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  1. 1. Friendship and assistance ties of students: effect of GPA D.Valeeva, O.Poldin, M.Yudkevich Center for Institutional Studies (Higher School of Economics) Moscow, Russia XXXIII Sunbelt Social Network Conference, May 21-26, 2013, Hamburg, Germany
  2. 2. Network as dependent variable Network as independent variable Student Network effects Network effects Student characteristics (homophily, (peer group abilities (race, sex etc.) propinquity etc.) effects) (academic achievement) DeFour & Hirsch (1990) Antrobus (1988) D’Augelli & Hershberger (1993) Thomas (2000) Mayer & Puller (2008) Sacerdote (2001) Zimmerman (2003) Our contribution: • friendship and study assistance networks • p* modeling of student networks • administratively formed groups • Russian sample Main research areas of student social networks
  3. 3. Main network effects • Reciprocity: tendency of friendship ties to be mutual • Transitivity: tendency of ties to be closed in triads (“friend of my friend is also my friend”) • Homophily: tendency of ties to be formed between individuals with the same characteristics and abilities • Propinquity: tendency of ties to be formed between individuals situated in same geographical and institutional settings • Popularity: tendency of more popular and active individuals to form more toes and to be more successful
  4. 4. Hypotheses About reciprocity and transitivity effects: H1. Friendship ties are more mutual than assistance ties H2. Friendship ties are more transitive than assistance ties About homophily and propinquity effects: H3. There are propinquity effects between students in study group and type of tuition (in both friendship and assistance networks) H4. There are homophily effects between students in their gender (only in friendship network) H5. There are homophily effects between students in their GPA (in both friendship and assistance networks) About popularity effects: H6. Academically successful students are more popular (in both friendship and assistance networks)
  5. 5. Data Students of Economics Department in Higher School of Economics • 2nd year students: 94 students • 3rd year students: 118 students • ~80% of the whole network is described • Students from 7 study groups (administratively formed) • Tuition free and full tuition students study together Questions in the questionnaire: 1. Please indicate up to 5 of your classmates with whom you spend most of your time 2. Please indicate up to 5 of your classmates to whom you address on some educational help + Additional information about gender and type of tuition of students, their study group and GPA
  6. 6. Descriptive statistics-1 Mean Min Max No. of obs. No. of friendship ties 3.49 (1.31) 0 5 94 No. of assistance ties 3.35 (1.47) 0 5 94 GPA 6.89 (0.93) 4.70 9.52 94 % of men 37% 94 % of tuition free students 68% 94
  7. 7. Friendship network
  8. 8. Assistance network
  9. 9. Descriptive statistics-2 Friendship network Assistance network Density 0.04 0.04 Reciprocity 0.55 0.40 Transitivity 0.36 0.35
  10. 10. Methods • ERGM or p* => estimation of probability of tie in network Variables: a) Network characteristics: density, reciprocity, transitivity b) Student characteristics: homophily, propinquity and popularity on gender, group, tuition, GPA
  11. 11. Network characteristics Network characteristics Picture Reciprocity GWESP (geometrically weighted edgewise shared partner) Mixed 2-star
  12. 12. Effects Friendship network Assistance network Effects Estimate(SE) Estimate(SE) Density -2.112* (0.895) -11.971*** (1.249) Reciprocity 2.215*** (0.244) 1.013*** (0.286) Mixed 2-star -0.193*** (0.037) -0.126*** (0.026) Gwesp 1.231*** (0.120) 1.131*** (0.127) Friendship network 3.282*** (0.210) Assistance network 3.205*** (0.199) Homophily on gender (women) 0.452* (0.180) 0.334 (0.204) Homophily on gender (men) 0.502*** (0.152) 0.023 (0.155) Propinquity on study group 0.822*** (0.129) 1.101*** (0.158) Propinquity on tuition (free) 0.137 (0.154) 0.229 (0.161) Propinquity on tuition (full) 0.435* (0.197) 0.198 (0.305) Abs. diff. in GPA -0.114 (0.089) -0.185+ (0.111) Popularity on GPA -0.334** (0.123) 1.029*** (0.163)
  13. 13. Conclusions Reciprocity and transitivity effects: 1. Friendship ties are more mutual than assistance ties 2. There is no significant differences between networks in their transitivity measures Homophily and propinquity effects: 3. Students connections are highly defined by their study groups 4. Homophily on gender is significant only in friendship ties 5. Propinquity on tuition is significant only in friendship ties (for full tuition students) 6. Difference in GPA doesn’t determine friendship or assistance ties of students Popularity effects: 7. Academically successful students are more popular (have more in- going ties) in assistance networks, but less popular in friendship networks
  14. 14. GOF plots for friendship network-1
  15. 15. GOF plots for friendship network-2
  16. 16. GOF plots for assistance network-1
  17. 17. GOF plots for assistance network-2