Boyd0306 2

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  • Geothermally heated greenhouses have been in place since the late 1970s and today there are at least 40 applications in 10 western US states and many installations in over 20 countries
  • Greenhouse heating is one of the most common uses of geothermal resources. Because of the significant heat requirements and their ability to use low-temperature fluids they are a natural application allowing greenhouse operations to be sited in colder climates The use of low-temperature geothermal resources for space heating is fairly simple, often using standard, off-the-shelf equipment. If the geothermal fluid is corrosive or causes scaling, a plate heat exchanger can isolate the fluid from the greenhouse heating equipment Growth can be optimized in a control environment
  • As show in this graph the optimum temperature for different products is different.
  • The Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package has an introduction and seven sections. Introduction Section 1 – Crop Market Prices Section 2 – Greenhouse Operating Costs Section 3 – Crop Culture Information Section 4 – Greenhouse Heating Systems Section 5 – Greenhouse Heating Equipment Selection Spreadsheet Section 6 – Vendor Information Section 7 – Other Information Services Each one will be discussed briefly.
  • This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of of geothermal greenhouses.
  • Section 1 – Crop Market Prices This section contains recent US wholesale price information from some typical vegetable and flow crops grown in greenhouses. Both US national and regional prices are included along with an indication of seasonal variations for some crops. Sources for current price information are provided at the end of the section
  • Section 2 Greenhouse Operation Costs This section outlines ranges of costs for a typical greenhouse operation such as labor, utilities, plant stock and mortgage components Market concerns and cost ranges for structure construction are also provided.
  • Greenhouse structure capital costs in the US varied with location. Some of the variations are In northern climates increased costs to reflect need for thermal curtains, in the west and southwest evaporative cooling systems were considered. Plus other variations in prices can be affected by the cost of materials and labor.
  • Depending on the region in the US, the operating budget distribution could look like this: Labor 40-45% Plants, supplies and materials 16-25% Utilities (heating, lights, and water use) 6-16% Loan Payment 17-19% Other (miscellaneous) 8-10%
  • It is always a good idea to know your market. Here are some questions to ask yourself before you grow anything are: What is my product? How much can be produced in the greenhouse? Who will be buying my product? How much will they pay for my product? How much will it cost to produce this type of crop? Finally, is this enough to make a profit or break even?
  • Section 3 Crop Culture Information This section covers some of the parameters that can affect growth in a greenhouse. The parameters are Temperature requirements, relative humidity, CO 2 , lighting, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity and disease issues. Abbreviated crop culture information is provided for the following crops. Tomatoes, cucumbers, hydroponic lettuce, carnations and roses
  • Because of the significant heating requirements of greenhouses and their ability to use low temperature fluids they are a natural application for geothermal. The evaluation of a particular greenhouse project involves consideration of the structure heating requirements and the system to meet those needs. This section contains the recently updated Chapter 15 – Greenhouses from the Geothermal Direct-Use Engineering and Design Guidebook. This chapter covers greenhouse construction, heating requirements and greenhouse heating systems. The greenhouse heating systems covered are finned pipe, standard unit heaters, low temperature unit heaters, fan coil units, soil heating and bare tube.
  • The Greenhouse Heating Equipment Selection Spreadsheet section is a tool for evaluating the economics of various types of heating systems. The six systems are considered in this spreadsheet are Unit heaters (UH), finned pipe (FP), bare tube (BP), fan coil units (FC), combination fan coil/bare tube (FC/BP) and low temperature unit heaters (GLW)
  • This section provides a list of US vendors for Components of geothermal systems Greenhouse structures and equipment Space heating equipment Well pumps Plate heat exchangers Plant materials (seed and plants) Hydroponic systems
  • An extensive list of sources for information on greenhouse operations including state extension agencies and USDA state offices is provided in this section.
  • Geothermally heating aquaculture projects have been in place since the late 1970s and today there are at least 30 applications in 12 western US states and many installations in over 16 countries
  • Aquaculture pond and raceway heating is one of the most common uses of geothermal resources. Because of the significant heat requirements of these facilities and their ability to use low-temperature fluids they are a natural application The use of low-temperature geothermal resources for space heating is fairly simple, often using standard, off-the-shelf equipment. If the geothermal fluid is corrosive or causes scaling, a plate heat exchanger can isolate the fluid from the greenhouse heating equipment Aquatic species such as Tilapia, catfish, Malaysian prawns, tropicals, alligators and eels Enhanced production rates can be optimized in a controlled environment
  • As can be seen from this slide
  • The Aquaculture Information Package has an introduction and eight sections. Introduction Section 1 – Market and Price Information Section 2 – Water Quality Issues in Aquaculture Section 3 – Culture Information Section 4 – Pond and Raceway Heat Loss Calculations Section 5 - Aquaculture Bibliography
  • Section 6 – Aquaculture Glossary Section 7 – State/Regional/University/ Extension Aquaculture Offices Section 8 – State Aquaculture Permit Requirements Each one will be discussed briefly.
  • This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal aquaculture projects.
  • This section contains information on the current status of the catfish and Tilapia markets in the US. For the catfish market, information is provided on US production, pond acreage, type of production and end market served. The Tilapia data presented in the section includes US production figures, current price data and a brief summary of the international import volume.
  • This section contains a listing of some of the major water quality issues for aquaculture in general and explains the importance these factors which are important for fish survival. The water quality factors covered are Temperature, Dissolved oxygen, Nitrogenous wastes, pH, Alkalinity, Hardness, Carbon Dioxide, Salinity, Chlorine, and Hydrogen sulfide
  • Cultural information is provided for the following species of aquaculture Tilapia, channel catfish and prawns.
  • This table shows the temperature requirements and growth periods for selected aquaculture species
  • This section contains the recently updated Chapter 16 – Aquaculture from the Geothermal Direct-Use Engineering and Design Guidebook. For those involved with the initial planning of such a project, one of the first questions to be addressed relates to project size. In most geothermal applications, the maximum pond area that can be developed is restricted by the maximum heat available from the resource. The heat losses to take into consideration are evaporation, convection, radiation and conduction. Some ways to reduce heat losses are discussed such as surface covers, pond enclosures and thermal mass.
  • This section provides a list of useful aquaculture references in the areas of General aquaculture, Economics, Culture systems, Broodstock, American eel, American lobster, Channel catfish, Freshwater prawns, Lake trout, Striped bass, and Tilapia.There is also information provided on where to obtain these publications and how to order them.
  • The glossary defines typical terms used in the aquaculture industry such as broodfish, fingerlings and seine.
  • Section 7 contains contact information provided for a variety of technical experts in the US who may be of use to the aquaculture developer
  • This section summarizes the permits and regulations impacting the aquaculture industry for the western States in the US. The four main issues covered are water use, effluent discharge, production and marketing.
  • How to obtain these publications They are available for downloading off our website at http://geoheat.oit.edu The page to go for downloading these papers is http://geoheat.oit.edu/pdf/pdfindex.htm
  • Boyd0306 2

    1. 1. Greenhouse and Aquaculture Applications of Geothermal Energy <ul><li>Presented by </li></ul><ul><li>Tonya “Toni” Boyd </li></ul><ul><li>Geo-Heat Center </li></ul><ul><li>Oregon Institute of Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Klamath Falls, OR </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
    2. 3. Geothermal Greenhouse Heating
    3. 4. Geothermal Greenhouse Heating <ul><li>Geothermally heated greenhouses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have been in place since 1970 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40 applications in the 10 western states in the US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilization factor of 0.30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approx. 120 MWt installed capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approx. 1075 billion Btu/yr utilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(270,000 bbl of oil equivalent/yr) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many installation in over 20 countries </li></ul></ul>
    4. 5. Geothermal Greenhouse Heating <ul><li>One of the most common uses of geothermal resources </li></ul><ul><li>Using geothermal energy is fairly simple </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use off the shelf equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most greenhouse heating systems are adaptable to geothermal </li></ul><ul><li>Growth can be optimized in a controlled environment </li></ul>
    5. 8. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Section 1 – Crop Market Prices </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2 – Greenhouse Operating Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Section 3 – Crop Culture Information </li></ul><ul><li>Section 4 – Greenhouse Heating Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Section 5 – Greenhouse Heating Equipment Selection Spreadsheet </li></ul><ul><li>Section 6 – Vendor Information </li></ul><ul><li>Section 7 – Other Information Services </li></ul>
    6. 9. Introduction <ul><li>Intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses </li></ul>
    7. 10. Section 1 – Crop Market Prices <ul><li>US wholesales price information for typical vegetable and flower crops grown in greenhouses </li></ul><ul><li>US national and regional prices are included along with indication of seasonal variations </li></ul><ul><li>Sources for current price information provided at the end of the section </li></ul>
    8. 11. Section 2 – Greenhouse Operation Costs <ul><li>Outlines ranges of costs for a typical operation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Such as labor, utilities, plant stock, and mortgage components </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Market concerns and cost ranges for structure construction are also provided </li></ul>
    9. 12. Section 2 – Greenhouse Operation Costs <ul><li>Greenhouse structure capital costs in the US varied with location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total greenhouse costs (includes greenhouse and operating equipment) $11.34 – 14.24/ft 2 (avg. 12.65/ft 2 ) – 1997 costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction costs alone $7.30 – 8.05/ft 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(avg. $7.44/ft 2 ) – 1997 costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land costs is a significant portion of the total capital investment </li></ul></ul>
    10. 13. Section 2 – Greenhouse Operation Costs Depending on the region in the US, the operating budget distribution could look like this: Labor 40-45% Plants, supplies and materials 16-25% Utilities (heating, lights, and water use) 6-16% Loan Payment 17-19% Other (miscellaneous) 8-10%
    11. 14. Section 2 – Greenhouse Operation Costs <ul><li>Questions to ask yourself before you grow anything are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is my product? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much can be produced in the greenhouse? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who will be buying my product? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much will they pay for my product? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much will it cost to produce this type of crop? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally, is this enough to make a profit or break even? </li></ul></ul>
    12. 15. Section 3 - Crop Culture Information <ul><li>Some parameters that can affect growth in a greenhouse are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature requirements, relative humidity, CO 2 , lighting, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity and disease issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abbreviated culture information is provided for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tomatoes, cucumbers, hydroponic lettuce, carnation, roses </li></ul></ul>
    13. 16. Section 4 – Greenhouse Heating Systems <ul><li>Chapter 15 – Greenhouses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from the Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Covers greenhouse construction, heating requirements, and greenhouse heating systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Heating systems covered are finned pipe, standard unit heaters, low temperature unit heaters, fan coil units, soil heating and bare tube. </li></ul>
    14. 18. Section 5 – Greenhouse Heating Equipment Selection Spreadsheet <ul><li>A tool for evaluating the economics of various types of heating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Six systems are considered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit heaters (UH), finned pipe (FP), bare tube (BP), fan coil units (FC), combination fan coil/bare tube (FC/BP) and low temperature unit heaters (GLW) </li></ul></ul>
    15. 19. Section 6 – Vendor Information <ul><li>Provides a list of US vendors for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Components of geothermal systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenhouse structures and equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space heating equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well pumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plate heat exchangers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant materials (seed and plants) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydroponic systems </li></ul></ul>
    16. 20. Section 7 – Other Information Services <ul><li>Extensive list of sources including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State extension agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USDA state offices </li></ul></ul>
    17. 21. Geothermal Aquaculture Pond and Raceway Heating
    18. 22. Geothermal Aquaculture Pond and Raceway Heating <ul><li>Geothermal aquaculture projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Been in place since 1970 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>49 applications in the 12 western states in the US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilization factor of 0.69 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approx. 130 MWt installed capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 2,650 billion Btu/yr utilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(660,000 bbl of oil equivalent) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many installation in 16 countries </li></ul></ul>
    19. 23. Geothermal Aquaculture Pond and Raceway Heating <ul><li>One of the most common uses of geothermal resources </li></ul><ul><li>Using geothermal energy is fairly simple </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use off the shelf equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A number of freshwater or marine organisms can be raised </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including Tilapia, catfish, Malaysian prawns, tropicals, alligators and eels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enhanced production rates can be optimized in a controlled environment </li></ul>
    20. 26. Aquaculture Information Package <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Section 1 – Market and Price Information </li></ul><ul><li>Section 2 – Water Quality Issues in Aquaculture </li></ul><ul><li>Section 3 – Culture Information </li></ul><ul><li>Section 4 – Pond and Raceway Heat Loss Calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Section 5 - Aquaculture Bibliography </li></ul>
    21. 27. Aquaculture Information Package <ul><li>Section 6 – Aquaculture Glossary </li></ul><ul><li>Section 7 – State/Regional/University/ Extension Aquaculture Offices </li></ul><ul><li>Section 8 – State Aquaculture Permit Requirements </li></ul>
    22. 28. Introduction <ul><li>Intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects </li></ul>
    23. 29. Section 1 – Market and Price Information <ul><li>Information on the current status of the catfish and Tilapia markets in the US </li></ul><ul><li>The Catfish market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US production, pond acreage, type of production and end market served </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Tilapia market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US production figures, current price data and brief summary of the international import volume </li></ul></ul>
    24. 30. Section 2 – Water Quality Issues in Aquaculture <ul><li>A listing of some of the major water quality issues for aquaculture and explains the importance of these factors important for fish survival </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogenous wastes </li></ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul><ul><li>Alkalinity </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen sulfide </li></ul>
    25. 31. Section 3 – Culture Information <ul><li>Cultural information provided for the following species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tilapia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel catfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prawns </li></ul></ul>
    26. 32. Temperature requirement and growth periods for selected aquaculture species Tolerable Optimum Growth Period Species Extremes ( o F) Growth ( o F) to Market Size (mos) Oysters 32 to 97 76 to 78 24 Lobsters 32 to 88 72 to 75 24 Penaeid Shrimp Kuruma 40 to ? 77 to 87 6 to 8 typ Pink 52 to 104 75 to 85 6 to 8 Freshwater Prawns 75 to 90 83 to 87 6 to 12 Catfish 35 to 95 82 to 87 6 Eels 32 to 97 73 to 86 12 to 24 Tilapia 47 to 106 72 to 86 -- Carp 40 to 100 68 to 90 -- Trout 32 to 89 63 6 to 8 Yellow Perch 32 to 86 72 to 82 10 Striped Bass ? to 86 61 to 66 6 to 8
    27. 33. Section 4 – Pond and Raceway Heat Loss Calculations <ul><li>Chapter 16 Aquaculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From the Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The maximum pond area that can be developed is restricted by the maximum heat available from the resource </li></ul><ul><li>Heat losses to take into consideration are evaporation, convection, radiation and conduction </li></ul><ul><li>Some ways to reduce heat losses are discussed such as surface covers, pond enclosures and thermal mass </li></ul>
    28. 35. Section 5 – Aquaculture Bibliography <ul><li>Provides a list of useful aquaculture references in the areas of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General aquaculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broodstock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American eel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American lobster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel catfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freshwater prawns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lake trout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Striped bass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tilapia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information is also provided on where to obtain these publications and how to order them </li></ul>
    29. 36. Section 6 – Aquaculture Glossary <ul><li>Defines typical terms used in the aquaculture industry such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broodstock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingerlings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seine </li></ul></ul>
    30. 37. Section 7 – State/Region/University /Extension Aquaculture Offices <ul><li>Contact information provided for a variety of technical experts in the US who may be of use to the aquaculture developer </li></ul>
    31. 38. Section 8 – State Aquaculture Permit Requirements <ul><li>Summarizes the permits and regulations impacting the aquaculture industry for the following states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah and Washington </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The four main issues covered are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water use, effluent discharge, production and marketing </li></ul></ul>
    32. 39. How to Obtain These Publications Available for downloading from the Geo-Heat Center Website http://geoheat.oit.edu Downloadable Papers page http://geoheat.oit.edu/pdf/pdfindex.htm

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