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Fostering bioenergy from forests in Catalonia


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Àrea d'Aprofitaments Fusters i Biomassa (AFIB) del Centre Tecnològic Forestal de Catalunya (CTFC)

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Fostering bioenergy from forests in Catalonia

  1. 1. Fostering bioenergy from forests in Catalonia Pere Navarro, Judit Rodríguez, Ignacio López Department of Wood Mobilization and Biomass Forest Technology Center of Catalonia
  2. 2. Who we are?CTFC is a public consortium with private management Government of Catalonia Lerida University (UdL) Solsona County Council Lerida Province Council Center for the Integral Rural Development of Catalonia Research and innovation catalan Foundation (FCRI)
  3. 3. How is forestry in Catalonia structured?
  4. 4. Area (ha)* Catalonia total area 3,199,011 Forest & other wooded land (Forests + Shrubland + Other) 1,938,281 % 60.59 Forests 1,214,664 Shrubland 525,917 Other (grasslands, barren land, etc.) 197,699 Aproximately the 80% are private forest land*Centre for ecological research and forestry aplications
  5. 5. Estimating the resources’ availabilityHow much is it there, in the forests? Standing volume estimation•Spanish Forest National Inventory + in detailinventory•Data available per diameter class: –Stem volume o. and u. bark –Firewood volume –Stem weight –Crown weight –Leaves/needles weight
  6. 6. Estimating the resources’ availability How much are the forests growing? Which is the maximum potential?Growth values from the Spanish ForestInventory:-Annual increment of volume o. and u. bark-Basic wood density of the species
  7. 7. Estimating the resources’ availability How is the wood extracted sustainably?-Continuous Cover Forestry (ideal curve)-Planification with even-aged stands (ideal curve atwhole-stand level)Estimating the ideal curve – Q of Liocourt All the species (Catalunya) 500 450 Corba ideal 400 Corba real 350 Excess Densitat (peus/ha) 300 250 200 150 Deficit 100 50 Jordi Vayreda 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 (CREAF) Diàmetre normal (cm)
  8. 8. Estimating the resources’ availability All the species (Catalunya) 500 450 Corba ideal 400 Corba real 350 Excess Densitat (peus/ha) 300 250 200 150 Deficit 100 50 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Diàmetre normal (cm)-The ideal curve: combinate growth andexploitation periodicity (15-20 years) toestimate the annual sustainable potential-The wood overload at forest sites must beextracted, but this will mean more extractionsat the beginning (risk of overestimation)
  9. 9. Estimating the resources’ availability Who will work at the forests?“Inventory” of forest companiesHow do they work currently?How are they organized?Which means do they have to work?
  10. 10. Estimating the resources’ availability Are there limitations to forest work? Weather Protected Accessibility Forest areas dynamics Snow: limits forest Regulated or Forest road network Pests works up to 7 impeded forestry Rockyness Protected species months in some activity Slopes cycle cases Forest fires risk: no works in summer www.ctfc.catDavid Pérez
  11. 11. Factor Included excludingSurface Areas protected Outside forest protected (EIN- area of natural interest) Accessibility slope < 30%: max 400 m Surface track farther to slope 30-60 %: max 150 m the distances slope 60-100%: max 75 m mentioned. Surface with > 100% slope. Edafology and Capitalitation: FCC≥ 70% ecology Erosion: slope < 100 %Amount Sustainability down from the ideal that it exceeds the ideal curve curve Market Quercus: Dn ≤ 35 cm. timber with the largest Conífers and deciduous: Dn ≤ 15 cm diameter Management leave trees of large diameters, bird -- habitat improvementTiming Wildlife presence of protected species: The rest of the year August/September, december/moments Pests Pests: April-July The rest of the year
  12. 12. MappingaccessibilityForest areaaccessible incounty Osona
  13. 13. Transport costs to storage areasEstimation of transporttime to three storageareas in Pallars Sobiràcounty
  14. 14. Restrictions on final uses Factors Contamination andType and tree part Size & homogeneity Moisture compositionFinal user Solid biofuel Expected/Required features Firewood Traditional without restrictionsHousehold use Wood pellets Wood pellets without additives nor straw Wood chips Dry and very homogeneous chips without branches Wood pellets Wood pellets wihout additives nor strawFacilities and buildings Wood chips Dry and homogeneous chips Chips, chunk, powder/milled wood (depending onIndustries Wood chips tech.) Wood chipsAgriindustries Dry and homogeneous chips (pellets)Gasification Wood chips Very dry and very homogeneous chipsup/downdraftGasification fluid bed Wood chips Very dry and homogeneous chips(Organic) Rankine Wood chips, chunk, powder/milled wood Wood chipsCycle (depending on boiler tech.) www.ctfc.catBakeries Firewood Traditional
  15. 15. Influence of final use on logistics Type and tree Size & Contamination Moisture part homogeneity and composition Felling Independent (when possible) Loss of productivity in delimbing – Processing – afections to soil in haulage haulage Minerals incorporation Roundwood Dependent on pests and need of dry storage chipping Differences among slash, whole trees Transport and stems Comminution/ Dependent on later use (storage, chipping/ industrial/household use, etc). Low sieving productivity with slash Wood chip Very dependent on utility size, storage owned means, final use, etc. Dependencies on distance, facility’s Delivery ease of access, silo location, etc.
  16. 16. Estimation of demand potential User EstimationHousehold heating and hot water – Standarized demand according toisolated houses/aggregated climate, house structure, etc.(villages/towns)Fattening farms Modulated values Type of industry and overallIndustries activity Current consumption orPublic facilities and buildings extrapolations Current consumption,Other services’ buildings extrapolations, theoretical assessment
  17. 17. Industries’ needs AgriindustriesHeating (60º-70ºC) Hot water (90 – 180 ºC) and steamAnimal fattening (i.e. poultry) SlaughterhousesGreenhouses (also CO2) Food industries (tinned food,Offices baking, bottleing, fodder, wax/honey, milk and derivates, sterilization) Other indusriesCeramic factories (pre-firing treatments, drying, castspreheating, etc.)Laundries (hot water)Textile industries (hot water, steam)Hospitals (hot water and traditionally good for cogeneration)Tanning factories (hot water/steam) www.ctfc.catEtc.
  18. 18. Demand mapping - heat Distribution of heat demand. Example of county Osona DISSEMINAT Isolated AGLOMERATS Aggregated SERVEIS_1 Services COLúLECTIU Collective buildings COMER€ Commerce INDUSTRI_1 Industries RAMADERIA Farms
  19. 19. Demand mapping - cogenerationPotential for smallcombined heat and powerplants at industries.Example of County Osona
  20. 20. Strengths Weaknesses Manageable energy resource Higher costs than other SWOT Analisys – biomasses Lower cost than petroleumStrategies design products Variable moisture content Clean energy Limited availability Creates jobs at rural areasThreatsStrong competence of Survival strategyNatural Gas Detection of areas with high Defensive strategyLack of awareness availability not covered by NG Strong dissemination actionsLack of legislation for networksthermic usesOpportunitiesEuropean directivesThe need of forest Reorientation strategy Offensive strategymanagement Ensure quality and Public buildings installationsA more sustainable traceabilityenergy modelNew buildings
  21. 21. Strategies implementation Decision makers•Diffusion of knowledge among decision makers•Improve coordination among differentgovernmental departments and decisionmakers•Include in any new building project a centralheating based on wood (Integrated Plan ofWorks and Services of Catalonia)•Concentrate in areas with high potential•Investment grants
  22. 22. Strategies implementation Focusing on potential industrial users Agriindustries and other industries •Diffusion of advantages General diffusion actionActions •Installers and engineers training General diffusion action •Identification of areas where bioenergy offer and heat demand meet Selling price per MWh of diverse energy sources 80,0 71,68 €/MWh 72,59 €/MWh 70,0 68,87 €/MWh 60,0 57,17 €/MWh 49,36 €/MWh 50,0 45,00 €/MWh €/MWh 40,0 32,87 €/MWh 30,0 20,0 10,0 0,0 Heating oil SFM wood chips Natural gas - household Natural gas - industries Bottled propan Wood pellets Piped propan
  23. 23. Strategies implementation Quality and traceability - CTFC•Biomass analysis laboratory•Participation in the spanish standarization committee(AENOR) –Quality standards –Traceability standard•Creation of a quality control label•Dissemination of quality standards and procedures
  24. 24. Other activities of diffusion Diffusion bulletin “infobiomassa”
  25. 25. Other activities of diffusion
  26. 26. Projects in Europe•Intelligent Energy Europe-encourage the useof renewable energy sources in EuropeOthers with CTFC participation:•Woode3-logistic•Prospects market in fragmented forestownership- wood mobilization•Rok-For- Agenda research for wood products(green chemistry)
  27. 27. Thanks for your attention Any question? Pere Navarro, Judit Rodríguez, Ignacio López Wood mibilisation and biomass Department Forest Technology Center of Catalonia ignacio.lopez@ctfc.catPhotographs: J. Rodríguez, M. Codina, A. Marques, D. Pérez, I. López