-called ‘Brexit Ministry’ (DExEU).Robbins will have responsibility for supporting Cabinet in examining options for theUnited Kingdom’s futurerelationship outside theEU,with Europe, and therest of the world aswell asresponsibility for the wider European and Global Issues Secretariat at theCabinet Office.He is known to be very close to theHead of theCivil Service Jeremy Heywood. Robbins will be joined by Alex Ellis at DExEU,current British Ambassador to Brazil. Ellis hasexperience both in the Permanent Representation of theUK to theEuropean Union (covering, amongst others, enlargement issues) and in thepolitical Cabinet of former European Commission President José ManuelBarroso. Wecan expect thatRobbins will be heavily influential in theadvising of Theresa Mayon issuesrelating to the exit of theUK from theEuropean Union. His strong personal connections within theCabinet Office are likely to make hima key influence on in thePrime Minister’s thinking in thelead upto March 2017. UK Permanent Representative Sir Ivan Rogers submitted hisresignation on 3 January. Tim Barrow, acareer diplomat, was announced aday later as hisreplacement. UnitedKingdom(declaredor probable) Personalities: 1.TheresaMay(PrimeMinister, United Kingdom); 2.Jeremy Heywood(Head, CivilService);3.Oliver Robbins (EUSherpa, HeadofCabinet OfficeBrexit unit and Permanent Secretary,DExEU); 4.Boris Johnson (ForeignSecretary);5.LiamFox(International Trade);6.DavidDavis (“Brexit”DExEUMinister); 7.AlexEllis (DirectorGeneral,DExEU); 8.SarahHealey (DirectorGeneral,DExEU); 9.Tim Barrow (theUKPermanent Representative to theEU);10.PhilipHammond (Chancellor ofthe Exchequer,MP,“Remainer”, Conservative Party);11.Jeremy Corbyn (Leader,LabourParty);12.Caroline Lucas (Co-leader,Greens Party);13.Angus Robertson MP(Leader;SNP Partyin Westminster); 14.TimFarron MP(Leader;LiberalDemocratsinWestminster); 15.Nicola Sturgeon (First Minister, Scottish Parliament);16. Mark Carney (Chairman,Bank ofEngland); Downing Street Bank of England Westminster Conservative MPs Opposition parties Devolved institutions 1. 4. 5. 13.10. 11. 12. 16. 15. 14. 9. “EU Unit”: Cabinet office 2. 3. 7. 8. DExEU: Government Ministry 6.
  10. 10. Brunswick Group Brexit in perspective © Brunswick 2016 | 10 A“race” against time Brexit timeline 3-5 months after Article 50 3 February 15-16 March 3-5 weeks after Article 50 is triggered: 4 December Italian Constitutional referendum Austrian Presidential election EU 27 Informal Meeting (Malta) European Council adopt guidelines for the framework of Article negotiations January Poss. Switzerland law favouring Swiss residents over EU migrants to be proposed March UK expected to notify intent to withdraw from EU (Art.50) EU 28 Informal Meeting “Conclusion of a political reflection on the future of the EU” (Rome); 60th Anniversary of the Rome Treaty January Supreme Court ruling on who can trigger Article 50 Michel Barnier (European Commission Article 50 Task Force) is to liaise with the Council Working Group and the European Parliament. 12 February German Presidential election May UK local elections 15 March Netherlands general election 23 April French Presidential election May Poss. Italian General election 11/18 June French legislative elections Estimate whereby EU27 to have agreed on detailed negotiating mandate September German Federal elections 22-23 June European Council (Brussels) EU Level EU 27 UK European Council Meeting (Brussels) 25 March 28 January Finnish Presidential elections 9 September Swedish general elections April/May Hungarian legislative elections TBC October Czech Presidential elections TBC October Irish Presidential elections October EU27/UK Brexit deal needs to allow six months for ratification or parties agree to extend the negotiations March 2019 European elections TBC: EU27 ratification TBC: European Parliament ratification TBC: UK Parliament ratification 15 December EU 27 Informal meeting European Council 16 December Q2 Q32017 Q4 Q2 Q42018 2019 EULevelUKEU27 On the basis of a European Commission recommendation, General Affairs Council formally open negotiations, which can then begin immediately October Czech legislative elections
  11. 11. Brunswick Group Brexit in perspective © Brunswick 2016 | 11 EUinstitutions EuropeanCouncil:FormationofEU MemberStatesHeadsofStateand Government.Theymeetatleastfour timesayearandlargelysetthe directionforfutureEUintegration. EuropeanCouncilPresident:Donald Tusk(Term–2.5Years) Sherpa:Personalrepresentativeofa HeadofMemberStateorGovernment. CounciloftheEuropeanUnion:Co- legislatorforEuropeanlegislation, madeupofministersfortheEU MemberStates.Theytypicallysitin formationswhichcorrespondtheir portfolios.Headedby:Rotating MemberState“Presidency”ofsix monthterms.ThePresidencyroleis largelyoneofcoordinationandagenda setting.The“Presidency”country coordinatesalllevelsofactivitywithin theCounciloftheEU. COREPER:Decisionsmadebynational ministersintheCounciloftheEU formationsarepreparedbygroupsof nationalgovernmentofficials(the PermanentRepresentatives Committee).Theydivideintotwo “ranks”ofnationalofficials. COREPERII:Meetingof ambassadorswhocovertopics relatingtoforeignaffairs,justiceand homeaffairsandeconomicand financialaffairs. COREPERI:Meetingofdeputy ambassadorswhodealwithallother areasofEUpolicymaking. EuropeanCommission:TheEU’scivil servicewhichdraftsandenforcesEU legislation. CollegeofCommissioners:The EuropeanCommission’spolitical leadershipduringafiveyearterm.It compromisesonePresident,onefirst Vice-President,fourVice-Presidents andtwentyoneotherCommissioners withapolicyportfolio.Thereisalsoa HighRepresentativewhorepresents theEUinternationally. EuropeanCommissionPresident: ThePresident‘sroleistodetermine thepoliticaldirectionoftheEuropean Commission,organizetheCollegeof Commissionersandallocateportfolios toitsothermembers.Current President:Jean-ClaudeJuncker EuropeanCommissionVice- Presidents:Vice-Presidents are Commissionerswhohavea coordinationrolebetweentheworkof Commissionerswithportfoliosthat closelyinterlink. EuropeanCommissioner: A memberoftheCommissionCollege. Theyareassignedresponsibilityfora specificpolicyareaandoneormore Directorates-General(DGs)bythe EuropeanCommissionPresident. Directorate-General(DG):A EuropeanCommissiondepartment akintoanationalministry. Director-General: The most senior civil servant position heading each Commission ministry. Appointments to this position require Member State backing and are typically political in nature. Cabinet: The political staff of the individual Commissioners who set the aims to which the Commission DG thenworkstowards. European Parliament: Directly electedchambermadeupof751MEPs from all 28 Member States. These national delegates then form EU-wide political Groups which are made up from across the EU. European Parliament President: A new President will be elected in January 2017.(Term–2.5Years) Article50TaskForce:The“EU”side ofthetableinBrexitnegotiations. Madeupof politicalfiguresandcivil servantsfromtheEuropean Commission,andrepresentativesfrom MemberStategovernments. CouncilWorkingGrouponBrexit: Formalformationfornational representativesfromtheEU27 MemberStatestodiscussspecificsof Brexitnegotiationsonarollingbasis. UKinstitutions PrimeMinister:HeadofGovernment (and“Firstamongstequals”inthe Cabinet) Cabinet:Acollectivedecisionmaking bodyformedofthemostsenior Governmentministers. CabinetOffice:Civilservice department,whichsupportsthePrime MinisterandCabinetofministers. SecretaryofState:ACabinetMinister inchargeofaGovernment department. PermanentSecretary:Mostsenior civilservantinaGovernmentministry. TheyreporttotheSecretaryofState. DirectorGeneral:Aseniorcivil servantwhoreportsdirectlytothe PermanentSecretary. ThePermanentRepresentationof theUnitedKingdomtothe EuropeanUnion(UKREP):A diplomaticmissionfromtheUKtothe EuropeanUnionandrepresentsthe MemberStateinCouncilWorking Groups.UKREPnowreportsdirectlyto DExEU.UKPermanent Representative:TimBarrow Glossary
  12. 12. Brunswick Group Brexit in perspective © Brunswick 2016 | 12 Brunswick Group OfferingatrulyEuropeanperspective Brunswick is an advisory firm specializingin critical issues and corporate relations. Aglobal partnership with 23 officesin 14 countries. Founded in 1987, Brunswick hasgrown organically, operating as asingle profit center – allowing usto respond seamlessly to our clients’ needs, wherever theyare in theworld. Theinternational and multilingual strong team in Brussels advises both global and local clients to position them within theEuropean Union framework at all levels and with all types of stakeholders. Theteam in Brussels works closely with colleagues across Europe to deliver international intelligence, advice and campaigns. For more information contact our Brexit team PhilippeBlanchard ManagingPartner,HeadofOffice,Brussels PeterKalotai Director MichaelWilson Executive Brussels Philippe Blanchard France Jerome Biscay Milan Alessandro Iozzia Rome Manuela Rafaiani London Simon Sporborg Vienna Ronald Schranz Stockholm Annette Brodin Rampe Berlin Ulrich Deupmann Munich Janos Goenczoel Frankfurt Christian Weyand BrunswickGroup 27 Avenue des Arts 1040 Brussels Belgium + 32 22 35 65 10 brusselsoffice@brunswickgroup.com www.BrunswickGroup.com ContactBrunswickBrussels LinusTurner Partner NickBlow Partner

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