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    Afghanistan National Development Strategy Afghanistan National Development Strategy Document Transcript

    •  
    •     Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Afghanistan National Development Strategy 1387 – 1391 (2008 – 2013)A Strategy for Security, Governance, Economic Growth & Poverty Reduction
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    • ‫ﺑﺴﻢ اﷲ اﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ اﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ‬In the Name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful ‫إن اﻟﻠﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻐ ﱢﺮ َﺎ ﺑﻘﻮم ﺣ ﱠﻰ ﻳﻐﻴ ُوا َﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ‬ ْ ِ ِ ُ ْ َ ِ ‫ِ ﱠ ّ َ َ ُ َﻴ ُ ﻣ ِ َ ْ ٍ َﺘ ُ َ ﱢﺮ ْ ﻣ‬Verily, never will Allah change the condition of people unless they change it themselves (013,011) VISION FOR AFGHANISTANBy the solar year 1400 (2020), Afghanistan will be: A stable Islamic constitutional democracy at peace with itself and its neighbors, standing with full dignity in the international family. A tolerant, united, and pluralistic nation that honors its Islamic heritage and the deep seated aspirations toward participation, justice, and equal rights for all. A society of hope and prosperity based on a strong, private-sector led market economy, so- cial equity, and environmental sustainability. OUR GOALSThe Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS) serves as Afghanistan’s PovertyReduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) and uses the pillars, principles and benchmarks of the Af-ghanistan Compact as a foundation. The pillars and goals of the ANDS are:1. Security: Achieve nationwide stabilization, strengthen law enforcement, and improve personal security for every Afghan.2. Governance, Rule of Law and Human Rights: Strengthen democratic processes and in- stitutions, human rights, the rule of law, delivery of public services and government ac- countability.3. Economic and Social Development: Reduce poverty, ensure sustainable development through a private-sector-led market economy, improve human development indicators, and make significant progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).A further vital and cross-cutting area of work is eliminating the narcotics industry, whichremains a formidable threat to the people and state of Afghanistan, the region and beyond. Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS) i
    • Map of Afghanistan iii Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Forewordiv Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • In the name of Allah, the most Merciful, the most CompassionateSix and one-half years ago, the people of Afghanistan and the international community joined handsto liberate Afghanistan from the grip of international terrorism and to begin the journey of rebuildinga nation from a past of violence, destruction and terror. We have come a long way in this shared jour-ney.In a few short years, as a result of the partnership between Afghanistan and the international community,we were able to create a new, democratic Constitution, embracing the freedom of speech and equal rightsfor women. Afghans voted in their first-ever presidential elections and elected a new parliament. Todayclose to five million Afghan refugees have returned home, one of the largest movements of people totheir homeland in history.Thousands of schools have been built, welcoming over six million boys and girls, the highest level everfor Afghanistan. Hundreds of health clinics have been established boosting our basic health coveragefrom a depressing 9 percent six years ago to over 85 percent today. Access to diagnostic and curative ser-vices has increased from almost none in 2002 to more than forty percent. We have rehabilitated 12,200 kmof roads, over the past six years. Our rapid economic growth, with double digit growth almost everyyear, has led to higher income and better living conditions for our people. With a developing road net-work and a state-of-the-art communications infrastructure, Afghanistan is better placed to serve as aneconomic land-bridge in our region.These achievements would not have been possible without the unwavering support of the interna-tional community and the strong determination of the Afghan people. I hasten to point out that ourachievements must not distract us from the enormity of the tasks that are still ahead. The threat ofterrorism and the menace of narcotics are still affecting Afghanistan and the broader region and ham-pering our development. Our progress is still undermined by the betrayal of public trust by somefunctionaries of the state and uncoordinated and inefficient aid delivery mechanisms. Strengtheningnational and sub-national governance and rebuilding our judiciary are also among our most difficulttasks.To meet these challenges, I am pleased to present Afghanistan’s National Development Strategy(ANDS). This strategy has been completed after two years of hard work and extensive consultationsaround the country. As an Afghan-owned blueprint for the development of Afghanistan in all spheresof human endeavor, the ANDS will serve as our nation’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. I am con-fident that the ANDS will help us in achieving the Afghanistan Compact benchmarks and Millen-nium Development Goals. I also consider this document as our roadmap for the long-desired objec-tive of Afghanization, as we transition towards less reliance on aid and an increase in self-sustainingeconomic growth.I thank the international community for their invaluable support. With this Afghan-owned strategy, Iask all of our partners to fully support our national development efforts. I am strongly encouraged tosee the participation of the Afghan people and appreciate the efforts of all those in the internationalcommunity and Afghan society who have contributed to the development of this strategy. Finally, Ithank the members of the Oversight Committee and the ANDS Secretariat for the preparation of thisdocument.Hamid KarzaiPresident of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Foreword v
    • Message from the Oversight Committee For the preparation of the Afghanistan National Development Strategyvi Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • In the name of Allah, the most Merciful, the most CompassionateWe are pleased to present the Afghanistan National Development Strategy, which reflects the com-mitment of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to poverty reduction and private sector-led economicgrowth for a prosperous and stable Afghanistan. The ANDS Oversight Committee (OSC) was man-dated by the Government to produce a Millennium Development Goals-based national strategy thatis Afghan-owned and meets the requirements for a Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. The OSC meton a regular basis to design, discuss and oversee the development of the strategy, including the iden-tification of the needs and grievances of the people, and the prioritization of resource allocations andactions. To embrace ‘Afghanization” and ownership, the OSC facilitated inclusive and extensive con-sultations both at national and sub-national levels.Sustained fiscal support and continuous evaluation and monitoring are essential now to meet thechallenges ahead related to ANDS implementation. The democratic aspirations of the Afghan peopleare high, yet financial resources remain limited. While much has been accomplished since 2001, moreremains to be done as we move from “Compact to Impact”. The Afghan Government with supportfrom the international community must act decisively, strategically, and with an absolute commit-ment to the ANDS goals and vision.We look forward to working with our government colleagues, civil society representatives, tribal eld-ers and religious scholars, the private sector, the international community and, most importantly, fel-low Afghans to implement the ANDS, to help realize the Afghanistan Compact benchmarks and Mil-lennium Development Goals. Message from the Ovresight Committee vii
    • Acknowledgmentsviii Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • In the name of Allah, the most Merciful, the most CompassionateThe Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS) could not have been developed without the generouscontribution of many individuals and organizations. The ANDS was finalized under the guidance of the Over-sight Committee, appointed by HE President Hamid Karzai and chaired by H.E. Professor Ishaq Nadiri, SeniorEconomic Advisor to the President and Chair of the ANDS Oversight Committee. The committee included: H.E.Rangeen Dadfar Spanta, Minister of Foreign Affairs; Anwar-ul-Haq Ahady, Minister of Finance; H.E. JalilShams, Minister of Economy; H.E. Sarwar Danish, Minister of Justice; H.E. Haneef Atmar, Minister of Education;H.E. Amin Farhang, Minister of Commerce; and H.E. Zalmai Rassoul, National Security Advisor.We would like to sincerely thank the First Vice-President and Chair of the Economic Council, H.E. Ahmad ZiaMassoud. Special thanks are also due to H.E. Hedayat Amin Arsala, Senior Minister and H.E. Waheedulah Shah-rani, Deputy Minister of Finance and the Ministry of Finance team. In addition, we would like to thank the Su-preme Court, the National Assembly, Government Ministries and Agencies, Provincial Authorities, Afghan Em-bassies abroad, national Commissions, the Office of the President, Civil Society Organizations, and InternationalCommunity.All Ministers, deputy ministers and their focal points, religious leaders, tribal elders, civil society leaders, allAmbassadors and representatives of the international community in Afghanistan; and all Afghan citizens. Na-tional and international agencies participated actively in the ANDS consultations. Their contributions, commentsand suggestions strengthened the sectoral strategies, ensuring their practical implementation. Thanks are alsodue to the Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation for their significant contributions to the subnational consultations.Special thanks are further due to the Presidents Advisors, Daud Saba and Noorullah Delawari for their contribu-tions, as well as Mahmoud Saikal for his inputs. We are also indebted to the Provincial Governors and their stafffor their contributions, support and hospitality to the ANDS preparations.Special thanks go to Wahidullah Waissi, ANDS/PRS Development Process Manager, for his invaluable contribu-tion and for the efforts of his team of young Afghan professionals who dedicated themselves tirelessly to com-pleting the I-ANDS, Afghanistan Compact and the full ANDS in consultation with both national and interna-tional partners. The Sector Coordinators included Rahatullah Naeem, Farzana Rashid Rahimi, Shakir Majeedi,Attaullah Asim, Mohammad Ismail Rahimi, Zalmai Allawdin, Hedayatullah Ashrafi, Shukria Kazemi, Saifurah-man Ahmadzai, and; the Sub-National Consultations Team consisted of Mohammad Yousuf Ghaznavi,Mohammad Fahim Mehry, Shahenshah Sherzai, Hekmatullah Latifi, Sayed Rohani and Osman Fahim; and Prof.Malik Sharaf, Naim Hamdard, Saleem Alkozai, Mir Ahmad Tayeb Waizy, Sayed Shah Aminzai, Khwaga Kakarand Mohammad Kazim. Thanks to Nematullah Bizhan for his special contribution from the JCMB Secretariat. Weare also indebted to the many national and international advisers who supported this effort. In particular, wewould like to thank Zlatko Hurtic, Paul O’Brien, Jim Robertson, Barnett Rubin, Peter Middlebrook, RichardPonzio, Anita Nirody, Shakti Sinha, Ashok Nigam, Christopher Alexander and Ameerah Haq.Finally, I would like to thank all who contributed towards this endeavor in preparation of the first AfghanistanNational Development Strategy, a milestone in our country’s history and a national commitment towards eco-nomic growth and poverty reduction in Afghanistan.Adib Farhadi,Director, Afghanistan National Development Strategy, andJoint Coordination and Monitoring Board SecretariatThe complete list of contributors will be attached shortly. Acknowledgments ix
    • Table of Contentsx Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Map of Afghanistan ......................................................................................................................................... iiiForeword............................................................................................................................................................. ivMessage from the Oversight Committee...................................................................................................... viAcknowledgments.............................................................................................................................................. xAcronyms and Abbreviations....................................................................................................................... xivGlossary of Afghan Terms ........................................................................................................................... xviiINTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................................. 1Background .......................................................................................................................................................... 1Achievements Since 2001.................................................................................................................................... 1Afghanistan’s Challenges .................................................................................................................................. 3International Support for Afghanistan ............................................................................................................. 5The Afghanistan National Development Strategy ......................................................................................... 5PART I .................................................................................................................................................................. 3PROCESS, GOALS AND POLICY DIRECTIONS....................................................................................... 3CHAPTER 1 ......................................................................................................................................................... 5THE ANDS: AN OVERVIEW .......................................................................................................................... 5Security.................................................................................................................................................................. 5Governance, rule of law, justice and human rights ........................................................................................ 6Economic and social development .................................................................................................................... 6Cross-Cutting Issues.......................................................................................................................................... 13Enhancing Aid Effectiveness and Aid Coordination.................................................................................... 14Implementation and Monitoring of the ANDS ............................................................................................. 15CHAPTER 2 ....................................................................................................................................................... 17THE PARTICIPATORY PROCESS AND PROVINCIAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS ......................... 17Organizing principles and participation process ....................................................................................... 17Consultation process ......................................................................................................................................... 19Provincial Development Plans (PDPs)............................................................................................................ 20Prioritization and sequencing of the PDPs..................................................................................................... 21Integration of the PDPs into ANDS ................................................................................................................ 21Outcomes from the provincial development planning process .................................................................. 22Prioritization of the pillars................................................................................................................................ 22Regional variation in priorities ........................................................................................................................ 24Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................................... 25CHAPTER 3 ....................................................................................................................................................... 27THE POVERTY PROFILE ............................................................................................................................... 27Data collection, poverty measurements and estimates ................................................................................ 27Poverty estimates............................................................................................................................................... 28Poverty in Afghanistan: main characteristics of inequality ......................................................................... 29Most important causes of poverty: poverty correlates ................................................................................. 31Who the poor are: the most vulnerable groups ............................................................................................. 33Policy framework for poverty reduction........................................................................................................ 33High priority sector policies for poverty reduction ...................................................................................... 34Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................................... 36PART II............................................................................................................................................................... 37THE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY ...................................................................................... 37CHAPTER 4 ....................................................................................................................................................... 39MACROECONOMIC FRAMEWORK ......................................................................................................... 39Linking growth with poverty reduction and employment creation .......................................................... 40 Contents xi
    • Growth Projection and Strategy ...................................................................................................................... 44 Fiscal policy ........................................................................................................................................................ 46 Monetary policy ................................................................................................................................................. 48 Financing the ANDS.......................................................................................................................................... 50 Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................................... 51 CHAPTER 5 ....................................................................................................................................................... 53 SECURITY ......................................................................................................................................................... 53 Current situation................................................................................................................................................ 53 Policy framework............................................................................................................................................... 55 Security institutions........................................................................................................................................... 56 ‘Right-Financing’ Security Sector Reform ...................................................................................................... 58 Sound Administration, Justice and Judicial System ..................................................................................... 59 Relations with nieghbors and international allies......................................................................................... 59 Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................................... 59 CHAPTER 6 ....................................................................................................................................................... 61 GOVERNANCE, RULE OF LAW & HUMAN RIGHTS ........................................................................... 61 Governance, Public Administration Reform and human rights ................................................................. 61 Justice .................................................................................................................................................................. 63 Religious affairs ................................................................................................................................................. 67 Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................................... 69 CHAPTER 7 ....................................................................................................................................................... 73 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT .......................................................................................... 73 Private sector development.............................................................................................................................. 73 Energy ................................................................................................................................................................. 77 Water and irrigation .......................................................................................................................................... 82 Agriculture and rural development................................................................................................................ 87 Transport............................................................................................................................................................. 93 Information and Communications Technology ............................................................................................ 96 Urban development......................................................................................................................................... 100 Mining ............................................................................................................................................................... 105 Health and Nutrition....................................................................................................................................... 108 Education .......................................................................................................................................................... 113 Culture, youth and media .............................................................................................................................. 120 Social protection............................................................................................................................................... 123 Refuges, returnees and internally displaced persons ................................................................................. 129 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................................ 133 CHAPTER 8 ..................................................................................................................................................... 143 CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES .......................................................................................................................... 143 Regional cooperation....................................................................................................................................... 143 Counter narcotics............................................................................................................................................. 145 Anti-corruption ................................................................................................................................................ 146 Gender equity................................................................................................................................................... 147 Capacity development .................................................................................................................................... 149 Environment..................................................................................................................................................... 150 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................................ 151 PART III ........................................................................................................................................................... 153 AID EFFECTIVENESS AND COORDINATION..................................................................................... 153 CHAPTER 9 ..................................................................................................................................................... 155 AID EFFECTIVENESS AND COORDINATION..................................................................................... 155 Paris Declaration and Afghanistan Compact............................................................................................... 155xii Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Current situation: assessment of aid effectiveness...................................................................................... 155Aid effectiveness strategy framework .......................................................................................................... 156Implementation and monitoring ................................................................................................................... 160Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................................ 162PART IV ........................................................................................................................................................... 163IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING ............................................................................................ 163CHAPTER 10 ................................................................................................................................................... 165IMPLEMENTATION FRAMEWORK ........................................................................................................ 165Lessons learned during the Interim ANDS.................................................................................................. 165Implementation framework and integrated approach ............................................................................... 166Implementation Plan and the ANDS implementation cycle ..................................................................... 167Implementation Cycle..................................................................................................................................... 167Role of the National Budget and the MTFF ................................................................................................. 168Role of the MTFF ............................................................................................................................................. 171Role of the Control and Audit Office (CAO) ............................................................................................... 171Budget management framework, prioritization and funding requirements for the implementation ofthe ANDS.......................................................................................................................................................... 171National implementation structures ............................................................................................................. 172Sub-national implementation structures ...................................................................................................... 172Coordination structures.................................................................................................................................. 172Integrating conflict management into sector strategies.............................................................................. 173Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................................ 173CHAPTER 11 ................................................................................................................................................... 175MONITORING FRAMEWORK .................................................................................................................. 175ANDS monitoring and evaluation principles.............................................................................................. 175Institutional structure...................................................................................................................................... 176Monitoring and evaluation reporting ........................................................................................................... 178Indicators for monitoring ............................................................................................................................... 178Monitoring and evaluation framework ........................................................................................................ 180Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................................ 180CHAPTER 12 ................................................................................................................................................... 185CONCLUSION................................................................................................................................................ 185APPENDICES.................................................................................................................................................. 189 Contents xiii
    • Acronyms and Abbreviationsxiv Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • AC Afghanistan Compact DAB Da Afghanistan Bank (Central Bank ofACBAR Agency Coordinating Body for Afghan Afghanistan) Relief DABM Da Afghanistan Breshna Moassessa (theADB Asian Development Bank Afghan electric utility)ADC Area Development Councils DAC District Advisory CommitteeAfCERT Afghanistan Cyber Emergency Response DCN District Communication Network Team EC European CommissionAFMIS Afghanistan Financial Management Sys- ECOTA Economic Cooperation Organization tem Trade AgreementAGO Attorney General’s Office EPAA Export Promotion Agency of AfghanistanAIHRC Afghanistan Independent Human Rights EPHS essential package of hospital services Commission EU European UnionAISA Afghanistan Investment Support Agency FCCS Foundation for Culture and Civil SocietyANA Afghanistan National Army FDI Foreign Direct InvestmentANDMA Afghanistan National Dis-aster Manage- FSMS Food Security Monitoring Survey ment Authority GDP Gross Domestic ProductANP Afghan National Police GIAAC General and Independent AdministrationANSA Afghanistan National Standards Author- Against Corruption and Briberyity GIS Geographical Information SystemANSF Afghan National Security Forces GoA Government of AfghanistanANWP Afghanistan National Welfare Program GSM Global System MobileAPPPA Afghanistan Participatory Poverty As- Ha Hectare sessment HCS Health Care ServiceARCSC Administrative Reform and Civil Service HIPC Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Commission HIV Human immunodeficiency virusARDS Afghan Reconstruction & Development HIV/AIDS Human Immune-deficiency Vi- Services rus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syn-ARDZ Agriculture and Rural Development drome Zones HNS Health and Nutrition SectorARTF Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund HNSS Health and Nutrition Sector StrategyASYCUDA Automated System for Customs Data IAGs Illegal Armed GroupsATRA Afghanistan Telecommunication Regula- I-ANDS Interim Afghanistan National Develop- tion Authority ment StrategyAUWSSC Afghanistan Urban Water Supply and IARCSC Independent Administrative Reform and Sewerage Corporation Civil Service CommissionBPFA Beijing Platform for Action IATA International Air Transport AssociationBPHS basic package of health services ICAO International Civil Aviation OrganizationCAO Control and Audit Office ICCD Inter-ministerial Commission for Capac-CAR Central Asian Republics ity DevelopmentCARD Comprehensive Agriculture and Rural ICE Inter-Ministerial Commission on Energy Development ICT Information and Communications Tech-CAREC Central Asian Regional Economic Coop- nology eration IDLG The Independent Directorate for LocalCASA Central and South Asia GovernanceCBN Cost of Basic Needs IDP Internally Displaced PersonsCCCG Cross Cutting Consultative Group IDPs Internally Displaced PersonsCDCs Community Development Councils IEC Independent Electoral CommissionCEDAW Convention on the Elimination of all ILO International Labor Organization forms of Discrimination against Women IMF International Monetary FundCG Consultative Group ISAF International Security Assistance ForceCIS Commonwealth of Independent States Air CommandCMRS Central Monitoring and Reporting Sys- IT Information Technology tem IWRM Integrated Water Resources ManagementCN counter narcotics JCMB Joint Monitoring and Coordination BoardCNPA Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan Km KilometerCNTF Counter Narcotics Trust Fund KWH Kilowatt-Hour (Unit of electric energy)CSO Central Statistics Office LOTFA Law and Order Trust FundCSTI Civil Services Training Institute M&E Monitoring and Evaluation MoCIT Ministry of Communications & Informa- tion Technology MCN Ministry of Counter Narcotics MDGs Millennium Development Goals Acronyms and Abbreviations xv
    • MEAs Multilateral Environmental Agreements PAR Public Administration ReformMIS Management Information Systems PAYG Pay-as-you-goMoD Ministry of Defense PDPs Provincial Development PlansMoE Ministry of Economy PFM Public Financial ManagementMoE Ministry of Education PIO Project Implementation OfficeMoF Ministry of Finance PIP Public Investment ProgramMoFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs PPA Power Purchase AgreementMoHE Ministry of Higher Education PRDP Pro-active Regional Diplomacy ProgramMoI Ministry of Interior PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy PaperMoJ Ministry of Justice PRT Provincial Reconstruction TeamMoLSAMD Ministry of Labor, Social Affairs, Martyrs PRTs Provincial Reconstruction Teams and the Disabled RBA River Basin AgencyMoM Ministry of Mines RED Rural Road Evaluation ModelMoPH Ministry of Public Health RIMU Reform Implementation ManagementMoU Memorandum of Understanding UnitMoUD Ministry of Urban Development SAARC South Asian Association for RegionalMoWA Ministry of Women’s Affairs CooperationMRRD Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and De- SCO Shanghai Cooperation Organization velopment SCWAM Supreme Council for Water Affairs Man-MTFF Medium Term Financial Framework agementMW Megawatt SEPS South-East Power SystemNABDP National Area-Based Development Pro- SMEs Small and Medium Enterprises gram SNC Sub-National ConsultationNAPWA National Action Plan for the Women of SOE State Owned Enterprises Afghanistan SPECA Special Program for the Economies ofNATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization Central AsiaNDCS National Drug Control Strategy SPS Sanitary and Phyto-sanitaryNEPA National Environmental Protection TA Tripartite Agreement Agency (GoA) TAG Technical Advisory GroupNEPS North-East Power System TWG Technical Working GroupNGO Non-Governmental Organization TWGs Technical Working GroupsNIRA National Internet Registry of Afghani- UN United Nations stan UNAMA United Nations’ Assistance Mission toNRAP National Rural Accessibility Program AfghanistanNRVA National Risk and Vulnerability Assess- UNCAC United Nations Convention Against Cor- ment ruptionNSC National Statistical Council UNDP United Nations Development ProgramNSDP National Skills Development Program UNHCR United Nations High Commission forNSP National Solidarity Program RefugeesNVETA Proposed National Vocational Education UNICEF United Nations International Childrens and Training Authority Emergency FundODA Official Development Assistance UNIFEM United Nations Development Fund forOECD Organization for Economic Cooperation Women and Development UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs andOEF Operation Enduring Freedom CrimeOMO Open Market Operations USAID United States Agency for InternationalOSC Oversight Committee DevelopmentOSCE Organization for Security and Coopera- WATSAN Water and Sanitation Committees tion in Europe WB World BankP&G Pay and grading WCS Wildlife Conservation SocietyPAG Policy Action Group WTO World Trade Organization xvi Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Glossary of Afghan TermsAmu Darya A river originated from Pamir mountain and flowing in the northern region of AfghanistanBank-e-Milli National BankDarya RiverGozar Smallest Administrative Unit inside the Urban areaImam An Islamic leader, often the leader of a mosqueJirgas Local Consultation MeetingsKareze Underground canals connecting wells uses as traditional irrigation systemKuchi NomadLoya Jirga Grand Council, ”Grand Assembly of elders”Madrassa A school, where mostly Islamic Studies are concernedMeshrano Jirga Senate (Upper House of Assembly)Mirab A person responsible for water management in a communitySharia Islamic LawsShura Traditional or Local Council (Shuras, pl)Taqnin Law making, legislationUlama Religious ScholarsWolosi Jirga National Assembly (Lower House of AssemblyZakat Islamic concept of tithing and alms. It is an obligation on Muslims to pay 2.5% of their wealth to specified categories in society when their annual wealth ex- ceeds a minimum level. In addition, Zakat is one of the basic principles of Is- lamic economics, based on social welfare and fair distribution of wealth. AFGHAN CALENDAR 1. Hamal March 21 7. Meezaan September 23 2. Saur April 21 8. Aqrab October 23 3. Jawza May 2 9. Qaus November 22 4. Sarataan June 22 10. Jaddi December 22 5. Asad July 23 11. Dalwa January 21 6. Sunbula Aug 23 12. Hoot February 20 Glossary of Afghan Terms xvii
    • INTRODUCTIONBACKGROUND had been disrupted and in many cases, includ- ing for all girls and women, ended. Today Af-Following almost three decades of war, the ghanistan has among the highest rates of illit-challenges facing Afghanistan’s development eracy in the world. Yet despite these desperateremain immense. By 1380 (2001), the ravages conditions, since 2001 the country has hadof conflict had bestowed upon Afghan citizens some remarkable achievements. The progressand the incumbent administration an inheri- that has been made should be measuredtance of debt not wealth. With the Taliban against the desperate conditions that prevaileddominating the political landscape from 1375 at the time of the fall of the Taliban. While Af-(1996) onwards, Afghanistan had been moving ghanistan still faces many enormous chal-backwards in all aspects. The results of war, lenges, the progress that has been made givesthe destruction of core institutions of state and cause for some optimism that with the deter-a heavily war torn economy led to unrivaled mination of the Afghan people to rebuild theirlevels of absolute poverty, national ill health, lives and their country, the transformation to alarge scale illiteracy and the almost complete peaceful and prosperous can be achieved.disintegration of gender equity. And yet, fol-lowing six years of reconstruction, at a cost of The goals of the ANDS for the next five yearsbillions of dollars, the path to prosperity from ought to be viewed against what has been ac-extreme poverty remains as distant as ever. complished during the last six years. OnlyInsecurity, poverty, corruption and the expand- some of the most significant achievements caning narcotics industry signify that while the be mentioned here.challenges facing Afghanistan have changed innature, they have not necessarily changed inmagnitude. Yet, the price of securing peace and Political achievements:freedom at this pivotal moment in history will In 1380 (2001) the Bonn Agreement estab-be nothing compared to the long term costs of lished a roadmap for the political trans-failure both for Afghanistan and the interna- formation of Afghanistan to a legitimatetional community. Averting failure and estab- democratic state. The targets set in thelishing Afghanistan on a virtuous path towards Bonn Agreement were fully met on timepeace, stability and prosperity are therefore the and included:cornerstones of the new Afghan National De-velopment Strategy (ANDS). At the core of the The Transitional Administration was estab-ANDS is a policy of Afghanization, meaning lished to guide the process. It derived itsthat ANDS has been fully developed and authority through an Emergency Loyaowned by Afghanistan. Jirga, the first genuinely representative Af- ghan national meeting in decades. In 1383 (2004) Afghanistan adopted its firstACHIEVEMENTS SINCE 2001 constitution in 30 years, which laid the po-In 2001 Afghanistan was certainly a thoroughly litical and development foundation for thedevastated country in virtually every respect. country and established legal protectionsThe political, social and economic structures of for private property and a market econ-the country had been severely damaged or omy.completely destroyed. Massive numbers of Free and fair democratic elections for Presi-Afghans had left as refugees, had died during dent, the National Assembly and Provin-the conflict or were severely disabled. Every cial Councils were conducted. 76 percentfamily had paid a price – many had to cope of eligible voters participated in the presi-with the loss of main breadwinner. For the dential election. Women were elected to 27young people that remained, their education Introduction 1
    • percent of the seats in the National Assem- 142,500 of who nearly 40,000 are female. bly. Fifty thousand of these teachers have re- ceived in-service teacher training. After the successful completion of the Bonn Agreement, Afghanistan and the interna- Major advances have been made in extend- tional community entered into a new part- ing health care services throughout the nership, based upon the Afghanistan Com- country and rebuilding a decimated educa- pact, which was agreed at the London Con- tional system. The percentage of the popu- ference of 1384 (2005). The Compact set lation living in districts where the Basic ambitious goals for comprehensive state Package of Health Services is being imple- building, setting benchmarks in all sectors mented has increased from 9 percent in of security, governance, and development, 2003 to 82 percent in 2006. including the cross-cutting goals of Over 2.5 million people have benefited counter-narcotics and regional coopera- from social protection arrangements cover- tion. ing (i) martyr’s families; (ii) disabled with In 1385 (2006) the new National Assembly war-related disabilities; (iii) orphans and began its work, including the approval of a children enrolled in kindergartens; (iv) vic- new cabinet; a new Chief Justice and other tims of natural disasters; (v) pensioners; judges for the Supreme Court; and the Na- and (vi) unemployed. tional Budget. A new Attorney General Measurable progress has been achieved with a new mission to fight corruption was since 2003 in improving rural livelihoods. appointed. New Provincial Governors Almost 20,000 km of rural access roads (i.e., were named. all weather, village-to-village and village- The disarmament, demobilization and rein- to-district centre roads) have been con- tegration of ex-combatants has been com- structed or repaired, increasing access to pleted. Today the national army and police markets, employment and social services. forces are close to full strength. Afghani- More than 500,000 households (36 percent stan is no longer a safe haven for terrorists. of villages) have benefited from small-scale irrigation projects. Currently, 32.5 percent of the rural population has access to safe Social and Humanitarian Achieve- drinking water and 4,285 improved sanita- ments: tion facilities have been provided. More Since 1381 (2002), more than five million than 336,000 households have benefited Afghan refugees have returned home. In from improved access to financial services. 1385 (2006) 342,925 Afghan refugees re- Some 18,000 CDCs have been established turned from Pakistan and Iran and 1,004 and are implementing community-led de- from other countries. More than 150,000 velopment projects. Efforts have made to benefited from the assistance package pro- assist the poorest and most vulnerable. vided by UNHCR. The Government has so far distributed Economic Achievements: 30,000 residential plots of land to needy re- Macroeconomic stability has been main- turning refugee families. tained, based upon disciplined fiscal and From under one million in 2001 the school monetary policies. A new unified currency population has grown to 5.7 million in 2007 was successfully introduced; inflation has and new enrolments into Grade 1 have remained low while the exchange rate has ranged between 12-14 percent per annum been stable. in the last 5 years. Two million of the chil- Sixteen private commercial banks have dren (or 35 percent) enrolled are girls – a 35 been licensed; a leasing and financing percent increase in five years. The number company is operating; an equity fund is of schools has trebled to 9,062 in 2007 in- underway to invest in local businesses. cluding 1,337 all girls’ and 4,325 co- There are also thirteen microfinance insti- educational schools. Similarly, the number of teachers has increased seven-fold to2 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • tutions providing services to almost Major advances have been made in open-200,000 active clients in 27 provinces. ing up the telecommunications sector to private sector investment under a ‘invest-State owned enterprises are being privat- ment friendly’ regulatory frameworkized, corporatized or liquidated. aimed at maintaining a competitive marketA lively free and privately owned media for services, and phone subscribers havehave developed and over which people are increased from less than 20 thousand toable to express political views freely – more than 5 million in less than 6 years.which they do daily. A rapid urbanization process has seen theThe legal and commercial infrastructure is urban population increase to almost abeing put in place for a market oriented quarter of the total population. Despite theeconomy. pressures implied by rapid urbanization, two million urban residents (31 percent ofElectricity capacity has almost doubled the total urban population) have benefitedcompared to 2002. from investments in water supply and 12Over 12,000 kilometers of roads have been percent from investment in sanitation inrehabilitated, improved, or built. This in- major cities between 2002 and 2007.cludes the ring road system, national high- Afghanistan has world class mineral de-ways, provincial roads and rural roads. posits that are being opened up for explo-Kabul International Airport has been ex- ration and development. The first majorpanded and extensively rehabilitated. investment has recently been announced for developing the Aynak copper depositsPrivate airlines have entered the aviation in central Logar province, an almost $3 bil-sector and established air links throughout lion investment after an extensive evalua-the region. tion of tenders from nine major interna-A key bridge investment has opened up tional mining companies.direct road links to Tajikistan and greatlyreduced transportation times through to When seen against the desperate conditionsUrumqi in China, one of the fastest grow- that prevailed in the country in 2001, theseing trade hubs in the world. achievements constitute an impressive record. The ANDS sets goals for the next five years thatTwo million urban residents have benefited will require even greater achievements.from investments in water supply and 12percent from investment in sanitation inmajor cities between 2002 and 2007. AFGHANISTAN’SAbout 35,000 water points 59 networks and CHALLENGES1,713 water reservoirs and 23,884 demon-stration latrines have been constructed. Few countries have simultaneously faced the range and extent of challenges with which theMore than three million people have bene- people and Government of Afghanistan mustfited directly from the rural water supply now contend. After nearly three decades ofand sanitation activities in the country. continuous conflict the country emerged in lateAround a third of the provinces reported 2001 as a truly devastated state with its human,some improvement in access to clean physical and institutional infrastructure de-drinking water during the consultative stroyed or severely damaged. At that time theprocess under the ANDS. UN Human Development Report ranked Af- ghanistan as the second poorest country in theIrrigation Rehabilitation has been given World. In addition to the widespread poverty,high priority over the past four or five the Government must deal with continuingyears. Of some 2,100 rehabilitation pro- threats to security from extremists and terror-jects, approximately 1,200 have been com- ists, weak capacity of governance and corrup-pleted and have been placed back into tion; a poor environment for private sector in-commercial service. vestment, the corrosive effects of a large and growing narcotics industry; and major human Introduction 3
    • capacity limitations throughout the public and Economic governance is weak. The Gov- private sectors. Meeting these challenges and ernment is pursuing comprehensive eco- rebuilding the country will take many years nomic reform, including the introduction and require consistent international support. of new commercial laws and regulations, but the establishment of institutions The successful transformation of Afghanistan needed for effective implementation and into a secure, economically viable state that can enforcement are largely lacking and will meet the aspirations of the Afghan people, live take years to develop.1 at peace with itself and its neighbors and con- Afghanistan’s commercial connections to tribute to regional and international stability regional and global economies were se- will depend upon the effective utilization of all verely disrupted and must be redeveloped. available human, natural and financial re- The development of a competitive private sources. In this partnership a critical role must sector will depend on establishing access to be played by the private sector. Significantly foreign markets and developing viable ex- reducing poverty will require substantially in- port activities. creasing employment which depends on main- taining high rates of economic growth in the Critical markets for land and finance are years ahead. It is not sufficient to rely on the largely undeveloped, limiting the ability of Government and the international community private investors to establish and operate to sustain the high rates of investment needed businesses. Property rights are often con- to generate the levels of employment to have a tested or difficult to defend. major impact on reducing poverty. As the Afghanistan is experiencing high popula- macroeconomic projections presented in Chap- tion. Continued rapid population growth ter 4 indicate, a substantial increase in private will substantially increase the levels of in- investment will be essential if significant pro- vestment that will be required to substan- gress is to be realized in meeting the social and tially reduce poverty. economic objectives of the country. Both the Government and the international Afghanistan is a country with significant po- community recognize that prolonged aid de- tential for economic development. It has sub- pendency will undermine the chances of stantial water, agricultural and mineral re- achieving sustained economic growth and pov- sources and is well positioned to become a erty reduction. However, given the major limi- trade and business hub linking the markets of tations in the economic environment that must Central Asia, the Middle East, South Asia and be addressed, the successful transition to a China. The potential exists or sustainable eco- competitive market economy will require sus- nomic growth in the future. However, there tained commitment by the Government, with are a number of fundamental limitations in the the support of the international community. economic environment that must be addressed Simply creating conditions in which the private if these efforts are to succeed: sector can operate alone will not be sufficient. Increased efforts by both the Government and The country’s ‘hard infrastructure’, includ- the donor community to attract Afghan and ing roads and reliable supplies of water foreign investors are needed if the goals of the and power, is inadequate to support rapid ANDS are to be realized. and sustained economic growth. The corresponding ‘soft infrastructure’, Social and economic development will also be which includes the human and institutional severely curtailed if the insecurity that prevails capacity necessary for an economy to func- is not resolved. Despite the considerable efforts tion, is also extremely limited. Consider- by the Government and the international com- able emphasis is being given to developing capacity in both the public and private sec- tors and to institutional development, but 1 these efforts will take time. Many of the government’s initiatives in this area are described in “A Policy for Private Sector Growth and Development” pre- sented at the Enabling Environment Conference, Kabul, June 2007.4 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • munity, security has steadily deteriorated since sectors of security, governance, and develop-2004 in some parts of the country. Ongoing ment, including the cross-cutting goals ofcross-border activities, particularly in the counter-narcotics. To implement its obligationssouthern and southeastern provinces, have re- under the Afghanistan Compact, the Govern-sulted in several areas being effectively off lim- ment developed the Afghanistan National De-its to meaningful development assistance. velopment Strategy (ANDS) to clarify existing conditions, establish objectives and define theThe lack of stability reduces the ability of aid policies, programs and projects needed toagencies and the Government to operate in achieve those objections. The internationalmany areas and to effectively implement pro- community made new pledges of financial andjects and programs. The impacts of these limi- security assistance and set out to improve itstations typically fall most heavily on the poor. coordination by renewing and upgrading theInsecurity also increases the cost of doing busi- UN Assistance Mission for Afghanistanness and undermines private sector growth (UNAMA), headed by a Special Representativeand development.2 The difficulties in main- of the Secretary General with enhanced powerstaining security contribute significantly to two for coordination.4closely related issues: increasing corruption inthe public sector and the rapid growth of the The ANDS represents an important milestonenarcotics industry. There is a consensus that in the efforts to rebuilding of Afghanistancorruption in Afghanistan is widespread and which has been underway since late 1380has been getting worse.3 Public corruption (2001). During this time there have been arepresents a major disincentive for private in- number of reports, conferences and strategiesvestment, substantially increasing the costs and developed to address Afghanistan’s chal-risks of doing business. A lack of security in lenges.5 In addition, the Government and thesome parts of the country has created condi- international community have entered into ations in which poppy cultivation has flour- series of agreements concerning the directionished, feeding a growing narcotics industry and support for the country’s developmentthat both funds terrorist activity and feeds pub- efforts, including notably the Bonn Agreement,lic corruption. Although poppy cultivation has the commitment to the Millennium Develop-been greatly reduced in 29 of the 34 provinces, ment Goals (MDGs) and the Afghanistanin the remaining five it has seen explosive Compact. The ANDS builds on all of these andgrowth to where Afghanistan accounts for provides a comprehensive and integrated strat-around 90 percent of the world’s opium pro- egy that reflects recent experience and currentduction. conditions.INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT THE AFGHANISTANFOR AFGHANISTAN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENTAfter the fall of the Taliban, the international STRATEGYcommunity’s response was not only military The Afghanistan National Development Strat-but also began to provide Afghanistan with the egy (ANDS) represents the combined efforts ofinstitutional and financial resources to start the the Afghan people and the Afghan Govern-state building process. In 2006, the Afghani- ment with the support of the internationalstan Compact agreed between the Government community to address the major challengesand international community established goals facing the country. To comprehensively ad-for state building, setting benchmarks in core 4 Afghanistan has also placed special emphasis on good relations2 For example, the World Bank “Investment Climate Assess- with its neighbors, particularly Pakistan. The two countries con-ment” reported that companies are typically spending as much as vened a joint Peace Jirga in August 2006, and Afghanistan looks15 percent of total sales on security costs. forward with hope and optimism to enhanced cooperation with3 Pakistan. For example, in the 2005 Transparency International “Corrup- 5tion Perceptions Index” Afghanistan ranked 117th (of 158); two Details for many of the key documents can be found in theyears later the country was ranked 172nd (of 179). bibliography. Introduction 5
    • dress the security, governance, and develop- each of the 34 provinces.6 In addition, a com- ment needs of Afghanistan, the government prehensive series of sector and ministry strate- has developed the ANDS. The ANDS reflects gies were developed that address all aspects of the government’s vision, principles and goals social and economic development. The result for Afghanistan which builds on its commit- of this inclusive process is a national strategy ment to achieve the Millennium Development that is fully reflective of the aspirations of the Goals by 2020 and the implementation of the Afghan people. The ANDS is the product of Afghanistan Compact benchmarks. The strat- extensive consultations at the national, provin- egy is based upon an assessment of current cial and local levels. The Government is com- social and economic conditions; offers clear mitted to programs and projects that directly intermediate objectives; and identifies the ac- target the poorest and most vulnerable groups tions that must be taken to achieve these na- for assistance. Well targeted poverty reductions tional goals. The ANDS largely focuses on the programs are emphasized both in the strategy next five years, but reflects Afghanistan’s long- for social protection and integrated into the term goals which include the elimination of design of strategies across the other sectors of poverty through the emergence of a vibrant the economy. middle class, an efficient and stable democratic political environment and security throughout The remainder of the ANDS is organized as the country. follows: Despite the full commitment of the Govern- Chapter 1: provides an overview of the ment and the considerable assistance being ANDS provided by the international community, it Chapter 2: explains ANDS extensive par- will not be possible to fully achieve all of these ticipatory process to ensure ownership objectives during the next five years. Therefore it is essential that well defined priorities be es- Chapter 3: presents the poverty profile of tablished that reflect the relative contributions the country, a key foundation for ANDS’s of potential policies, programs and projects policy based on evidence approach towards reaching these goals. This is a difficult Chapter 4: presents the macroeconomic process. The contribution of any project to in- framework for the economy. It discusses creasing economic growth is uncertain and is the policies intended to maintain economic inevitably contingent on progress in other ar- stability, the initial planning on resource al- eas. It also requires a careful analysis of bene- locations for the ANDS period and the total fits versus costs with alternative allocations of resources available for the implementation resources. As a result, the prioritization of ac- of public sector programs and projects tivities should be seen as an ongoing process through the external and core budgets. that adapts to changing circumstances and the results of program and project appraisal work Chapter 5: presents the strategies and pri- on alternative use of resources. In meeting this orities relating to Security pillar challenge, the ANDS aims to establish institu- Chapter 6: presents the strategies and pri- tional mechanisms that will include the Afghan orities relating to Governance, Rule of Law, people, the Government, civil society and the Justice and Human Rights pillar. international community in identifying priori- ties in an evolving environment. Chapter 7: presents the sector strategies and priorities relating to Economic and So- A comprehensive ‘bottom-up’ approach was cial Development pillar. This addresses used in the development of the ANDS that has private sector development, energy, trans- taken into account all aspects of social and eco- port, mining, education, culture, youth and nomic life as well as fully reflecting the diver- media, agriculture and rural development, sity of people in all parts of the country. Con- public health, social protection and refu- siderable efforts were made to ensure that sub- national consultations (i.e., outside of the cen- tral government in the capital Kabul) identified the priorities of the Afghan people living in 6 The Provincial Development Plans (PDPs) that were developed as part of this process are presented in ANDS Volume III.6 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • gees, returnees and internally displaced Chapter 10: discusses the integrated ap-persons. proach implementation framework of ANDSChapter 8: discusses critical cross-cuttingissues that have impacts across all sectors. Chapter 11: discusses monitoring, coordi-These include regional cooperation, nation and evaluation requirements of thecounter-narcotics, anti-corruption, gender ANDSequality, capacity building and environ-mental management. Volume II: includes 17 sector strategies, 6 strategies for cross cutting issues and 38 indi-Chapter 9: discusses aid effectiveness vidual ministry and agency strategies.measure that needs to be taken jointly bythe Government and the international Volume III: discusses the participatory processcommunity used in developing the ANDS, 34 Provincial Development Plans and development priori- ties. Introduction 7
    • PART IPROCESS, GOALSAND POLICYDIRECTIONS
    • CHAPTER 1 THE ANDS: AN OVERVIEWThe overriding objective of the ANDS is to sub- experience it. In so doing, a broader choice ofstantially reduce poverty, improve the lives of poverty actions based on the specific concernsthe Afghan people, and create the foundation of the poor have been established for eachfor a secure and stable country. This requires province, as well as each district.building a strong, rapidly expanding economyable to generate the employment opportunities Key issues identified by stakeholders included:and increasing incomes essential for poverty (i) the lack of access to clean drinking water inreduction. The ANDS establishes the Govern- all provinces; (ii) the needed improvement inment’s strategy and defines the policies, pro- provincial roads; (iii) the poor quality of publicgrams and projects that will be implemented services; (iv) poorly trained teachers and doc-over the next five years and the means for ef- tors; (v) the lack of alternatives to poppy culti-fectively implementing, monitoring and evalu- vation; (vi) the lack of vocational training forating these actions. The goals included in the returnees and disabled people; (vii) poor accessANDS are fully consistent with the commit- to electricity; (viii) corruption within the publicments entered into in previous strategies and administration particularly respect to the secu-agreements and build on the considerable pro- rity services. The Government has examined agress that has been achieved since 1380 (2001). range of poverty actions based on the specificWhile focus of the ANDS is on the next five concerns of the poor including vulnerability,years, it will continue to adjust to changing cir- conflict sensitivity, insecurity and governance.cumstances – it is intended to be a ‘livingdocument’. The ANDS lays out the strategic priorities and the policies, programs and projects for achiev-The ANDS serves as the country’s Poverty Re- ing the Government’s development objectives.duction Strategy Paper (PRSP). As such, it es- These are organized under three pillars: (i) Se-tablishes the joint Government/international curity; (ii) Governance, Rule of Law and Hu-community commitment to reducing poverty; man Rights; and (iii) Economic and Social De-describes the extent and patterns of poverty velopment.that exist; presents the main elements of itspoverty reduction strategy; summarizes theprojects and programs that will assist the poor; SECURITYand provide a three-year macroeconomic Security and stability in all parts of the countryframework and three-year policy matrix rele- is essential for economic growth and povertyvant to the poverty reduction efforts. The reduction. Afghanistan still faces a number ofPRSP has been prepared based on an inclusive serious challenges before it can assume full re-consultative process to ensure broad participa- sponsibility for this. International terroriststion and support, while also ensuring policies and domestic extremists prevent the Govern-are based on evidence. A public policy dia- ment from establishing effective control inlogue with all key stakeholders was carried out some areas, particularly in the south and south-across all provinces, allowing government offi- east. The large-scale production of narcoticscials, private sector representatives, NGOs, the continues to provide funds to these groups.media and ordinary citizens an opportunity to Unexploded ordinance remains a significantdiscuss local conditions and concerns. This threat to Afghans, with some five thousandallowed these communities to participate effec- citizens either killed or wounded in mine ex-tively in defining the poverty problem as they plosions since 1380 (2001). Currently only two The ANDS: An Overview 5
    • of the country’s 34 provinces are completely and non-state governance entities; (ii) the con- clear of land mines. A long standing presence fusion over core centre-periphery administra- of illegal armed groups in different parts of the tion and fiscal relations; (iii) weak public sector country is hindering the process of empower- institutions and underdeveloped governance ment of local democratic institutions. Some of and administrative capabilities; (iv) high levels these groups have close links with police or of corruption; (v) fiscal uncertainty; (vi) weak even belong to local governments. This situa- legislative development and enforcement; (vii) tion enhances corruption and is considered a weak political and parliamentary oversight key obstacle in cracking down the narcotics capacities; (viii) weak community and civil so- industry. ciety institutions; (ix) limited capacity in a jus- tice system; (x) gender inequality; and (xi) un- The Government is fully committed to, and is derdeveloped human rights enforcement ca- giving the highest priority, to successfully: (i) pacities. implementing an integrated and comprehen- sive national security policy and strategy; (ii) If significantly improved governance is not building a robust security sector reform pro- rapidly achieved it will be difficult to make gram; (iii) strengthening civil and military op- substantial progress with respect to security erations and coordination; (iv) increasing the and economic development. An emerging po- role of security forces in counter-narcotics ac- litical and administrative vacuum will be filled tivities; and (v) strengthening the civilian com- by non-state structures driven by illegal and ponents of security entities. Detailed Compact narcotic interests, not by the Government. benchmarks have been established to measure progress in improving capacity within the se- curity organizations and improving security. Religious affairs The Government will focus on the following Significant progress has been made since 2001 priorities: (i) to improve infrastructure for reli- in strengthening the ANA and ANP. For ex- gious affairs, such as mosques, shrines, holy ample, militias have been integrated into the places, and religious schools; (ii) improve the Ministry of Defense (MoD), with the majority training and capacity of Imams, preachers, reli- demobilized. A multi-sector donor support gious teachers and other scholars to raise pub- scheme has been established where individual lic awareness and to teach; (iii) finalize a com- donors are allocated responsibility for oversee- prehensive culture curriculum for primary and ing support for each of the key elements of the higher education; (iv) strengthen Hajj arrange- reform, including: disarmament, demobiliza- ment systems for Afghan pilgrims; (iv) support tion, and reintegration of ex-combatants; mili- efforts by religious organizations to help allevi- tary reform; police reform; judicial reform; and ate poverty and protect vulnerable groups; (v) counter-narcotics. The ANP has been receiving support efforts of the other government agen- extensive training and equipment from the in- cies to improve literacy, dispute resolution and ternational community. to contribute to strengthening of the national solidarity. The expected results include: (i) re- forms implemented in line with Islamic values; GOVERNANCE, RULE OF (b) improved infrastructure and financial sus- LAW, JUSTICE AND HUMAN tainability of religious affairs, particularly of RIGHTS the religious education system; (iii) greater par- ticipation of Islamic scholars in raising aware- In 2000 the World Bank assessed the ‘quality’ of ness about importance of implementation of Afghanistan’s governance institutions as falling key reforms; (iv) a greatly strengthened role of in the bottom one percent of all countries. Pro- the religious institutions in programs for pov- gress since 2001 includes the adoption of the erty reduction. constitution; successful parliamentary and presidential elections, and progress in improv- ing the livelihood and welfare of women and ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL other disenfranchised groups. Despite some DEVELOPMENT progress, a number of significant issues must be addressed, including: (i) the existence of The economic and social development strategy, multiple and often parallel structures of state vision, objectives and expected outcomes have6 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • been prioritized within the overall macro-fiscal growth and development. These steps will: (i)framework to allow a logical progression of improve general levels of efficiency in theinvestments that systematically overcome the economy; (ii) assist in eliminating corruption;core binding constraints to growth and social (iii) encourage better resource allocation, anddevelopment. An integrated approach focuses (iv) generate increased government revenues.investments through the sector strategiessummarized below. The sector strategies were An open trade policy will facilitate a competi-developed based on strategies first put forward tive environment for private sector develop-by individual ministries and groups of minis- ment, avoid the high costs incurred with pro-tries. Although Ministry strategies were the tectionist policies and facilitate Afghanistanstarting point, the sector strategies are broader becoming better integrated as a ‘trading hub’ inthan those of the ministries for several very the region. Any proposals to provide protec-important reasons. First, the sector strategies in tion to particular industries will be evaluatedmany cases involve actions and programs that with a proper ‘economy wide’ perspective thatneed to be undertaken by several ministries. fully accounts for the costs and benefits fromConsiderable attention has therefore been such actions, including the negative impacts ongiven to developing better coordination be- other firms and on the consumers who musttween ministries through Inter-Ministerial pay higher prices. Increased priority will beCommittees. The sector strategies have also given to regional economic cooperation initia-taken account of donor activities being imple- tives aimed at developing regional transporta-mented outside of ministries and informed by tion and transit infrastructure, facilitating re-the Provincial Development Plans (PDPs). The gional trade and investment flows and devel-success of the sector strategies will be heavily oping Afghanistan as a regional business hubdependent on resource effectiveness, revenue linking Central and East Asia with the Middleenhancement and fiscal sustainability, human East and South Asia.and natural resource development and invest-ments in productive and trade-based infra- A second major component of the private sec-structure and private sector driven develop- tor development strategy attempts to encour-ment. age increased private sector investment by cre- ating investor friendly regulatory frameworks for private sector operations in the develop-Private Sector Development ment of natural resources and infrastructure.The ANDS strategic objective is to enable the This approach has been very successful in theprivate sector to lead Afghanistan’s develop- telecommunications sector, where phone usagement within a competitive market-based econ- went from less than 15,000 under a state mo-omy in which the Government is the policy nopoly to over five million subscribers as pri-maker and regulator of the economy, not its vate investments in cellular communicationcompetitor. The establishment of a strong ena- were encouraged. Significant initiatives arebling environment for a competitive private included in the sector strategies for energy,sector is an on-going effort by both the Gov- mining and agriculture based on leased accessernment and donors. Almost all sector strate- to state lands to strengthen these investorgies involve the development of new legisla- friendly regulatory frameworks, and pilot pro-tion. The Government will enact and imple- jects and innovative initiatives are being inves-ment key laws and amendments to establish tigated to allow public funding to support pri-the basic legal and regulatory framework that vate sector activities in the provision of educa-will encourage private sector involvement in tion services, vocational training and publicsocial and economic development. Almost all health services.sector strategies involve institutional strength-ening that is designed to improve the ability of A third and closely related component of theministries and other agencies to administer leg- strategy is based on a concerted effort by theislation in an unbiased and predictable manner. Government and the donor community to more vigorously promote private sector in-Privatization and corporatization of state vestment. Given the limited capacities in theowned enterprises is an on-going program that public sector and in the nascent domestic pri-is on schedule. It represents an important step vate sector, much of this effort will focus onin expanding the scope for private sector trying to encourage foreign firms with the ex- The ANDS: An Overview 7
    • pertise, ability to manage risk and access to for the corporatization and commercialization financial resources to take advantage of the of national power operations. All these efforts many opportunities that exist for investment in will occur even while donor funded projects Afghanistan. Efforts at investment promotion continue to work to relax the severe constraints will be designed to convince these investors in the energy and power sectors, but will lay that they are both needed in Afghanistan and the framework for a shift to a more commercial that they will be able to operate profitably with energy system in the coming years.. full government support consistent with main- taining a competitive environment. Mining While geological studies of Afghanistan have Energy been conducted over the last 50 years, due to The ANDS strategic objective for the energy political, social and economic factors, 90 per- sector strategy is an energy sector that provides cent of the territory of Afghanistan has not reliable, affordable energy increasingly based been systematically studied. However the lim- on market-based private sector investment and ited results have been highly promising with public sector oversight. The immediate task of over 400 mineral occurrences having been iden- the ANDS strategy, with assistance from the tified, including Aynak copper, coal and a donor community, is to expand energy avail- number of small and medium mines such as ability at a price that covers cost (for all but the gold, silver, platinum, zinc, nickel, emerald, poorest members of society) and to do so in the lapis, ruby, canset, tourmaline, fluorite, chro- most cost effective manner. The Government mate, salt, radioactive elements and numerous will also take steps to provide the basis for the deposits suitable for construction materials. transition of the sector from public provision to The availability of significant oil and gas fields private provision of electricity. As the Afghan in Afghanistan has been well known for almost energy sector moves from primarily state 50 years. owned operations to a more private market orientation, new institutional arrangements The ANDS strategic objective in the mining will be established. sector is to encourage legitimate private in- vestment in the sector so as to substantially Until recently a focus in the energy sector has increase government revenues, improve em- been on using donor funds and contractors to ployment opportunities and foster ancillary rehabilitate and expand the infrastructure of development. Implementation of the strategy the government-owned electric company will help to develop effective market-based DABM, with virtually no attention being given economy sector policies, promote and regulate to establishing an enabling environment that sustainable development of minerals and en- would promote increased private investment in sure that the nation’s geological resources are the sector. This will change with a major effort progressively investigated and developed. The to set up a transparent regulatory framework Ministry of Mines is making the transition from and a pricing system that is designed to en- being primarily a producer of minerals and courage private sector investment in the sector. other commodities to a policy making and A new market oriented paradigm, significant regulatory institution. For mining and miner- institutional changes and considerable capacity als, the emphasis is on the exploration, extrac- development will be established under guid- tion and delivery to market; for hydrocarbons ance from the Inter-Ministerial Commission for the emphasis is exploration and development. Energy (ICE). Streamlined government over- There is a great potential for the mining sector. sight and greater reliance on private sector in- The test will be in moving quickly from the vestment is essential. As the energy line minis- success in attracting investment in the Aynak tries shift from operating as production-based copper deposits to the development and explo- institutions to becoming policy making regula- ration of the many other mineral resources of tory agencies, staff capacity and in-house func- the country. tions will be reoriented to market practices. The Government will assess its sector assets and establish a plan for liquidation, restructur- ing and commercialization or sale. In particu- lar the Government will provide more support8 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Water Resources Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) system geared to the five major riverAgriculture accounts for 95 percent of water basins in the country, with an eventual devolu-consumption. In the 1970s, some 3.3 million tion of responsibilities down to independenthectares were cultivated using various irriga- River Basin authorities.tion methods. However, because of civil con-flict and drought, at present only about 1.8 mil-lion hectares of land are being irrigated. Of Transportthis, only ten percent is being irrigated using The ANDS strategic goal for the transport sec-properly engineered systems with the remain- tor is to have a safe, integrated transportationder dependent on traditional irrigation meth- network that ensures connectivity and that en-ods, some of these based on run-offs from or ables low-cost and reliable movement of peopleuse of aquifers that are being degraded by deep and goods domestically as well as to and fromwater wells and insufficient investment in re- foreign destinations. The strategy will contrib-charge basins. Significant donor funded in- ute to achieving the following targets estab-vestment has gone into rehabilitating damaged lished in the Afghanistan Compact. (i) Af-or degraded irrigation systems, but little has ghanistan will have a fully upgraded andbeen done in terms of making new investments maintained ring road, as well as roads connect-the structures needed to increase efficiency in ing the ring road to neighboring countries bywater use. There is a lack of resources needed end-2008 and a fiscally sustainable system forto improve water management, including a road maintenance by end-2007; (ii) By end-lack of skilled human resources. Information 2010, Kabul International Airport and Heratsystems are now being reconstituted, but there Airport will achieve full International Civilis a lack of reliable hydrological, meteorologi- Aviation Organization compliance; Mazar-i-cal, geo-technical and water quality data. The Sharif, Jalalabad and Kandahar will be up-infrastructure and equipment needed to effi- graded with runway repairs, air navigation,ciently conserve and utilize water resources is fire and rescue and communications equip-insufficient. There are limited data on ground ment; seven other domestic airports will bewater resources and information indicating upgraded to facilitate domestic air transporta-that un-regulated deep well drilling may be tion; and air transport services and costs will bedepleting aquifers that are essential to water increasingly competitive with internationalsupplies and traditional irrigation systems (Ka- market standards and rates; and (iii) By end-rezes and springs). There is a lack of economic 2010 Afghanistan and its neighbors willmechanisms regulating water use and invest- achieve lower transit times through Afghani-ments for water supply, sanitary systems, irri- stan by means of cooperative border manage-gation, and hydropower generation. ment and other multilateral or bilateral trade and transit agreements.The efficient management of Afghanistan’s wa-ter resources is essential for social and eco- The Government continues to give high prior-nomic development and is an area where there ity to rehabilitate a badly damaged road sys-is a great need for public sector involvement. tem. This includes: (i) completion of a fullyBoth government and donor efforts have un- upgraded and maintained ring road and con-der-invested in better water resource manage- nector roads to neighboring countries, (ii) im-ment that will have a major impact on the pro- proving 5,334 km of secondary (national andductive capacity of the economy and the lives provincial) roads and (iii) improving andof the people. Within the water resources sec- building 6,290 km of rural access roads as a keytor, feasibility studies will be completed and to raising rural livelihoods and reducing pov-investments will be made in the needed storage erty and vulnerability in rural areas. Betterfacilities, recharge basins, multi-purpose dams, rural roads will improve market access andirrigation systems required to improve water opportunities for rural households. The actualsector management for both agricultural and allocation of resources amongst these three ar-non-agricultural uses. These efforts will aug- eas of planned activity will depend on the es-ment on-going efforts to rehabilitate and im- timated rates of return from analysis of pro-prove management in existing systems. Over posals put forward for funding by the interna-time there will be a movement away from a tional community or by the ministries involvedproject by project focus on rehabilitation to an in implementing the transport sector strategies. The ANDS: An Overview 9
    • A Transport Sector Inter-Ministerial Working strengthened municipal capacity to manage Group will be formed that will coordinate the urban development and deliver services; (ii) ministries in the sector to assure that invest- improved institutional coordination and moni- ments are properly coordinated to obtain the toring of key urban indicators; (iii) increased highest returns and greatest impact on the pov- access to basic services for urban households; erty reduction goals. Careful consideration (iv) phased regularization of tenure for 50 per- will be given to increasing employment oppor- cent of households living in informal settle- tunities, and assuring that the local resources or ments; (v) upgrading public services and facili- funds channeled through local communities ties, including new urban area development; are effectively used to maintain the rural roads (vi) increased availability of affordable shelter, established as part of this strategy. including a 50 percent increase in numbers of housing units and 30 percent increase in area of serviced land on the market, coupled with ac- Information and Communications cess to affordable finance; and (vii) improved Technology urban environment with green areas and open In early 2003, Afghanistan had fewer than spaces 15,000 functioning telephone lines for a popula- tion of approximately 25 million, one of the More is now being done under the ANDS to lowest telephone penetration rates in the devolve authority to municipalities. The urban world. The Government with donor assistance development strategy is designed to improve adopted major policy reforms for the ICT sec- urban governance through: (i) decentralization, tor, moving rapidly to establish the legal participatory processes, market-based ap- framework and regulatory arrangements to proaches, and improved regulations; (ii) capac- promote private sector investment, resulting in ity building at all levels of urban governance; a competitive environment and the rapid (iii) establishing a clear national land policy, growth of mobile phone use from almost noth- including urban informal settlement policy; (iv) ing to a present subscriber base of over five improved revenue generation in cities through million. This development is one of the major direct cost recovery for and economic pricing of success stories of in the implementation of the urban services, property-based taxes, and use private sector based development strategy. of computer systems; (v) expanding urban up- Greater efforts will be made during ANDS pe- grading pilots, including phased regularization riod to adopt a similar investor friendly regula- of informal settlements, and programs to meet tory framework for development of natural the immediate housing, tenure security and resources and infrastructure. With respect to service needs of the poor and vulnerable peo- telecommunications, the ANDS strategic objec- ple; (vi) increasing the supply of serviced land tive is to expand access to mobile phone service by developing new urban areas, especially to 80 percent of the country and greatly in- within the cities, to meet the present and future crease access and use of the internet by con- housing needs of the people; (vii) improving sumers, the private sector and the Government. city-wide basic infrastructure and services, in particular water supply, sanitation, roads and green areas; and (viii) rehabilitation of urban Urban Development heritage facilities and sites. The ANDS strategic objective for urban devel- opment is to greatly improve the management Education of urban areas through a devolution of author- ity and responsibilities to municipalities in a Efforts to improve education, which started in way that improves urban infrastructure and 2002, were focused on getting 1.5 million chil- services, reduces urban poverty and allows dren into the primary/secondary school sys- urban residents to live safe, healthy and pro- tem. There are now over 6 million children at ductive lives and cities to grow and prosper. primary and secondary school. In addition Effective management of the rapid urbaniza- universities have reopened and there are in- tion process will make a significant contribu- creasing opportunities for vocational training. tion to the recovery of the country. As of 2005 There are now 52,200 students at higher educa- nearly a quarter of Afghanistan’s population tion institutions. Although the expansion of lived in urban areas. Outcomes will include: (i) education has been impressive, there is an ur- gent need to improve the quality of education.10 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • This is one area where programs designed to facts collection held by the Ministry will be ex-meet benchmarks defined in terms of enrol- panded. In the longer term, museums will bement or coverage fail to give adequate consid- established and or expanded and historical oreration to the quality of the service being pro- heritage sites will be protected. Media legisla-vided. Increased priority will be given to tion will be enacted to provide a stable andteacher training and other mechanisms to en- predictable environment in which a largelycourage private sector investment in educa- privately run and independent media can op-tional activities. erate. Media will be employed as an educa- tional tool in addition to entertainment. KeyVocational training will become an increasing priorities include a country-wide coverage offocus of attention. There is an urgent need to public Afghan media (radio and television), anaddress problems in the vocational education increased number of hours of public broadcast-sector that include staff shortages, overbuild- ing, and improved quality of programming. Ating, lack of standardization in training courses, this stage in its post-war development, state-and qualifications that are difficult for potential owned media will be used to promote and con-employers to assess. A new organization, the vey information on gender policies, publicNational Vocational Education and Training health and national security. Extensive reformsAuthority (NVETA), will be established and have been introduced within the educationwill: (i) manage, but not operate, all vocational strategy that is designed to assist youth. Thesetraining institutions; (ii) set minimum core include expansion of the education system; re-competencies for courses, carry out accredita- habilitation programs for young people whosetion, and inspect vocational institutions, to en- education may have been limited because ofsure that they meet minimum standards; and the security situation; and reforms to voca-(iii) call for tenders by ministries or by the pri- tional education to provide youth with market-vate sector to operate vocational training facili- able skills and better employment opportuni-ties owned by the Government. ties.The potential role of the private sector has beenexpanded considerably in this strategy. In the Health and nutrition sector strategyprimary and secondary education area there By all measures, the people of Afghanistan suf-will be an expansion in private and NGO fer from poor health. The country’s health in-schools, encouraged by a more accommodating dicators are near the bottom of internationalregulatory environment. In higher education indices, and fare far worse, in terms of theirthe university cooperation plans that have al- health, than any other country in the region.ready commenced will allow universities in Life expectancy is low, infant, under-five andAfghanistan to interact and be supported by maternal mortality is very high, and there is anrecognized foreign universities. NVETA will extremely high prevalence of chronic malnutri-contract with private sector groups or NGOs tion and widespread occurrence of micronutri-for provision of educational services. Some ent deficiency diseases. Substantial improve-areas will be left to the private sector, including ments in the health system and the healthpreschool education. status of the people of Afghanistan have been achieved in recent years, but there are a num- ber of challenges and constraints that must beCulture, media and youth addressed if continued progress is to be made,The ANDS strategic objective for this sector is: including: (i) inadequate financing for many of(i) to create awareness and foster a sense of the key programs; (ii) reliance on externalpride in the country’s history, future, culture sources of funding; (iii) inadequately trainedand achievements; (ii) to document and pre- health workers; (iv) lack of qualified femaleserve cultural artifacts and heritage sites; (iii) to health workers in rural areas; (v) dispersedensure an independent and pluralistic media population, geographical barriers and a lack ofthat contributes to an open and democratic so- transportation infrastructure; (vi) low levels ofciety; and (iv) to foster a sense of confidence utilization for certain health services, especiallyamong the young that they can contribute to preventive services; (viii) variable levels of ser-and benefit from a stable and prosperous the vice quality; (ix) insecurity in some provinces,country. An accessible and well maintained making it difficult for program implementa-cultural artifacts data base and the cultural arti- tion, recruitment and retention of staff, expan- The ANDS: An Overview 11
    • sion of service coverage and monitoring by the plans for a series of programs that are designed provincial and central levels; (x) lack of effec- to achieve an improved quality of life for rural tive financial protection mechanisms for poor citizens – one in which food security is assured, households to receive the care they need with- basic services are provided, incomes increase out experiencing financial distress; and (xi) lack with households actively engaged in legal ac- of mechanisms for effective support to and tivities, employment opportunities expand and regulation of for-profit private sector clinics where people live in a safe and secure envi- and pharmacies. ronment. Activities are grouped into two main components of the strategy: a Comprehensive Programs have been designed to expand and Agriculture and Rural Development (CARD) improve the system and to try and target vul- and the Agricultural and Rural Development nerable groups with preventive or curative pro- Zone (ARDZ) initiative. grams. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) will review and develop relevant legal and The CARD strategy articulates a road map for regulatory mechanisms, such as accreditation the way forward in which poverty reduction systems, that govern health and health related through economic regeneration is the central work in the public and private sectors. The objective. The overall focus is to support the goal of the regulatory system will be to facili- poorest and most vulnerable segments of rural tate competitive and cost effective provision of society. Proposed interventions will provide a services, carrying out its broader mandate to range of measures that will differ between not only contract out service provision to civil groups and between regions, but all are de- and private groups but also to facilitate growth signed to help diversify incomes, including of the ‘for profit’ sector. The MoPH will re- income support, direct provision of assets, view, develop and enforce relevant legal and skills training and market opportunities. regulatory instruments that govern health and health related work to safeguard the public and The second main component of the strategy, ensure service quality. The MoPH will work to the Agriculture and Rural Development Zones identify, encourage, coordinate, and review (ARDZ) program, is the Government’s ap- and in some cases conduct relevant, useful re- proach to expanding commercial activities and search that can assist evidence-based decision increasing agricultural productivity. The making and the formulation of new policies, ARDZ recognizes that geographic priorities strategies and plans. have to be set in support of the development of commercial agriculture. These geographic pri- orities will be used to target infrastructure, Agriculture and Rural Development utilities and other support by various minis- The ANDS strategic objective for the agricul- tries. The Government will release publicly ture and rural development sector is to jointly held land to increase private sector investment use private investment and public sector sup- through a competitive bidding process. Fur- port for efforts to transform agriculture into a ther, the Government will continue to investi- source of growth and means of livelihood for gate and implement measures to increase fi- the rural poor. The sector strategy articulates a nancial and technical support that can be util- road map for the way forward in which pov- ized by private firms to expand operations. erty reduction through economic regeneration This will ensure the process of transforming is the central objective Some of the focus will underutilized state land into commercially vi- be on the transformation of agriculture in a able agro-processing enterprises will be as fast number of well defined zones where the condi- and efficient as possible. tions for growth are most favorable. Social Protection Agriculture has traditionally been the main activity for much of Afghanistan’s population, The ANDS strategic objective for social protec- particularly in the most remote and vulnerable tion is to assure that the benefits of growth areas. While non-farming activities account for reach the poor and vulnerable, either through large amounts of time, many of these are re- the attention to these groups in the design of lated to processing, transporting or marketing programs and projects aimed at stimulating agricultural goods. The agriculture and rural growth or through well targeted support pro- development strategy establishes ambitious grams. The social protection sector has signifi-12 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • cantly improved since 2002 in all areas: social provinces. Population movements have largelysupport, pension distribution and disaster pre- normalized with socio-economic factors largelyparedness. Cash transfer benefits have been replacing security and politics as the key driv-established for martyr’s families and the dis- ers. The numbers of IDPs has also fallen sig-abled as the main instrument of the social sup- nificantly since 2002. Currently there are anport and national solidarity with the victims of estimated 129,000 IDPs displaced by pastthe war. The MoLSAMD has established its drought and conflict and an additional 29,000departments in all provinces and strengthen its more recently displaced by recent fighting incapacity for targeting and cooperating with the southern provinces. The majority of theNGOs and donors. Around 2.5 million people one million IDPs identified in 2002 have re-have been covered with some type of public turned to their homes. During 2007 there wasarrangement for social protection. Efforts will some rise in local internal displacement in thenow focus on: (i) improving efficiency of public southern provinces of Helmand and Uruzganarrangements for social risk management; (ii) due to clashes with terrorist groups. Withindiversifying market-based arrangements for the region, the principle legal and operationalsocial risk management; (iii) strengthening in- framework governing voluntary repatriation isformal arrangements for social risk manage- provided by the Tripartite Agreements (TA)ment (iv) capacity building and restructuring in signed between Afghanistan, UNHCR, Iranthe MoLSAMD; and (vi) improving partnership and Pakistan respectively. These agreementswith civil society and NGOs to enhance aid are serviced by regular meetings of Tripartitecoordination. The main principle for future Commissions at both Ministerial and workingsocial support will be to enhance fiscal sustain- level.ability by focusing on the most vulnerable andsupporting the “poorest of the poor”. Finally, It is very probable that high levels of mass andstrengthening the public/NGOs/private sector voluntary repatriation are over. The refugees’partnership will support the Government’s in- long stay in exile, poverty, and dissuasive con-tention to remain mainly in the area of policy ditions in many parts of Afghanistan are likelymaking and providing regulations and having to prove difficult obstacles to overcome in thethe private sector and NGOs increasingly in- future. Security, lack of economic opportuni-volved in service delivery. ties (employment) and social services (health and education) continue to limit return and reintegration. The most significant challengesRefugees, returnees and internally for future will be: (i) ensuring peace and secu-displaced persons (IDPs) rity in areas of refugee origin; (ii) improvingThe ANDS strategic objective with respect to the Government’s abilities to negotiate effec-refugees, returnees and IDP’s is to efficiently tively with its neighbors on refugee, displace-manage the voluntary return of refugees and ment and migration issues; (iii) improving theIDPs and their reintegration into productive political, economic, social and organizationalparticipation in society. World-wide experi- absorption capacities in key sectors and areas;ence has indicated that large, unplanned, and and (iv) developing an implementation planessentially involuntary returns which have to and supporting resources executed over abe managed as emergency influxes generate a number of years.range of negative consequences. Therefore theplanned and voluntary return of refugees andIDPs return is the guiding principle for the sec- CROSS-CUTTING ISSUEStor strategy. Since 1383, the Government has given consid- erable attention to a set of issues that cut acrossMore than five million persons have returned all the sectors, motivated by the belief that theto their homes since 2002. Their reintegration overall success of the ANDS will be in jeopardyinto society has been challenging but there has if these issues are not effectively addressed.no been no pattern of discrimination against These cross cutting issues involve (i) regionalreturnees. There is some evidence of secondary cooperation; (ii) counter-narcotics; (iii) anti-migration of returnees from places of origin to corruption; (iv) gender equality; (v) capacitycities and back to the neighboring countries. development; and (vi) environmental man-The latter occur most noticeably from border agement.. The ANDS: An Overview 13
    • The regional cooperation initiatives are in- violence in public and domestic spheres; and tended to increase access to power; generate (iii) greater social acceptance of gender equality revenues through transit trade; reduce im- as evidenced by increased participation by pediments to trade and expand both import women in public affairs and policy discussions. and export opportunities; increase investment and contribute to improved employment and The ANDS capacity development objective business opportunities; facilitate the free flow is to assure that the skills needed to effectively of goods, services, and technology; allow the implement programs and projects included in costs or benefits of development of common the ANDS exist or can be developed within the resources to be shared; reduce regional ten- required time frame for implementation. The sions and facilitate regional efforts to reduce institutional responsibility will be with Inter- cross border crime and terrorism; and facilitate ministerial Commission for Capacity Devel- the voluntary return of refugees. opment (ICCD) that will serve as a single re- porting point for both government and donors. Counter-narcotics programs are designed to; ICCD will provide a coordinated approach to (i) disrupt the drugs trade; (ii) strengthen and support the effective management of funds and diversify legal rural livelihoods; (iii) reduce the aid flows, to cut down on duplication and to demand for illicit drugs and improve treatment ensure that critical capabilities for program and for drug users; and (iv) strengthen state institu- project implementation are well defined and tions combating the drug scourge within cen- (most importantly) that capacity development tral and provincial governments. Provincial and technical assistance programs are properly governors will be responsible and accountable focused on meeting these critical needs. for the process of control and management of counter narcotics intervention in their jurisdic- Environmental protection efforts are geared tion with support from MCN. to: restoration and sustainable use of range- lands and forests; conservation of biodiversity; The National Anti-Corruption Strategy is preservation of Natural and Cultural Heritage based on the following key goals: (i) enhancing sites or resources; encouragement to commu- government anti-corruption commitment and nity based natural resource management, pre- leadership; (ii) raising awareness of corruption vention and/or abatement of pollution; and and evaluating the effectiveness of anti- improved environmental management, educa- corruption measures; (iii) mainstreaming anti- tion and awareness. Throughout all sectors, corruption into government reforms and na- any environmental costs will be fully ac- tional development; and (iv) strengthening the counted for in appraisals aimed at ensuring legal framework for fighting corruption and that benefits of proposed programs or projects. building an institutional capacity for effective implementation of the United Nations Conven- tion Against Corruption (UNCAC). ENHANCING AID EFFECTIVENESS AND AID The ANDS goal for gender equality is an Af- COORDINATION ghanistan where women and men enjoy secu- rity, equal rights and equal opportunities in all The Government has implemented processes to spheres of life. The National Action Plan for increase the monitoring of aid-funded activities Women focuses on three main outcomes: (i) and to improve the efficiency of implementa- government entities embracing ‘gender equal- tion. The Aid Coordination Unit in the Minis- ity’ in their employment, promotion, policy try of Finance has responsibility for issues re- making and budgetary allocations; (ii) measur- lated to the delivery and monitoring of external able improvements in women’s status as evi- assistance. The Government would like to see denced by reduced illiteracy; higher net en- increased core budget support (direct budget rollment ratio in educational and training pro- support), giving greater ownership and ena- grams; equal wages for equal work; lower ma- bling a more effective allocation of resources ternal mortality; increasing leadership and par- based on needs and priorities. Channeling aid ticipation in all spheres of life; greater eco- through established trust funds is also effec- nomic opportunities and access to and control tive, with the Government able to access funds over productive assets and income; adequate on an as needed basis. Pooling of donor funds access to equal justice; reduced vulnerability to also significantly reduces the duplication of14 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • efforts and leads to better coordination, man- prove its absorption capacity and fiduciaryagement, and effectiveness of aid. This is espe- practices to encourage donors to implementcially so with technical assistance grants. their projects through the National (Core) Budget or, if this is not possible, to assure thatEfforts to increase capacity to implement the programs or projects implemented through theCore Development Budget more efficiently will external budget are aligned with the ANDSresult in higher donor contributions, aiding objectives and priorities.coordination. Equally important is the Gov-ernment’s accountability to Afghan citizens on At the national level, the following structureshow aid funds have been spent. The MoF’s will link policy, planning, budgeting and moni-Public Expenditure Financial Accountability toring of the ANDS: The National Assembly is(PEFA) framework is crucial to this process. responsible for legislating an enabling envi-The ANDS provides the framework for priority ronment for security, economic growth andaid delivery. Aid delivery will be greatly im- poverty reduction. The Council of Ministersproved where Government, civil society and headed by the President is the highest levelthe international community align expendi- decision-making body, providing overall policytures with the ANDS priorities. Further, the guidance and direction under existing legisla-Government will work with civil society or- tion. The ANDS Oversight Committee (OSC),ganizations and Provincial Reconstruction composed of senior ministers, will oversee andTeams to ensure that these activities are also coordinate the overall ANDS implementationaligned with the ANDS priorities and goals. process. Line ministries and other government agencies will also be responsible for implemen- tation itself. The MoF will play an importantIMPLEMENTATION AND role by making sure that the program and pro-MONITORING OF THE ANDS jects of the line ministries are costed, priori- tized and integrated into the National Budget.The success of the ANDS depends on effective The OSC will play a key role in coordinatingimplementation. The National Budget is the overall efforts to implement the ANDS. More-central tool for implementing the ANDS. over, the Ministry of Economy will strengthenGiven this, all line ministries will first develop this mechanism by coordinating the work ofor align their programs and projects with the the line ministries at the operational level. TheANDS Sector Strategies; sector program and Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board willprojects will then be costed and re-prioritized remain the highest Government-donor mecha-against the medium-term budget ceilings. nism in charge of coordination and monitoring,Based on this, the ANDS Public Investment which will cover not only the AfghanistanProgram (PIP) will be prepared to enable the Compact but the entire ANDS. The Consulta-full integration of the ANDS into the medium tive and Working Groups will continue to beterm budget in accordance with the MoF’s on- the key forums for improving aid coordinationgoing activities to introduce program budget- and ensure alignment of the donor programsing. Furthermore, the Government will im- and projects with the ANDS. The ANDS: An Overview 15
    • CHAPTER 2 THE PARTICIPATORY PROCESS AND PROVINCIAL DEVELOPMENT PLANSPublic support for the successful implementa- consultative process and the lessons learnedtion of the ANDS is essential. Therefore, Gov- from it.ernment has developed the ANDS over thecourse of the past three years through a thor-oughly participatory manner, to seed the emer- ORGANIZING PRINCIPLESgence of a grass roots democracy, ensuring AND PARTICIPATIONownership from people from all corners andwalks of life, civil society, the private sector, PROCESS7religious establishments, international commu- The Government undertook extensive andnity and all government institutions at the na- thorough consultations, far exceeding thetional and sub-national levels. In the course of depth and quantity of consultations usuallydeveloping the ANDS, the Government has undertaken as part of a PRSP process. To sup-undertaken a public policy dialogue with all port the comprehensive development frame-key stakeholders, embarking on a provincial work of the ANDS, the aims of the consultationbased planning process across all provinces to process were to:bring government closer to its people, and thepeople closer to government. The outcomes build a national consensus with respect toand lessons learned from this consultation ex- the Government’s overall vision, develop-ercise provided an opportunity to participate in ment strategy, and greater understandingdiscussions on the development national policy of the realistic pace at which national de-and strategy framework. velopment could take place; ensure that citizens had a real impact onThe ANDS is the product of extensive consulta- development and implementation of publictions at the national, provincial and local levels. policy;National consultations involved practically allgovernmental and major civil society institu- ensure ownership by the Government,tions including Non Governmental Organiza- which is critical for successful strategy im-tions (NGOs), cultural associations, religious plementation;communities, the private sector, influential in- be as inclusive as possible to capture thedividuals, experts and the international com- opinions and views of different groups tomunity. Sub-national consultations involved ensure a representative strategy woulddiscussions with provincial governors, provin- emerge capable of addressing the needscial representative bodies, representative vil- and priorities of all citizens, and in thelage councils, parliamentarians representing process ensuring Government fulfillmenteach province, local civil society, representa-tives of Provincial Reconstruction Teams(PRTs) and prominent individuals in all 34 7 Participation is the process by which stakeholders influence andprovinces of Afghanistan. More than 17,000 share control over priority setting, policymaking, resource alloca-people, 47 percent of whom were women, di- tions, and/or program implementation. While there is no blueprint for participation, because it plays a role in many different con-rectly participated in the consultation process. texts and for different purposes, the Government has worked hardThe consultations included all pillars of ANDS. to design a meaningful participatory process as part of the futureThis section summarizes the participatory and ANDS. The Participatory Process 17
    • of the participatory requirements of the as to facilitate wider input into its policy- PRSP; making. lay the groundwork for a sustainable proc- The consultation process was designed to re- ess, which would last beyond the life of the flect the structures of Government at national, development of the full ANDS, and ensure provincial and district levels, guided by the regular inputs into Government decision- programmatic structure provided in Figure making processes, thereby creating a par- 2.1.8 ticipatory process which will be institu- tionalized over time; and Strengthen the capacity of the Government 8 to consult widely on its strategies, as well Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, 2005 (http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/11/41/34428351.pdf). Figure 2.1. ANDS oversight structure ANDS Oversight Structure Office of the President / Oversight Committee / Joint Coordination and Management Board (JCMB) / External Advisory Group (EAG) SECURITY GOVERNANCE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Pillar 1 Pillar 2 Pillar 3 Pillar 4 Pillar 5 Pillar 6 Pillar 7 Pillar 8 Good Infrastructure Education & Health & Agriculture Social Economic Security Governance Natural Resources Culture Nutrition Rural Development Protection Governance / PSD National Consultation Process Eight Consultative National Assembly / Sub-cabinet Committees Technical Quarterly Meetings Consultative Groups /Working Groups / Technical Working Groups Working Groups (80-100 participants) Private Sector / Afghan Diaspora Cross Cutting Issues 34 Provincial SNC Provincial Consultation Process Parliamentarians Meetings / 10,000 Provincial Governors / Provincial Development Committee (PDC) and Civil Society Stakeholders Community Development Councils (CDCs) Engagement Shuras / Traditional Structures / PRTs 500 participants Private Sector, Media and Civil Society Consultation Process In nationwide Religious / Private Sector / National Media conference; Grassroots Organizations / Civil Society Groups over 1000 in Kabul NSP/CDC Cross Cutting CG met throughout Cross Cutting Issues I-ANDS Period Regional Cooperation / Counter Narcotics / Anti-Corruption / Gender Equity / Capacity Building / Environment Consultations brought together central and operation, some of the outcomes of the process provincial decision-making institutions. Valu- have addressed cross-cutting issues. This is able outcomes and lessons have been learned particularly so where national and sub-national as part of this process, which are being used to planning, budgeting and financing intersect. strengthen the policy, planning and budget Consultations have been ongoing throughout formulation. As the consultation design al- the development of the ANDS (figure 2.2). lowed for ministerial and cross-ministerial co-18 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Figure 2.2. ANDS timeline 1385 – 1388 (2006-2009) ANDS ANDS ANDS draft Sector consultation ANDS ANDS Ministries ANDS First ANDS ANDS Strategies finalized and Process Work strategies approved Progress Consultations integrated the Final Lunched Plan prepared by the and Lunched into the First Draft of the at JCMB approved ANDS Pilot Cabinet Update Draft of ANDS Consultations the ANDS prepared Launched National & Sub-National consultation and Research ongoing One Year of ANDS Iplementation (HIP) Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug... Mar 2006 2007 2008 2009CONSULTATION PROCESS seventeen sectors of the ANDS, including the mainstreaming of cross cutting issues,Consultations were conducted with primary to deliver a mutually reinforcing, fully pri-and secondary stakeholders from the: oritized and integrated strategy. The Joint(i) national; (ii) sub-national; (iii) international; Coordination and Monitoring Boardand (iv) private sector, civil society, religious (JCMB) coordinates the efforts of all part-and traditional communities. Through the con- ners in the process, and reports the resultssultation process the Government has aimed to to the President, the National Assembly,connect newly formed central and provincial and the UN Secretary General as well as togovernance structures and ensure harmoniza- the international community and the pub-tion and co-ordination of the development lic. Between quarterly meetings, the JCMBprocess. The following section provides a very Secretariat coordinates activities that keepbrief summary of the important strategy design the benchmarks on track. The JCMB servesprocess. as the official link between the Consultative Groups (CGs) as well as between the Tech- National Consultation Process: The day to nical Working Groups (TWGs) and the day preparation of the ANDS was man- OSC. Moreover, key national stakeholders aged by the ANDS Directorate, with the involved in the National Consultation supervision of a Presidential Oversight Process include (a) the national assembly Committee, chaired by the Senior Eco- (b) sub-cabinet committees (c) consultative nomic Advisors. The Oversight Committee and technical working groups and (d) the (OSC) was formed to oversee the economic, private sector and members of the Afghan policy and strategic direction for the im- diaspora. plementation and development of the ANDS. The committee is composed of Sub National Consultation Process:9 The Cabinet Ministers, including the Ministers sub-national consultation process of the of Finance, Foreign Affairs, Economy, ANDS represented the first significant dia- Commerce, Justice, Education and the Na- logue between the central Government and tional Security Advisor and meets bi- the provinces; designed to strengthen cen- monthly to monitor the progress of imple- tre-periphery relations. The outcome of this mentation of the Afghanistan Compact, I- consultation process included the formula- ANDS and the ANDS. Within the frame- tion of 18,500 village based development work of the various Consultative and plans, leading to 345 district development Technical Working Groups, each Ministry and Agency developed its individual strat- egy, coordinated within the sector wide 9 The sub-national consultation process and how the PDPs were approach underpinning the ANDS. These developed and informed policy will be discussed in greater detail strategies cut across the three pillars and in the next section. The Participatory Process 19
    • plans, which were finally consolidated into internet. The role that civil society organi- 34 Provincial Development Plans (PDPs). zations have played at different levels as This process involved consultation be- facilitators, communicators, advocates and tween parliamentarians, provincial authori- monitors has been invaluable. 11 As part of ties, provincial development committees, the economic diagnostic and PDP work, village Shuras, local Ulama, the interna- provincial discussions were held to discuss tional community (including the Provincial the private sector development strategy in Reconstruction Teams) and most impor- the five largest commercial cities, which tantly ordinary Afghan citizens. These culminated in the ‘Enabling Environment PDPs identified needs and key develop- Conference’ held in Kabul in 1386 (June ment priorities for each province. Both the 2007). National (top-down) and sub-national (bot- Poverty diagnostic consultations: The Gov- tom-up) processes were developed into the ernment’s participatory approach to poverty sector strategies, with a move towards the diagnostics involved enabling poor communi- formulation of Sector Wide Approach and ties and their institutions to participate effec- Programmatic Budgeting. tively in defining, analyzing and monitoring International Consultation Process: En- poverty as they experience it. This work was gagement between the Government and also conducted in the most remote and conflict the international community has been sub- affected communities of Afghanistan. In so stantially guided by the Bonn process doing, a broader choice of poverty actions which set high level political goals: the Se- based on the specific concerns of the poor have curing Afghanistan Future exercise; the been established for each province, as well as Afghanistan Compact and the MDG proc- each district. Government has considered a ess. The international community was in- range of poverty actions based on specific con- volved in the ANDS consultation process cerns of the poor including vulnerability, con- through the External Advisory Group flict sensitivity, insecurity and governance. As (EAG). Among other issues, this organ fo- a result of provincial and district planning, dif- cuses on implementation of the principles ferent targeting of poverty reduction pro- of the Paris Declaration. The ANDS Secre- grams/interventions have been considered to tariat provides support to these structures establish a best fit between poverty profile and to enhance coordination and effectiveness poverty actions. and the linkage with the national consulta- tion process. The international community was extensively involved in the develop- PROVINCIAL DEVELOPMENT ment and preparation of the ANDS. PLANS (PDPS) Consultation with the Civil Society, Pri- As part of the ANDS PDPs were developed for vate Sector and Media: The Government all 34 provinces of Afghanistan to provide a carried out extensive consultation with coordinated framework for the Government civil society groups, including: (a) the reli- and the international community to undertake gious establishment; (b) village shuras10; (c) sector programs and projects at the sub- non governmental and not for profit agen- national level. The linking of consultation to cies; (d) cultural associations; (e) human the provincial based planning process has al- rights organizations; (f) grassroots associa- lowed local communities to prioritize, se- tions related to women’s affairs, youth de- quence, plan and be involved in the implemen- velopment and disability; and (g) Water and Sanitation Committees (WATSAN). Six Afghan coordination bodies and part- ner NGOs were extensively engaged dur- 11 In addition to the feedback, comments and support of a number of CSOs, the Agency Coordinating Body for Afghan Relief ing the development of the Sector Strate- (ACBAR) and the Foundation for Culture and Civil Society gies. Moreover, throughout the process the (FCCS) undertook extensive research in 12 provinces, contribut- media has been actively reporting on the ing invaluable poverty data for the ANDS, as teams were sent to remote, poverty stricken areas in both rural and urban settings, in ANDS, through newspapers, TV, radio and order to inform the sector strategies. This information was used in conjunction with findings from the National Risk and Vulnerabil- ity Assessment surveys over the past five years, to ensure that the 10 Traditional village councils. ANDS policies are pro-poor and representative of the more dis- advantaged segments of society.20 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • tation of projects. The PDPs developed Priority Projectsthrough the Sub National Consultations ensurethat the priorities in the ANDS reflect the best Ten projects have been prioritized for each sec-interests of the Afghan people and are the tor and for each province aligned with the fis-product of the three rounds of Sub-National cal envelope of ministries within the outreachConsultations that took place across Afghani- of national programs. In total, 80 priority pro-stan March 2007- March 2008. jects were identified for each province. The SNCs served as an opportunity for these ideasThe PDPs have informed policy formulation, in the shape of Community Development Plansarticulated goals and needs of the people and (CDPs) and District Development Plans (DDPs)provided strategic direction to the sector to be consolidated and improved and to reachstrategies and the overall ANDS. During the consensus on them with a wider audience fromSub National Consultations (SNCs), prepara- the province before being incorporated intotion and input for the PDPs was based on the PDPs as priority projects. Priority projectsfollowing inputs: from the eight sectors across the 34 provinces therefore represent a list of activities that re- line ministry strategies and plans; spond to the most urgent sectoral needs in each province. These are being mapped into the priorities of rural communities including national budget process. those set out in Community and District Development Plans; priorities of urban communities, including PRIORITIZATION AND those set out in Urban Plans; SEQUENCING OF THE PDPS priorities of vulnerable social groups in- Prioritization of the provincial priority projects, cluding Kuchis, refugees, returnees and In- aligned with National Programs, forms the ba- ternally Displaced Persons (IDP) and the sis on which implementation of the ANDS will disabled; and take place at the local level. Out of the eighty projects prioritized during the SNC process, the priorities of women, who attended the con- most critical projects were aligned with the five sultations with an average of 47 percent most crucial sectors and prioritized into tiers. participation.12 Tier one projects represent the most urgent tasks. This has allowed for a logical resourceDevelopment of Provincial Profiles allocation and prioritization process to be car- ried out. Provincial budgeting, as a componentThe PDPs contain a profile of each province of the National Program Budgeting Reformusing information from both the National Risk Progress, is also informed by the provincialand Vulnerability Assessment (NRVA) and prioritization process. It aims to empower localUNFPA’s Socio-Economic and Demographic authorities and increase the appropriateness ofProfiles, providing a geographic, poverty-based resource allocation. This is currently being pi-and social picture of the province and perspec- loted in ten provinces and will be extended to atives on the state of provincial development. further ten in 1387 (2008).Opportunities for poverty alleviation have beenincluded with the agreed goals and needs foreach pillar. This provides a guide to potential INTEGRATION OF THE PDPSdevelopment in each province; especially for INTO ANDSthe most urgent local needs. The data from the SNCs and PDPs was fully incorporated into ANDS in the following ways: For each Sector Strategy; comments gath-12 A nomad woman from Balkh province stated that this was the ered from the SNCs from a provincial per-first time she had attended the meeting on behalf of nomad spective on challenges for that particularwomen of this province in order to present her opinions for thewelfare and prosperity of the country. “We would be glad if the sector have been a starting point for ad-government continues to pursue such policy. Nomads like any dressing the country’s most urgent needs.other people in the society would also benefit from this process”. Thus each sector can be seen to respond di-Farida Kochi, representative of Balkh‘ Source: ANDS Sub-national Consultation, 1386 (2007). rectly to the concerns raised by the people. The Participatory Process 21
    • Prioritized projects will be aligned with disabled people; (vi) poor access to electricity ministries’ national programs. This will en- cited in 80 percent of the PDPs; and (vii) cor- able a more transparent provision of ser- ruption within the public administration (men- vices and a more clearly defined imple- tioned in 80 percent of the PDPs, particularly mentation and monitoring mechanism. within the security services). The prioritization process will assist minis- tries with effective resource allocation and PRIORITIZATION OF THE provincial projects highlighted as the most urgent should be seen as priority action by PILLARS the ministries. Using qualitative information from the PDPs the ANDS pillars have been prioritized. This has been illustrated in two ways. Figure 2.3 OUTCOMES FROM THE shows the proportional representation of pri- PROVINCIAL DEVELOPMENT orities within the top five sectors across the 34 PLANNING PROCESS provinces. Unsurprisingly, with 80 percent of the population relying on some form of agricul- One of the most valuable outcomes of the sub- ture, it has appeared as a national priority. Sec- national consultations was the clear indication tors such as health and social protection are that the 34 provinces have different develop- also one of people’s top priorities. In order, the ment priorities. As outputs, the PDPs have key priorities are: formed an integral part of Government policy formation, prioritization, sequencing and Agriculture needs- related resource allocation. In addition, Security two national overriding considerations Education emerged as critically important to any interven- Governance tion: the importance of preserving the country’s Health Islamic religious principles, culture and life- Private sector style and ensuring equity of access to resources Roads and intervention. Infrastructure (energy and water) and so- cial protection. Security emerged as a top priority in two thirds of the PDPs; most strongly in the south and the east of the country. In these regions, security is perceived as the fundamental basis on which all other development depends. Key issues identified by stakeholders13 include: the (i) lack of access to clean drinking water in all provinces, for both domestic use and throughout institutions such as schools and clinics; (ii) improvement of provincial roads, 83 percent referring specifically to the need for tertiary road services, to improve communica- tion between villages to district and provincial centers; access to basic services such as schools and clinics; (iii) improvement in the present low quality services emerged as a key priority throughout the country, especially with respect to poorly trained teachers and doctors; (iv) lack of alternative livelihoods to poppy cultivation; (v) lack of vocational training for returnees and 13 For a detailed breakdown and analysis of provincial priorities, sequencing and integration into Sector Strategies see Volume iii of the ANDS.22 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Figure 2.3. Proportional representation of sectors across all 34 provincesTable 2.4 shows the top priorities for provinces, Table 2.4. Sectors/pillars and the number ofshown for all 34 provinces. Thus in 17 out of 34 provinces in which they are a top priorityprovinces security can be seen as the absolute Sector or Pillar No. of provincesnumber one priority. Roads is shown as a sub Security 17sector since people articulated this as a separate Infrastructure 5requirement from other infrastructure devel- Education 4opment (health is not mentioned because al- Employment 3though it appears numerous times in the top Roads 3five priorities for provinces, it is not considered Agriculture 2the top priority in any province). Governance 1 Figure 2.5. Top priorities of provinces – primary ranking The Participatory Process 23
    • Figure 2.6. Top priorities of provinces – secondary ranking Figure 2.5. Top priorities of provinces – tertiary ranking REGIONAL VARIATION IN In the South and South East regions the major priority is security. PRIORITIES In the West and Northern regions priorities From a regional analysis some general similari- are mainly employment generation and in- ties can also be seen from the above map: frastructure development24 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • In the North East and Central Highlands community in this arena. The PDPs have en- areas the main priorities are provision of abled the prioritization of provincial sectoral roads, education and agriculture. goals and needs into time-bound activities. The voices of the poor have informed the over-The clearest message to be obtained form a all policy framework and the poverty profile,provincial level analysis is that every province as well as the various sectoral priorities out-is unique in its needs, goals and priorities and lined in this document. It is envisioned thatthis should be a major consideration within the participation processes will be sustainedresource allocation process. throughout implementation of the strategy. Lessons learned have been formally integrated into the policy, planning and budgeting proc-CONCLUSION esses, including ongoing concerns about re-The ANDS is the result of an extensive process gional cooperation, conflict management,of consultations involving key players at inter- counter-narcotics, anti-corruption, gender, thenational, national, provincial and grassroots environment and capacity building. It is as-level. The insights provided by these consulta- sumed that integration of the provincial plan-tions have served to highlight both national ning, budgeting and implementation into theand local priorities to form the holistic vision of national development process will contributethe country’s development strategy, keeping in to a relevant and accountable national devel-mind the vast experiences of the international opment process. The Participatory Process 25
    • CHAPTER 3 THE POVERTY PROFILEIn the development of the ANDS Government families. The literacy rate among women beinghas adopted evidence based policy making, much lower (19 percent) than for men (40 per-through detailed poverty diagnostic work, cent) and, the net primary school enrolmentwithin which to understand the causes and ef- rate for girls (6-9) is around 21 percent whilefects of poverty. Based on this analysis we much higher for boys (28 percent).have been able to develop the ANDS as a pro-poor growth strategy. By pro-poor, the Gov-ernment means making investments that have DATA COLLECTION,a preferential impact on bringing poor people POVERTY MEASUREMENTSout of extreme poverty through the adoption ofgrowth enabling policies and targeted social AND ESTIMATESprotection investments. This means that Af- The Government has undertaken extensive as-ghanistan aims to achieve pro-poor growth, sessments to improve understanding of thewhere the incomes and livelihoods of the poor- determinants of poverty and the impacts ofest rise faster than the average growth of the growth and poverty reduction programs oneconomy. Key findings of spring 2007 National different income groups. In addition to theRisk and Vulnerability Assessment (NRVA) NRVA studies, the Government has relied onshowed 42 percent of those living below pov- information from the Participatory Poverty As-erty line with income of US $ 14 per capita per sessments conducted by ACBAR (Agency Co-month. Moreover, food poverty was estimated ordinating Body for Afghan Relief) and theto be around 45 percent of people who were FCCS (Foundation for Culture and Civil Soci-therefore unable to purchase sufficient food to ety). ACBAR launched the Afghanistan Pilotguarantee the world standard minimum food Participatory Poverty Assessment (APPPA) inintake of 2,100 cal/day. Furthermore, 20 per- several provinces to enhance collective under-cent of people were slightly above the poverty standing of different poverty perspectives, itsline indicating high vulnerability. analysis and formulation into the ANDS pov- erty reduction strategy.In addition to the high incidence of consump-tion disparity, there is a significant differencein poverty levels between provinces, and be- Data Collection: National Risk andtween rural (36 percent) and urban (21 percent) Vulnerability Assessmentscommunities. For example, the depth of pov- Information on the specific nature of poverty inerty (the poverty gap) in the Northeast appears Afghanistan is restricted by the considerableto be higher than in the South whereas the av- quality and quantity limitations, with theerage distance between the poor and the pov- NRVA comprising the majority of informationerty line seems to be larger in Badakhshan than available. These have been based on limitedin Zabul. Parwan and Logar provinces have household surveys. The 2005 NRVA coveredpoverty rates of less than 10 percent while Dai- approximately 31,000 households, allowingkundi has a poverty rate of 77 percent and the national and provincial poverty rates to be as-lowest level of welfare among all groups, are sessed. While the 2005 NRVA survey was awomen and Kuchis. Gender inequality is an substantial improvement on previous studies,important characteristic of poverty in Afghani- it also had several weaknesses with only onestan. The vast majority of women do not par- season being covered. To overcome this, aticipate in paid economic activities making separate survey conducted in spring 2007.them highly dependable on their husbands or The Poverty Profile 27
    • Ongoing data collection includes the planned line for Afghanistan estimated to be 593 Af-2007/08 NRVA survey (predominantly funded ghani per capita per month or around US$14by the EC). This study will cover all seasons (at 2005 prices). Spring National Risk Vulner-and the consumption module includes assess- ability Assessment (NRVA) 2007 survey pro-ment of more food items and non-food items. vides an updated CBN poverty line of 708 Af-Moreover, stronger emphasis has been placed ghani per capita per month (again aroundon survey design and the collection and com- US$14 at the 2007 exchange rate).putation of high quality of data. POVERTY ESTIMATESSub-national Consultation and the Pilot However, the latest NRVA survey (SpringParticipatory Poverty Assessment 2007) indicates that 42 percent of the popula-The ANDS sub-national consultation process tion lives below the CBN poverty line (figurehas contributed to a far deeper understanding 3.2). That is, almost half of the Afghan popula-of the specific nature of poverty in the Afghan tion is unable to purchase a basic food basket tocontext. Consultations were held in all prov- provide 2,100 calories consumption per day.inces, with discussions on critical priorities forpoverty reduction, such as education, health,water and sanitation, agriculture and socialprotection. A significant number of women (46percent) took active part in these discussions.14 Box 3.1. Voices of the poor “The poor are being the ones with an empty stomach”, or “the poor are being the ones who do not have enough milk to make yogurt”. Furthermore, Afghan citizens states poverty ‘as being an incapacity to plan the future’ with the ‘poor being unable to foresee what will happen tomorrow”. One man in Bamiyan province defined poverty by saying: “the poor are the ones who can be sick today and be dead the next day”. Interviews by: MoWA, 2007Poverty measurement: cost of basicneeds analysisThe Cost of Basic Needs (CBN) poverty linerepresents the level of per capita expenditure atwhich the members of a household can be ex-pected to meet their basic needs comprised offood and non-food items. Adding the food andnon-food poverty lines the poverty analysisbased on NRVA 2005 yielded a CBN poverty14 ‘A nomad woman from Balkh province stated that this was thefirst time she had attended the meeting on behalf of nomadwomen of this province in order to present her opinions for thewelfare and prosperity of the country. “We would be glad if thegovernment continues to pursue such policy. Nomads like anyother people in the society would also benefit from this process”.Farida Kochi, representative of Balkh‘ Source: ANDS Sub-national Consultation, 2007 28 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Figure 3.2. Regional poverty comparisonsSeasonality and poverty 53 percent of the population living in poverty. Meanwhile, a 25 percent downward shift in thePoverty levels in Afghanistan vary by season. poverty lines would reduce the poverty rate toThis further compounds the understanding of 14 percent. Table 3.4 highlights the potentialpoverty in Afghanistan. The Food Security impact of consumption shocks on poverty inci-Monitoring Survey (FSMS) suggests that dence.households tend to have the richest consump-tion in summer following the harvest, with Table 3.4. Impact of consumption on povertymore restricted food consumption during win- rate16ter, especially in March.15 Base case 5% shock 10% shock Sector (% poverty) (% poverty) (% poverty) Box 3.3. Seasonality and poverty Kuchi 30 33 38 During spring we plant, in winter we Rural 36 40 45 harvest so in autumn and winter we have Urban 21 25 29 enough food. At the end of winter and the Total 33 38 42 beginning of spring we do not have enough.” Female participant, Shawak POVERTY IN AFGHANISTAN: village, Badakhshan. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF Source: APPPA final report, march 2008 INEQUALITY Afghanistan has the lowest level of inequalityVulnerability in South Asia as measured by the Gini coeffi-The 2005 NRVA highlighted that 20 percent of cient. This however is largely due to the wide-the population are located very close to the spread nature of poverty across the country.poverty line, indicating high vulnerability. However, within Afghanistan, significant ine-Even small consumption shocks can result in quality does exist between many segments ofsubstantially higher rates of poverty. For in- Afghan society. The variation in poverty be-stance, a 5 percent reduction in consumption tween the rural, Kuchi and urban populationsacross the board will cause the poverty head- is significant and of great importance. Mean-count rate to rise from 33 to 38 percent. Ac- while, gender inequality is one of the highest incording to the 2005 NRVA, a 25 percent up- the world.ward shift in the poverty line would result in15 Source: Understanding Poverty in Afghanistan, Analysis andrecommendations using National Risk & Vulnerability Assess-ment (NRVA) 2005 and Spring 2007, WB, October 30, 2007. 16 Source: NRVA, 2005, WB Staff Estimation The Poverty Profile 29
    • Consumption Disparity These disparities are reflected in primary school enrollment rates (table 3.7), though in Consumption inequality is a concern. The this regards, the Kuchi population is particu- World Bank has estimated (based on the 2005 larly disadvantaged. NRVA) the bottom 10 percent of the population accounts for 3.6 percent of total consumption Table 3.7. Enrollment rates (ages 6-9)18 while the bottom 30% account for 15.6% of total consumption. Combined with very low overall Group Female (%) Male (%) All (%) levels of consumption, this indicates that the Kuchi 5.0 5.8 5.4 poorest population suffers from high levels of Rural 20.1 28.8 24.6 deprivation (table 3.5). Urban 34.7 34.9 34.8 All 21.2 28.4 24.9 Table 3.5. Share of consumption by quintile Group Share of total Characteristics of Rural Poverty consumption (%) The rural population – who make up the major- Bottom 10 % 3.6 ity of the poor – account for approximately 80 Bottom 30 % 15.6 percent of the population. The main character- Top 30% 47.8 istic of the rural poverty is high food insecurity Top 10% 21.1 Top 1% 3.5 and a lack of access to infrastructure and basic public services. Illiteracy rates are prevalent Poverty also varies significantly between prov- among rural Afghans and the level of educa- inces. Poverty headcount rates vary from tion is low. Rural households are highly de- around 10 percent to more than 70 percent, pendable on agriculture. However, non-farm with poverty more severe in the Northeast, activity has started to play a bigger role in the Central Highlands and parts of the Southeast. coping strategy of the rural poor. The poorest Entire provinces like Daikundi, Badakhshan, among the rural households are those who live Zabul and Paktika represent large pockets of in remote and mountainous area, whose head poverty. is illiterate or without any education and who do not poses land or livestock. The 2005 NRVA indicates a significant dispar- ity in poverty between rural people and the Characteristics of Poverty among Kuchi population compared to urban popula- Kuchis tions. Around 45 percent of rural and Kuchi populations appear to be poor as opposed to 27 Kuchis are nomadic pastoralists (estimated at percent of those who live in urban areas. Rural 1.5 million people) and are heavily dependent populations have the highest rates of food inse- on livestock and migration patterns for their curity, with 45 percent not meeting daily livelihood. In recent years, 15 percent of Kuchi minimum food requirements. Moreover, it is families have been forced to cease migration noted that 40 percent and 41 percent of the Ku- and settle. Kuchi poverty has many of the core chi and of urban population respectively are characteristics of rural poverty although food also unable to meet their minimum food intake insecurity is not as high as in the case of rural (table 3.6). households (table 3.6). However, the poorest Kuchis are those who have settled. Reasons for Table 3.6. Estimated poverty headcount rates settling include loss of livestock due to recent and food insecurity (spring 2007)17 droughts and insecurity which disrupted tradi- tional migratory routes. Moreover, the biggest Food CBN Food insecurity cause of being settled is growing banditry and Sector poverty poverty index local crime as well as conflict with settled Kuchi 40 45 39 populations over grazing areas. The failure of Rural 45 45 39 local authorities to deal with disputes over tra- Urban 41 27 37 ditional pasture rights has already led to num- National 45 42 39 17 18 Source: The World Bank based on Spring 2007survey. Source: World Bank Staff Estimates based on 2005 NRVA.30 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • ber of conflicts and rising poverty among Ku- Female headed households are closely corre-chis. lated with the high poverty due to a lack of education and employment opportunities.22Characteristics of Urban PovertyUrban poverty and food insecurity are lower MOST IMPORTANT CAUSESamongst the rural and Kuchi populations. OF POVERTY: POVERTYHowever, recent research regarding urban live-lihoods from a European Commission funded CORRELATESproject suggests that urban poverty is increas- A number of factors contribute to poverty, in-ing, and is positively correlated with the grow- cluding a lack of infrastructure, limited accessing urban population.19 Many informal settle- to markets, social inequity, historical and ongo-ments around major cities have been built in ing conflict and various productivity con-order to accommodate migrant workers, re- straints. The APPPA found that the key deter-turnees and others. For years these suburbs minants of poverty were: (i) a weak assets base,have been one of the largest neglected pockets (ii) ineffective institutions: including the dis-of poverty. A number of recent studies have abling economic environment; weak regionalconcluded that low paid employment does not governance, service delivery and corruption;guarantee that citizens live above the poverty weak social protection programming; socialline.20 Due to poor daily wages many urban inequalities; and (iii) vulnerability to: conflict;workers fall into the category of the “working natural disasters; decreasing rule of law; in-poor”.21 Insecurity of employment leads to creasing basic costs; increasing population;income irregularities and to a chronic shortage food insecurity; winterization; and (iv) non-of money. Many urban poor households lack diverse livelihoods. Source: APPPA Final Re-of finance to smooth consumption and are port, March 2008.forced to take short term loans to purchase ba-sic needs such as buy food and pay rent. In- Literacy levelscome fluctuation, job insecurity and high in-debtedness are core characteristics of a typical Poverty is highly correlated with literacy skills.“poverty trap” for the urban poor. The 2005 NRVA highlights that poverty rates for households with illiterate heads is 37 per- cent, compared to 23 percent among house-Gender Inequality holds with literate heads. Citizens with pri-Gender inequality is an important characteristic mary education experience up to 10 percentof poverty in Afghanistan. The vast majority of lower poverty than families with uneducatedwomen do not participate in paid economic heads.activities making them highly dependent ontheir husbands or families. In spite of this Agriculture and livestock are posi-women, especially in rural areas, actively con- tively correlated with povertytribute to the household income through em-ployment (often unpaid) in agriculture and The poorest households are found to be de-livestock activities. Nevertheless, the gender pendent mainly on livestock and agriculturegap remains large with (i) the literacy rate activities. The NRVA 2005 report found thatamong women is much lower (19%) than for agriculture and livestock activities are the larg-men (40%) and, (ii) the net primary school en- est contributors to poor household incomes.rolment rate for girls (6-9) is around 21 percent Meanwhile, households in the top two con-while much higher for boys (28%) (table 3.7). sumption quintals earn more from trade and services. Education and literacy are also highly19 Urban Livelihoods in Afghanistan, Jo Beall and StefanCshutte, August 2006.20 Study on Chronically Poor Women in Afghanistan (Draft), 22March 2007. As a recent APPPA Final Report stated, “We women have no rights or decision-making power. The men make decisions inside21 Working poor is a term used to describe individuals and fami- and outside the house. This is normal for us.” Female participant,lies who maintain regular employment but remain in relative Bai Sar Community, Herat. Source: APPPA, Final Report,poverty due to low levels of pay and dependent expenses. March 2008. The Poverty Profile 31
    • correlated with higher involvement in non- contributed to a lowering of poverty rates in farming activities as is access to major roads. these areas. Asset ownership and crop diversifica- Box 3.8. Health and hospital services in the tion provinces A lack of ownership of land and livestock is “We don’t have a clinic here but if you are lucky enough to be able to drive the 30 associated with lower poverty.23 Small land kilometers to the nearest hospital you find owners, landless families and families without doctors who are not professional, who don’t livestock are in most cases poor. Moreover, pay attention to you, and who tell you to go ownership of non irrigated land is strongly as- out and buy your own medicine.” female sociated with levels of poverty with families participant, Papchi village, Herat. who are engaged in cultivating rain fed land much poorer than families that cultivate irri- Source: APPPA, final report march 2008 gated land. Equally, livestock ownership ap- pears to decrease economic vulnerability. Ur- ban families without home ownership are Other important causes of poverty highly vulnerable as they have to allocate large parts of income to paying rent. Moreover, crop A number of other factors are linked with pov- diversification appears to be an important erty in Afghanistan: spring board strategy for escaping poverty. Indebtedness: a lack of job security, irregu- lar income, pressure to buy food and hav- Access to education ing to pay rent forces many rural and ur- ban poor to increase borrowing. Poverty reduction and economic growth are closely associated with the population’s level of Remoteness: the NRVA data indicate pov- education. As highlighted above, a literate erty is much lower in areas that are close to head of household has greater earning poten- the main roads (Ring Road). Topographi- tial and is negatively correlated with poverty. cal remoteness and the lack of access to ma- Access to education by the bottom consump- jor roads remains a major causative factor tion quintile is low, resulting in a lower net of poverty. primary school enrollment rate.24 The 2005 Female household heads and disability: NRVA also highlights a significant gender dis- research conducted by MoWA identified parity in net primary school enrollment, espe- female households as being linked with cially among Kuchi and in rural areas, while higher rates of poverty. Likewise, having a the disparity in urban areas remains marginal. disabled head of household or a disabled family member is also associated with Access to health facilities higher poverty. A lack of access to health facilities and poverty The remaining causes of poverty include: (i) are closely related. Higher household con- security; (ii) large households with small chil- sumption is associated with more frequent vis- dren; (iii) poor access to basic services (water its to health facilities and higher vaCross Cut- and electricity), and (iv) natural disasters. ting Issuesnation rates of children (see box 3.8). Access to the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) has significantly improved, covering 85 Box 3.9. Poverty and natural disasters percent of the population in 2006. This has “In the spring the river overflows – there is no retaining wall and our lands are damaged” male participant, Bai Sar community, Herat. 23 According to the WB analysis based on NRVA 2005 more than Source: APPPA final report, march 2008 70 percent of households in Afghanistan are engaged in agricul- ture livestock activities. 24 Net primary enrolment rate is the proportion of primary school age children (6-9) who enrolled in primary grades.32 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • WHO THE POOR ARE: THE the neighboring countries contributes to overall poverty. Increasing migration to cities, job in-MOST VULNERABLE GROUPS security, indebtedness and the collapse of tradi-According to the Spring 2007 survey approxi- tional safety nets has placed many urban poormately 10 million Afghans, around 42 percent into extreme poverty.of the population, live below the poverty lineand do not meet their daily food and non-foodrequirements. While high rates of poverty exist POLICY FRAMEWORK FORamongst Kuchi and rural households, the inci- POVERTY REDUCTIONdence of poverty is increasing in urban areas Poverty in Afghanistan is complex and multi-and large city suburbs. dimensional. The NRVA surveys reveal the severity of poverty with one in two AfghansFamilies with a large number of small being classified as poor. Further, a large num-children ber of people are concentrated close to the pov- erty line and are highly vulnerable to natural,Afghanistan has one of the largest child popu- security and price based shocks.lations and the smallest proportion of workingage populations in the world25 which exposes To address this, the policy framework for thefamilies with a large number of small children ANDS will be premised on the following prin-to economic shocks. Moreover, the country ciples:also has one of the highest under 5 infant mor-tality rates in the world. Children up to five Promoting pro-poor growth: the Govern-years remain the most vulnerable because they ment will tackle poverty first and foremostrequire high quality nutrition as well as other through promoting strong equitable andforms of child care unaffordable to most fami- broad based private sector led growth. Inlies. Many rural and urban children are forced parallel, fiscally affordable social protectionto work to bolster family incomes resulting in safety nets will be undertaken as part ofwidespread child labor and school drop-outs, regular Government business.“trapping” the children in the endless cycle of Promoting pro-poor budgeting: the mostpoverty. important sectors impacting on poverty and poverty reduction, including security,Female Headed Households education, health, and social protection, will see budget allocations maintained orAccording to 2005 NRVA data, female-headed increased over the medium term.households comprise around 2.5% of Afghanhouseholds. These households are typically Allocating adequate resources to the poor-highly vulnerable to economic shocks, with a est areas: although past expenditure alloca-significant number not having a single able tions were in favor of the pro-poor sectors,bodied income earner. actual spending has not always been well focused to benefit the poor and vulnerable.Disabled, internally displaced and ex- Providing the balanced support to the Ku-tremely vulnerable poor chis, rural and the urban poor: the majority of Government and donors interventionsAfghanistan has one of the largest rates of dis- have been aimed at supporting the ruralability in the world. According to Handicap poor. Future support to the Kuchis, ruralInternational there are around 800,000 disabled and urban poor will need to be more bal-people in Afghanistan. The unemployment anced based on levels of poverty.rate among these groups is almost 90 percent. Focusing on the poorest and most vulner-The country also has a large number of inter- able: given the huge needs and scarce re-nally displaced persons (IDPs). The high vul- sources of the Government and the interna-nerability to natural disasters, ongoing conflict tional community, the poverty reductionand forceful repatriation of the refugees from strategy will need to prioritize targeting the poorest of the poor.25 Working age group is 15-64 years. The Poverty Profile 33
    • Improving donor coordination and aid- HIGH PRIORITY SECTOR effectiveness: donor support as well as im- proved donor coordination together with POLICIES FOR POVERTY the elimination of duplication in delivering REDUCTION assistance to the poor will be essential to the success of the ANDS poverty reduction strategy. Security, maintaining strong growth and macroeconomic stability Strengthening the capacity for data collec- tion and poverty analysis: institutional ca- Maintaining steady growth rates of between 7 pacity for data collection and poverty and 9 percent of the GDP (in real terms) analysis will need to improve in order to through the promotion of the private sector is better inform policies for poverty reduc- expected to lead to a reduction in the national tion. The Government will actively main- headcount poverty rate of around 2 percent on stream the poverty focus throughout moni- an annual basis. Equitable growth distribution toring and data collection mechanisms. is the precondition for broad based poverty reduction. This will require higher (budget) Building partnership between the Gov- expenditure in the critical sectors of health, ernment and NGOs: the role of NGOs in education and social protection and higher lev- delivering services to the Afghan poor is els of public spending in the poorest provinces recognized. Strengthening the Govern- and remote areas where poverty levels are ment’s policy making capacity needs to be high. combined with a strengthening of the part- nership with NGOs in the area of service Maintaining macroeconomic stability including delivery. prudent fiscal policies is critical to growth as is maintaining price stability and single-digit in- Implementation, monitoring and in- flation rates. Improving the security environ- ment would significantly contribute to poverty stitutional strengthening reduction leading to increased economic activ- Implementation and monitoring of the ANDS ity and the preservation of human capital and poverty reduction policies will be main- household assets. Moreover, it would decrease streamed through the sector strategies. How- internal displacement and reduce pressure on ever, the evaluation of the overall ANDS sector impoverished dwellers due to migrating im- policies for poverty reduction will be evaluated poverished rural families to the cities. separately to inform policy makers about their effectiveness. The NRVA will remain the main tool for data collection on matters of poverty. Generating employment and labor However, the introduction of the household market policies budget survey and strengthening of the CPI Given widespread low productivity employ- and national income data will also contribute to ment and the large number of jobless, em- this understanding. The forthcoming Census ployment generation will be one of the most Survey will play an important role in enhanc- important policies for poverty reduction. An ing the understanding of poverty. The capacity improved security and business environment of the CSO’s for data collection of key poverty will support stronger private sector growth, and development indicators will need to be which will gradually become the main source strengthened. Moreover, the Government will of employment and the main instrument of continue to improve its own capacity to under- poverty reduction. This requires expanding take poverty analysis within the CSO and other the mining and oil and gas sector. The Gov- Government agencies. ernment, supported by the donors, will in- crease public work activities and their presence in the poorest provinces. The National Solidar- ity Program (NSP) will continue to play an im- portant role in generating jobs and income for the rural poor. Skills development programs will expand to help the unemployed obtain in demand qualifications. Moreover, public ad-34 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • ministration will employ more women and Many urban homes are built without the neces-disabled people. Labor market regulation and sary construction permits, creating uncertaintythe pension reforms will be improved to pro- and risk for typically poor families. To addressvide protection from the employers, especially this uncertainty, the Ministry of Urban Devel-for workers engaged in the informal economy. opment will include pro-poor urban develop- ment programs. The first priority will be to legalize constructions in residential areas andEducation and health develop basic infrastructure to improve publicEducation and health will remain the priority service delivery.sectors for public spending. The Governmentwill continue the policy of providing free uni- Malnutrition is one of the major causes of theversal education. Increasing the literacy and high infant mortality under 5, with the poor thenet primary school enrollment rates and de- most vulnerable. The Government will con-creasing the number of school drop-outs will sider introducing the Zakat-based tax to in-be the main contribution of the education sec- crease allocations for social programs to sup-tor to poverty reduction. Higher attention will port these programs.be given to supporting disabled peoples accessto facilities, including specialized institutions Agriculture and rural developmentand adjusting schools and universities to meet-ing their needs. Rural development and agriculture are key sectors for improving the rural livelihoods.The Health sector will continue to be strength- Access to markets has been indicated as an im-ened. Building new health centers in rural and portant determinant for rural poverty in Af-poor urban areas will be priority for health sec- ghanistan. Programs to support crop diversifi-tor public spending. The special needs of dis- cation, targeted livestock, orchards, distribu-abled will be better accounted for in the Basic tion and providing farming implements willPackage of Health Services (BPHS). contribute to poverty reduction among the ru- ral poor. As will improved access to rural all- weather roads, sanitation, electricity, job oppor- tunities and promoting rural enterprises. TheseTwo major issues that contribute to women’s programs are important tools for rural incomepoverty are a lack of maternal heath services generation and the elimination of poppy culti-and education for girls. Both issues are caused vation.by a lack of facilities and are inter-linked withthe need for culturally appropriate services forwomen and girls. In relation to the provision Water and irrigationof maternal health services, there is a great Investments in water management and irriga-need for female doctors and trained mid-wives tion will significantly contribute to higher foodto offer ‘culturally appropriate’ health services. security and poverty reduction for those cur-Afghanistan has one of the highest population rently operating on rain fed land. In additiongrowths among developing nations and de- to malnutrition, the lack of the access to cleanspite strong cultural limitations the overall water, poor sanitation and sewage is one of thepoverty reduction strategy will need to encour- main causes of high infant mortality. The Gov-age family planning. ernment will increase public spending on im- proving the access clean water as well as im- proved health protection to address this.Social protection and urban develop-ment Disaster preparedness and commu-Social protection programs will focus on sup-porting the most vulnerable and the poorest of nity-based insurance schemesthe poor. This includes “children at risk”, Natural disasters, particularly droughts andchronically poor women, poor disabled, men- floods are one of the major sources of vulner-tally ill without family protection, neglected ability among the poor. The NRVA 2005 high-elders and drug edicts. lighted the destruction of crops due to droughts represents a higher poverty risk than The Poverty Profile 35
    • sickness or loss of a working family member. their role in providing the Government with Building more efficient disaster preparedness the “voices of the poor” and policy advice. and response will decrease the risk of falling into poverty. Further, the Government will initiate the establishment of community based CONCLUSION crop insurance schemes to enable the poor to During the pre-harvest spring of 2007, the better mitigate the risks of losing harvest. NRVA estimated that 42 percent of the popula- tion was below the poverty line. A great many Energy and transport more people remain vulnerable to falling below the poverty line as a result of rising food and Expanding the national road network, includ- fuel prices or bad weather. Great reliance is ing the construction of the rural roads, will al- being placed on private sector-led development low poor households to diversify income gen- and growth to create sustainable employment eration – from low profitable crops to more and market opportunities. It is these opportu- profitable activates such as trade, services and nities that will allow the majority of Afghans to small businesses. Investments in transmission improve their lives and pull themselves out of lines and power generation will increase access chronic poverty. As the ANDS sector strategies to electricity, improving productivity. are implemented, great effort is being made to use participatory and consultative processes to Social protection safety nets will be strength- better understand the needs of the poorest and ened to ensure the poor can cope with the most vulnerable groups, to inform the design planned elimination of energy subsidies, which of appropriate programs to address those will increase the risk of the poor and marginal needs. The real needs are so enormous that households falling further into poverty, espe- substantial interventions are indeed required to cially for the urban households. provide real assistance to the neediest, particu- larly women who are burdened with child care Justice and anti-corruption responsibilities, social constraints, and the dis- abled who are not provided enough opportu- Greater access to justice, especially for women, nity for full participation in society in order to is an important component of the ANDS to take advantage of improved employment and empower the poor and provide more efficient market advantages. Special programs are sug- protection to victims of violence. Justice reform gested to be put in place to target these groups will also improve the business environment so that they too share in the benefits from eco- and increase investments and job generation. nomic and social development programs. This The ANDS will also reduce corruption in key is important not only on humanitarian grounds sectors such as justice, health, public admini- but in terms of building the community cohe- stration and education, which will have a sig- sion that is the foundation of a tolerant and nificant benefit for the poor. compassionate Islamic state. Empowering the poor: role of NGOs Expanding the service delivery and policy in- put role of NGOs and civil society are crucial to reducing poverty. This is strengthened by the ANDS’ participatory structure with Afghan society. ANDS progress reports will be pub- licly disseminated. Civil society and sub- national level bodies will be consulted in preparation of the ANDS updates. Participa- tory poverty qualitative assessments and quan- titative analysis will be provided on a regular basis to obtain input from NGOs and civil soci- ety on the key priorities for the poverty reduc- tion. The role of the NGOs in delivering the services to the poor will also increase as will36 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • PART IITHE NATIONALDEVELOPMENTSTRATEGY
    • CHAPTER 4 MACROECONOMIC FRAMEWORKHigh, sustainable, broad-based economic sufficient levels of investment and which willgrowth and the preparation of a viable macro- encourage the employment of human, financialeconomic framework are indispensable for and natural resources in the most productivepoverty reduction and employment creation. ways possible. A critical element in achievingThe overall growth strategy of the ANDS is this objective will be to substantially increasebased on a firm policy of private sector led investment in the development of capacity ofgrowth. During the last five years per capita the workforce in order to expand employmentincome nearly doubled from US$147 to US$289. opportunities and increase incomes.Comparable rapid economic growth will beneeded during in the next five years if the pov- The ability to implement the projects and pro-erty reduction goals of the ANDS are to be grams included in the ANDS depends upon theachieved. This will require a supportive envi- resources that will be available. This chapterronment for social and economic development, presents summaries of macroeconomic projec-which will depend crucially on making signifi- tions for the next five years on which estimatescant progress toward improving security, of available resources are based and projectionseliminating the narcotics industry, reducing of the domestic and donor financial resourcescorruption and strengthening governance. that will be required to implement the ANDS.Equally important will be the continued main- In order to ensure that sufficient resources willtenance of sound and stable macroeconomic be available, a high priority for the Govern-policies. ment is to significantly increase domestic reve- nues.Past high growth experience does not guaran-tee similar high rates of growth in the future. Fiscal policies will remain a central policy toolIn recent years strong economic performance for macroeconomic stability, public resourcehas reflected substantial public investment in allocation, and implementation of the devel-reconstruction activities and large foreign assis- opment strategy – all of which are importanttance inflows. These factors cannot be expected ingredients for sustained robust economicto continue to contribute to economic growth to growth. Foreign assistance (including core andthe same extent in the coming five years. While external budget) has averaged 40 percent ofpublic/donor investment will undoubtedly GDP for the past five years. In order to bestcontinue to be important in the near term, there use foreign assistance for growth and devel-will be an increasing reliance on private eco- opment, there are two major challenges for fis-nomic activity for longer term growth to be cal policy. One is that distribution of financialsustainable and to extend the benefits of devel- resources (including domestic revenues andopment to the entire population. foreign assistance) must be aligned with ANDS prioritization. The other is to improve absorp-The drivers of economic growth are the rate of tion capacity to improve both quantity andinvestment and the rate of improvement in quality of projects and project execution.productivity. A key strategic objective of theANDS is to establish a secure economic envi-ronment in which it will be possible to attract Macroeconomic Framework 39
    • Table 4.1. Macroeconomic projections 1385 1386 1387 1388 1389 1390 1391 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13 Real sector (annual percent change) Real GDP (excluding opium) 6.1 13.5 9.0 9.0 8.0 7.7 7.0 Nominal GDP (excluding opium) 9.5 24.1 19.8 16.4 14.2 13.2 12.1 Consumer Price Index 5.1 9.8 10.2 7.2 6.0 5.4 5.0 Fiscal sector (percent of GDP) Total expenditures (A) 21.55 22.6 23.0 24.2 23.5 22.6 22.0 Revenues/Financing (B) 20.1 21.2 21.5 22.5 22.6 21.7 21.4 (operating and development) Budget balance (B minus A) -1.4 -1.4 -1.5 -1.8 -0.9 -0.9 -0.6 Fiscal sustainability indicator (domestic revenues as % of 66.3 67.0 69.9 72.0 82.9 91.4 100.1 operating expenditures) Monetary sector (percent of GDP) Net foreign assets 30.1 26.7 24.0 19.3 16.5 13.9 12.4 Net domestic sales -14.1 -12.0 -9.2 -5.5 -3.4 -1.5 -0.6 External sector (percent of GDP) Merchandise trade balance -70.1 -67.6 -64.5 -52.7 -46.3 -39.0 -33.4 Current account balance, -6.3 -1.4 -0.1 -0.7 -2.6 -3.6 -4.5 including official transfers Foreign direct investment 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.9 4.0 4.1 Memorandum items (percent of GDP) External budget (= grants) 55.4 54.5 51.6 38.0 30.8 23.6 18.0 LINKING GROWTH WITH poverty line, especially among the rural population. The concentration around the POVERTY REDUCTION AND poverty line implies that even small shocks EMPLOYMENT CREATION could further increase national poverty fig- ures. A growth strategy is the backbone of the ANDS. Poverty in Afghanistan is high by any Seasonality: National poverty has strong standard. Estimated poverty incidence ranges seasonality and uneven dispersion across from 34 percent around harvest season to as the country. much as 42 percent in the leaner season. The Working poor: Low salaries subject many unemployment rate hovers at around unemployed to the risk of falling below the 40 percent. High annual average growth rates poverty line. The poor are concentrated at 12 percent in the past few years likely have primarily in the informal sector, which had positive impacts on reducing poverty and pays very low salaries and leaves them generating employment at the margins, which without job protection. are undoubtedly hard to measure (see Poverty Profile chapter). Afghanistan’s poverty and The high poverty and unemployment rates as unemployment have the following key charac- well as their characteristics suggest that there is teristics: a need to sustain high growth rates in the me- dium-term (sustainability) and results of high High vulnerability: A significant number growth should reduce poverty and generate of Afghans are concentrated around the employment (quality). High growth rates: GDP per capita nearly incomes. Preliminary estimates of the elasticity doubled from $147 in 1381 to $289 in 1385 (ex- of growth on poverty reduction suggest that cluding opium). Nevertheless, GDP per capita there will be significant reductions in the pov- is still one of the lowest in the world. Contin- erty rate if growth remains strong in the next ued high rates of growth will be essential to few years. These estimates suggest that the achieve further increases in average per-capita poverty rate could fall as much as 20 percent-40 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • age points – from 42 percent of the population State of the economy and constraintsin 1386 to 22 percent in 1391.26 to growthSustainable growth rates: High growth rates Economic growth has been high but volatile.in the past few years were mainly supported by Between 1381 and 1385, (2002-06) the annualforeign assistance and related activities (e.g. average growth rate was 11.7 percent, the high-construction). Although GDP figures do not est in the region. The growth rate of industryinclude the opium economy, this sector has and services were either constant or accelerat-nonetheless provided job opportunities and ing, while agricultural growth has remainedsome degree of poverty reduction. However, volatile (Figure 4.1). Sectoral breakdownsdependence on foreign assistance and the show that while growth rates of industry andopium economy will not be sustainable in the services were constant or accelerating, those ofmedium-term. A shift to private sector led agriculture have experienced high volatility.economic growth will be crucial. Cereal production, which accounts for ap- proximately 75 percent of agricultural output,Quality growth rates: The results of high is susceptible to weather conditions. In indus-growth should achieve corresponding poverty tries, manufacturing and construction (heavilyreduction and employment generation. In this supported by reconstruction activities and for-regard, identifying the best potential sources of eign assistance) contributed equally to growth.growth is important. For example, while agri- However, in manufacturing, ‘food, beverageculture accounts for 27 percent of GDP (exclud- and tobacco’ is dominant with few other sig-ing opium), about three quarters of labor force nificant categories. Services, transportation,is employed in that sector. As a sudden shift of government services, and wholesale and retaillabor force from agriculture to other sectors is trading also account for significant contribu-unrealistic, an increase in agricultural produc- tions to economic growth rates. This suggeststivity is one of the best strategies to enable that agriculture and its related sectors (manu-higher contributions from the agriculture sector facturing of food, beverages and tobacco alongto quality growth rates. with transportation, trade, and services) are currently the dominant activities in the econ- omy.26 Preliminary work done by World Bank, based on NRVA 2005data. Elasticity of growth on poverty reduction calculated usingBourguinon’s method. Figure 4.2. Contribution to growth rates Macroeconomic Framework 41
    • One of the most significant developmental flected in the deceleration of inflation rates and achievements has been the maintenance of stable nominal exchange rates (figure 4.3).27 macroeconomic stability. Successful currency reform in January 2003, alongside prudent fis- cal and monetary policy (e.g. no-overdraft pol- icy to finance the budget deficits) have contrib- 27 SY1386 inflation rates are likely to increase to around 10 per- cent due to higher fuel prices and subsequent increases in basic uted to achieve macroeconomic stability re- commodity prices. Stable nominal exchange rates (with combina- tion of higher than US inflation) mean appreciation of real ex- change rates. This leads to an issue of “Dutch Disease” and com- petitiveness. Figure 4.3. Macroeconomic stability In flat ion R at es E x cha nge R a te s 30 60 58 25 Infla tion r a te s ( LH S) 56 54 20 Ex c ha nge r a te s ( R HS ) 52 15 50 48 10 46 44 5 42 0 40 SY 13 8 1 S Y1 3 82 SY 1 38 3 SY 13 8 4 S Y1 3 85 SY 1 38 6 Due to increasing challenges posed by insecu- was spent outside the government budget sys- rity in some areas of the country, opium has tem (Figure 4.4).29 One of the Government’s become Afghanistan’s leading economic activ- key macroeconomic30 policy objectives will be ity.28 Opium production increased in 2007 by using both fiscal and monetary policy to miti- 34 percent to 8,200 tons. The impact of the gate the most detrimental effects of foreign as- opium economy on the overall economy, pol- sistance and ward off any potential “Dutch Dis- ity, and society is profound, including some ease” effects. short-term economic benefits for the rural population. However, these are vastly out- weighed by its adverse effects on security, po- litical normalization, and state building, which are key elements of high, sustainable and qual- ity growth. During the past five years foreign assistance has averaged about 40 percent of GDP, of 29 There is a possibility of significant underreport- which roughly one third was channeled ing/underestimates of external assistance (especially on security) through the core budget while the remainder in recent few years. 30 This cited is directly from “Responding to Afghanistan’s De- velopment Challenge: An Assessment of Experience During 2002-2007 and Issues and Priorities for the Future” (William 28 Data is taken from “Afghanistan: Opium Survey 2007” Byrd, World Bank South Asia PREM Working Paper Series, (UNODC, October 2007). Report No. SASPR-11, October 2007).42 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Figure 4.4. Size of foreign assistanceAfghanistan faces daunting challenges to emerging political patterns in which con-achieve high, sustainable and quality growth flict-generated political groupings are play-led by the private sector. In recent years, an ing an increasingly important role;informal equilibrium has been evolving (fig- increasing linkages between some key fig-ure 4.5). That is, increased informal activities ures and the consolidating drug industry;negatively impact on the rule of law, weaken-ing governance and the effectiveness of the continuing insecurity in some parts of thestate institutions. This suggests that some key country; andaspects of state building and the formalization modalities by which most aid is deliveredagenda are going off-track, and that overall coupled with disappointing results thus farprogress is being threatened by the: despite large aid inflows. Figure 4.5. The Evolving Informal Equilibrium Macroeconomic Framework 43
    • GROWTH PROJECTION AND Industry: Industry is expected to grow 9 percent per year, supported by high in- STRATEGY vestment (average investment is 34 percent The average annual economic growth rate is of GDP). The main source of investment is projected to be 8.1 percent for 1387-1391. In expected to shift from public investment to subsequent years, growth rates are projected to private investment (including domestic gradually decelerate from 9.0 percent in 1387 to and foreign direct investment) with domes- 7.0 percent in 1391 (Figure 4.5). This growth tic investment initially leading foreign di- scenario envisages the following develop- rect investment. ments: Services: The services sector is also ex- pected to grow 9 percent. Although still Agriculture: Agriculture is expected to high in absolute terms, this is lower than grow 5 percent per year, the same rate as the previous years’ average (14.5 percent). the average growth rates for 1382-86. Figure 4.6. Medium term growth projections A key assumption underlying this ambitious level; further strengthening of public finan- growth projection is an increasing role of the cial management; and strengthening the private sector over the projection period. This external and public accountability mecha- assumption is based on the understanding that nism (e.g. external audit, National Assem- strong private sector development better con- bly review). tributes to creating employment and hence Responding to the challenge of the opium poverty reduction. Under the current envi- economy: Past lessons have indicated that ronment (i.e. the evolving informal equilib- a key principle for success is focusing on rium), it is essential to break the informal equi- those parts of the drug industry that pose librium using the following strategies: the greatest danger to the nation and its development agenda – in other words, the Strengthening governance: Fighting cor- larger drug traffickers and their sponsors. ruption will require credible demonstra- Some strategies could include: tions by high-level government – including strong commitments and clarification of in- o Focus eradication efforts on wealth- stitutional arrangements; public admini- ier opium poppy cultivating areas stration reform including merit-based se- and also areas that are new to lection and appointment of civil servants; poppy cultivation; improving governance at the sub-national44 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • o Increase interdiction efforts against high, sustainable and quality growth rates, the medium and large drug traffickers following specific strategies are suggested:31 and their sponsors; Electricity: Involve the private sector to o Actors associated with the drug in- expedite power generation and distribution dustry who are discovered to hold projects in urban centers as well as in rural powerful “legitimate” positions in areas. Specific strategies include: government or private sector o Developing the legal framework to should be removed and prosecuted; permit and encourage power gen- o The government should focus on eration and distribution by the pri- sensible rural development, instead vate sector; of short-term alternative liveli- o Accelerating the execution of prior- hoods programs; ity power generation initiatives; o The counter-narcotics dimension o Improving distribution system. should be mainstreamed into de- velopment program. Access to land: Implement measures to Improving macroeconomic policy man- facilitate access to land by clarifying prop- agement and aid effectiveness: It is very erty rights, simplifying procedures for the important that macroeconomic policy for- transfer of titles, and allowing for longer- mulation is transparent and avoids short- term leases. Specific strategies include: term ad-hoc measures. Some strategies o Developing a strategy for industrial could include: parks; o Further strengthening coordination o Implementing improved and sim- among relevant line ministries. It is plified procedures for transfer of important that line ministries share privately owned land; the same view regarding the direc- tion of macroeconomic policy; o Developing better legal frameworks for land registration and land adju- o Continuing to enhance the budget dication. process and the role of the budget as the central instrument for policy Access to finance: Strengthen the financial and reforms; sector to increase access to credit and fi- nancial services, paying special attention to o Maintaining macroeconomic stabil- alleviating capacity constraints. Specific ity and progressing toward fiscal strategies include: sustainability together with pru- dent monetary policy will continue o Enacting an appropriate legal to be important. framework; o Building capacity in the financialIn order to break the evolving informal equilib- sector;rium, we must also ameliorate specific privatesector investment constraints. The results of o Increasing the availability of finan-World Bank’s investment climate assessment in cial services in rural areas.2005 show that more than half of respondentsidentify: (i) electricity; (ii) access to land; Scaling up of industrial parks is a possi-(iii) corruption (discussed above); and ble short-term solution: Although in the(iv) access to finance as major constraints to medium-term the Government should tackleprivate investment. As the increase in private the abovementioned issues, in the short-terminvestment is a key assumption to achieve 31 See the Government’s “Policy for Private Sector Growth and Development”, presented at the Enabling Environment Confer- ence, June 2007. Macroeconomic Framework 45
    • the government could work to “scale up” and prioritize public sector activities. Prudent fiscal maximizing the effectiveness of Industrial policy and effective budget planning and exe- Parks. This could provide investors and entre- cution will support sustained robust economic preneurs with security, access to land, infra- growth. Proper budget allocation enables the structure (power, water, convenient transport) reconstruction of basic infrastructure, supports and some insulation from red tape and corrup- private sector development, improves overall tion, at least on an “enclave” basis. economic efficiency and enhances the popula- tion’s standard of living, especially for the Opportunities and Risks: There exist several poor. Despite the increase in expenditures in potential exogenous shocks which could seri- absolute terms, the Government remains com- ously affect growth projections. Shocks such as mitted to sound expenditure management and drought pose a serious threat to an economy increased revenue mobilization, as well as en- dependant on agriculture. Insecurity too can suring fiscal sustainability. Fiscal prudence re- harm private sector development, investment, mains the underlying principle, which ensures employment creation, and reconstruction ef- macroeconomic stability and provides the gov- forts, which could have a negative impact on ernment some flexibility to respond to external overall growth. Finally, global economic con- shocks. ditions pose serious risks for the Afghan econ- omy. A precipitous rise in oil prices would The Government continues efforts to increase hamper economic growth especially via the revenues by improving revenue administration private sector. Also possible slowdowns in the and enforcement and broadening the tax base. global economy and donor fatigue also pose This will be essential for achieving fiscal sus- risks. tainability, delivering priority development expenditures and a reduction in aid depend- Factors which may affect this macroeconomic ency. Without domestic revenue mobilization framework in a positive or negative way, in- Afghanistan will remain heavily dependent on cluding: external support over the long-term. The do- mestic revenue to GDP ratio is expected to The political situation: Presidential and reach 8.2 percent in 2007, which substantially parliamentary elections are scheduled to be exceeds the revenue target in the Afghanistan held in 2009. Successful and peaceful elec- Compact for 2010.33 Although domestic reve- tions provide confidence in political stabil- nue is expected to reach 10.7 percent of GDP in ity to the private sector and international 1391 (Figure 4.6), Afghanistan’s revenue-to- community; GDP ratio still is among the lowest in the Insecurity: Security costs can be as high as world, requiring sustained commitment to pur- 15 percent of total revenues.32 Further in- sue revenue reforms. In the medium-term, a security would add additional costs to broad-based consumption tax will play an im- companies’ operations and inhibit private portant role in domestic revenue mobilization. investment; In order to accomplish this, broadening the tax base, improvements in tax policy, administra- Weather: Agriculture is directly affected by tion and enforcement will be implemented. In weather conditions. As the sector employs this regard an immediate high priority for the about 70 percent of the total labor force, Government is the enactment of the amend- variations in agricultural production have a ments to the income tax law by National As- significant impact on poverty and em- sembly. Progress in domestic revenue mobili- ployment. zation in coming years will enable the Gov- ernment to be less dependent on foreign assis- tance. New tax measures will focus equally on FISCAL POLICY improving the revenue intake, while simulta- Fiscal policy remains a key policy instrument neously reducing the cost of doing business, for macroeconomic stability, and the budget is improving the country’s investment environ- an important tool to implement the ANDS and ment and enhancing competitiveness. 32 33 The Investment Climate in Afghanistan: Exploiting Opportuni- In the Afghanistan Compact, revenues are projected to exceed ties in an Uncertain Environment (World Bank, 2005). 8 percent of GDP in 1389.46 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Consistent with the growth strategy of the penditures).34 Similarly, health and educationGovernment, the prioritization framework of sectors are expected to receive about 17 to 18budgetary allocations is expected to allocate percent of the total resources – considerablysignificant resources to productive sectors such higher than current allocations. Other priorityas infrastructure, health, education, agriculture areas include agriculture, rural development,and rural development, and rule of law and rule of law and governance, where the Gov-governance. Cumulative total public expendi- ernment will invest significant resources.tures during 1387-91 in roads, energy, waterand irrigation, airports, and communicationstechnologies alone are expected to reach about 34 Figures in the macroeconomic framework (see tables) are$11 billion (or about one-third of the total ex- based on projected execution rates of the core development budget. As a result, the original total budgeted figures for the core development budget can be higher than those in the macroeco- nomic framework of the ANDS. Figure 4.7. Domestic revenues and operating expenditures as a percent of GDPThe Government is taking measures to improve tures. Significantly higher execution rates andthe overall absorption capacity and execution improved quality of public expenditures in keyof projects in these sectors through more effec- sectors over the medium term in turn will im-tive public finance management and efficient prove the growth and development process inproject management methods. Key public fi- the country.nance management reforms include introduc-tion of the medium term budget framework Government expenditure policy will focus on(MTBF), program and provincial budgeting. creating an enabling environment for the pri-Other Government reforms are targeting pro- vate sector; enhancing production capacity andject preparation and management, as well as productivity; and improving the quality of lifeprocurement procedures. The overall devel- of the population. The Government’s budgetopment budget execution rate has been steadily allocation prioritization is expected to improveincreasing – the core development expenditure physical infrastructure, enhance human capitalrate for 1385 increased to 54 percent from 31 and build institutions necessary for private sec-percent in 1383. The public finance manage- tor led growth and increased employment op-ment reforms and prioritization process are portunities.expected to improve the overall fiscal situationand improve the quality of public expendi- Macroeconomic Framework 47
    • Core budget expenditures will remain constant while the share of operating expenditures de- at about 25 percent of GDP although the alloca- creases, that of development expenditures in- tion of various expenditures changes over time creases. A considerable portion of expenditure to align with the Government’s development goes to security, counter-narcotics, roads and priorities. Throughout the projection period, social expenditures (i.e. education and health). Figure 4.8. Domestic revenues versus operating expenditures Fiscal sustainability is essential to ensure mac- few years, the government has spent less than roeconomic stability. The operating budget available financial resources, resulting in de- balance (excluding grants) is projected to im- layed investments needed for development. prove from a deficit of 4.4 percent of GDP in Improving the absorption capacity of the Gov- 1386 to a balanced budget 1391 (Figure 4.7). ernment, therefore, will continue to be impor- This requires that the donor grants to the oper- tant. ating budget (e.g. Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund) will free up domestic revenues for Prudent debt management will continue to be key development expenditures after 1391. essential as Afghanistan moves towards fiscal sustainability. As a supplement to donor funds Two key fiscal policy challenges are on the ho- the country expects to continue to use limited rizon: the integration of the external budget amounts of debt to finance specific projects and into the core budget, and improvement of the various program requirements. It is expected absorption capacity of line ministries. Cur- that any debt received will carry terms that are rently, more than two thirds of foreign assis- below market in nature as this is a requirement tance does not go through the Government’s under Afghanistan’s current agreements with treasury account, and thus information regard- various international financial institutions and ing these expenditures is often partial and dif- the Paris Club group of creditors. Debt sus- ficult to obtain. This impedes the Government tainability in future periods is an important in its attempts to allocate scarce financial re- goal for the Government to achieve and will sources in line with its priorities and develop- continue to be a guiding principle governing ment objectives. Donors can greatly help by the country’s use of debt in the coming years. providing more information and/or shifting from the external budget to the core budget; the Government can also improve the situation by MONETARY POLICY articulating clearer priorities – which should be Consistent with DAB’s medium to long-term achieved through the ANDS itself. In the past strategic objectives in conducting monetary48 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • policy, it will remain vigilant against inflation. monetary policy – such as Open Market Opera-The main goal is to maintain core inflation at tions (OMO) and Reserve Requirement Ratiosingle digit levels, preferably between 2.5 to 4 (RRR) – has so far been very limited. Otherpercent, although this will continue to be a monetary policy tools, such as short-term inter-great challenge.35 est rates and discount rates, have not yet been introduced due to the lack of a market for suchNominal exchange rates are expected to remain securities.constant at around Afs 50 against US dollar.Stable exchange rates will contribute to contain DAB will issue capital notes with various ma-inflationary pressure from imported products turity periods and create a secondary marketas well as provide predictability to the private for trading of these notes. The more capitalsector. Nevertheless, stable nominal exchange notes are traded in secondary markets, therates imply the appreciation of the real ex- more the need for foreign exchange auctionschange rates. In the short-term, the impacts on will be diminished. Overall, by creating a capi-the appreciation of the real exchange rates tal market and a strategic repositioning ofwould not significantly hurt competitiveness as monetary policy tools through gradual transi-other costs associated with security and elec- tioning from foreign exchange auctions to util-tricity seem bigger than the negative impacts izing other tools of the monetary policy, DAB’son the exchange rate appreciation. However, room for maneuverability will expand.the Government will keep its eyes on the im-pact of real exchange rate appreciation for Banking systemcompetitiveness in the medium-term. Through its regulatory mandate, DAB is com-Access to finance is one of the most severe con- mitted to help banking institutions to managestraints to the private sector development. the risks involved in their operations. PursuantHigh interest rates, caused by high inflation to Paragraph 2 of Article 2, and other articlesrates and a high risk premium will threaten the stipulated in the DAB law, the central bank isfinancial sustainability of the private sector. in charge of supervising all depository financialSuch high interest rates could jeopardize the institutions that are legally authorized to takegrowth of the nascent financial sector in the deposits from the public on a continual basis.country. In the medium to long term, prudent DAB will continue to supervise banks’ lendingmonetary policy together with a disciplined practices and encourage transparency and ac-fiscal policy will contribute to a reduction in countability in the entirety of their financialthe risk premium. Effective financial interme- transactions, in order to avoid bank failuresdiation and macroeconomic stability will even- which can negatively impact the economy.tually bring down real interest rates in the longrun as prospects for long term stability im- DAB will strive to encourage financial institu-prove. The central bank will closely monitor tions to actively take part in economic devel-the monetary developments and ensuing li- opments by granting short-term, medium-termquidity situation along with developments in and long-term credits to small and mediuminterest rates and credit markets and will react enterprises (SMEs), owners of factories andappropriately to these developments. construction companies and to start mortgage lending to commercial and residential custom-To achieve price stability, DAB intends to ex- ers. Consumer lending should also becomepand the menu of instruments that have not yet available to the citizens of this country. To dobeen fully utilized in directing monetary pol- so, DAB needs to remove any prevailing obsta-icy. The Central Bank currently relies on for- cles and unnecessary legal constraints by draft-eign exchange auctions as the most dominant ing required laws and regulations and submit-tool to maintain price stability and reduce ex- ting them for approval to the National Assem-change rate volatility. The use of other tools of bly as quickly as is practicable. Fortunately, DAB has already taken significant steps in drafting four laws which will facilitate me- dium- to long-term lending in the country.35 Note, the recent rapid increase in global prices could poten-tially create a challenge for the Government and DAB to main-tain core inflation between 2.5 and 4 percent in the short term. Macroeconomic Framework 49
    • External sector system of program-based budgeting that is de- signed to achieve the country’s development Exports are unlikely to increase substantially needs. It is based on levels of domestic and from the current very low base. Afghanistan’s donor financing in previous years and projec- exports are currently dominated by low value- tions for future revenues. added agricultural exports and carpets. Scaling up the export base would require significant This process is an integral part of the Govern- FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) inflows. Under ment’s Medium-Term Fiscal Framework the current situation, FDI is concentrated in the (MTFF) and the preparation of the budget. telecommunications sector and the financial From 1387 (2008/09) onward the MTFF and the sector, which are not export-oriented indus- budget will be based on the prioritization es- tries. Large scale exploitation of copper, natural tablished in the ANDS and the utilization of gas, petroleum and precious minerals will help resources for the implementation of ANDS in the medium and long term, although in- through the budget. vestments in this sector are relatively lumpy. These sectoral expenditure ceilings reflect the The Current Account Balance, excluding the re- fact that security will remain the highest prior- export of goods, is likely to decline over the ity. Over the lifetime of the ANDS, security projected phase. This is largely due to an an- spending is expected to total $14.2 billion. The ticipated decline in the imports-to-GDP ratio, funding for this sector is expected to come pri- particularly for manufacturing consumed marily through international assistance. The goods. In the outer years, local products and Government estimates that in future years, the services are expected to become a more signifi- need for security assistance will decrease as the cant factor in Afghanistan’s economy. threat declines. However, given the uncertain nature of the instability facing Afghanistan, the Government envisions the possibility of poten- FINANCING THE ANDS tially significant revisions to the financing en- The Government has determined sectoral velope for the security sector. budget ceilings that reflect priorities estab- lished in the ANDS (see Table 4.9). This re- flects the Ministry of Finance’s adoption of a Table 4.9. Overall Financing Envelope for the ANDS 1387-1391 (2008-2013) 1387 1388 1389 1390 1391 Total 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13 US$m US$m US$m US$m US$m US$m Core + External Budget Funding Domestic Revenue 887 1,104 1,351 1,611 1,911 6,864 Total Assistance from Donors* 6,513 4,960 4,814 4,398 3,908 24,593 Total Funding* 7,400 6,064 6,165 6,009 5,819 31,457 Budgeted Core + External Expenditure Security 3219 2585 2679 2790 2906 14179 Infrastructure 1781 3093 3681 4180 4451 17185 Agriculture and Rural Development 829 921 916 909 912 4486 Education and Culture 742 893 980 1077 1181 4872 Good Governance and Rule of Law 374 558 640 685 728 2985 Health & Nutrition 325 465 530 563 595 2478 Economic Governance & PSD 237 215 230 244 260 1186 Social Protection 192 359 394 421 449 1815 Others (Sub Codes) 205 198 185 170 157 915 Total Expenditure 7,903 9,286 10,236 11,038 11,637 50,10036 * Based on discussions with donors and the 1386 (2007) financial review 36 The level of expenditure in Table 4.9 is based on an assumption regarding the amount of financing which will be made available at the forthcoming ANDS donor conference in Paris. The macroeconomic framework which currently underpins the ANDS does not assume a similar scaling-up of donor assistance and is therefore not entirely consistent with Table 4.8. Following the donor conference, the macro- economic framework and the ANDS expenditure ceilings will be updated to reflect the actual level of donor assistance.50 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • In the short term, the Government will focus its lead to the increased employment of human,public expenditure programs on investments in financial and natural resources in more produc-infrastructure, agriculture and rural develop- tive ways. A critical element in achieving thisment in recognition of the high importance of objective will be to substantially increase in-these sectors for the development of the private vestment in capacity development and creatingsector and for employment growth. Over the a skilled workforce in order to expand em-lifetime of the ANDS, the Government will fo- ployment opportunities and increase incomes.cus progressively more resources on education,governance, health, and social protection. The Average economic growth is projected at an 8.1Government commits to allocating sufficient percent rate for 1387-1391. A key assumptionresources to the key priorities of strengthening underlying this ambitious goal is an increasingeconomic governance and improving the ena- share of total investment will come from thebling environment for private sector develop- private sector. To reach these goals, the Gov-ment. ernment will continue to maintain strong mac- roeconomic management characterized by fis- cal sustainability, prudent monetary policies,CONCLUSION and the avoidance of short-term ad hoc meas-For Afghanistan to become a peaceful and ures.prosperous country able to provide its peoplewith an acceptable standard of living, it has to The ability to implement the projects and pro-build a strong economic foundation that will grams included in the ANDS depends upon thesupport long term and broad-based economic resources that will be available. In this regard,growth with the private sector as its engine. a major contribution of the ANDS has been theWith sound macroeconomic policies under- determination of budget ceilings that reflect thetaken during the last five years, per capita in- Government’s sectoral priorities. These arecome nearly doubled. For the poverty reduc- being built into the MTFF and the Ministry oftion goals of the ANDS to be achieved, compa- Finance’s program-based budgeting systemrable levels of economic growth will be needed focused on achieving the country’s develop-in comings years. This will require a conducive ment needs. Security will remain the Govern-environment for social and economic develop- ment’s highest priority, while the public ex-ment, which in turn depends on the continued penditure programs for investments in energy,maintenance of sound and stable macroeco- water and irrigation, transportation infrastruc-nomic policies to enable the private sector to ture, agriculture, agro-based industry, and ru-establish itself as a vigorous engine of growth ral development will remain high priorities,and employment creation. acknowledging the high importance of these sectors for the development of the private sec-A key strategic objective of the ANDS is to es- tor and for long term and sustainable employ-tablish a secure economic environment in ment growth. In the coming years the Gov-which it will be possible to attract sufficient ernment will also devote progressively morelevels of private sector investments that will resources on education, governance, health, and social protection. Macroeconomic Framework 51
    • CHAPTER 5 SECURITYSecurity in all parts of the country is essential CURRENT SITUATIONfor economic growth and poverty reduction.The ANDS long term strategic vision for the Afghanistan currently faces a whole range ofSecurity sector is to ensure security of state, security threats. To counter these threats andpersons and assets through the provision of a ensure national interests the Government planscosted, integrated and sustainable national se- to strengthen the military, economic and politi-curity infrastructure and law and order policy. cal ties with its regional and international part-The Government has developed the National ners. The security objectives are aimed at pro-Security Policy to be implemented through the tecting the country’s independence, establish-Security Sector Reform (SSR) program. This ing a democratic and economically stable soci-will strengthen and improve coordination ety, free of corruption. Implementing devel-among the Afghan National Security Forces opment policies outlined in ANDS can only be(ANSF), ISAF/NATO, CSTC-A. While contin- possible if there is peace and security in theued international support is vital, the Govern- country because security and sustainable de-ment aims to assume an increasing share of the velopment inevitably go hand in hand.security burden – the Afghanization of thecountry’s security activities. However, Af- NATO is currently the major force throughghanistan still faces a number of serious chal- which the International Community is provid-lenges before it can assume full responsibility ing security assistance to Afghanistan with thefor its own security. Terrorism, instability and International Security Assistance Force (ISAF)weak capacity of governance are preventing in cooperation with the Afghan Government.the Government from establishing effective The Government aims to secure stronger com-control in some areas, particularly in the south mitments from NATO whilst building the ca-and south-east. The large-scale production of pacity of Afghanistan’s national armed andnarcotics continues to provide funds to these other security forces. The Government is intentgroups. Unexploded ordinance remain a sig- on building administrative capacity, investingnificant threat, with some five thousand citi- in human resources development and justicezens either killed or wounded in mine explo- sector, and spurring private sector develop-sions since 1380 (2001). Currently only two of ment to help improve Afghanistan’s internalthe country’s 34 provinces are completely clear situation. An educated and prosperous societyof land mines. is less likely to be influenced by concepts spread by extremist elements. A strong Na-The “Afghanization” of the country’s security tional Security Structure will facilitate devel-will require: (i) comprehensive security sector opment of Afghanistan’s economy, social fabricreform; (ii) a new division of labor between and thus will enhance national unity andthe international security forces and the Afghan peaceful coexistence.National Army (ANA); (iii) a reassessment ofthe design, composition and size of the army; Terrorism and illegally armed groups(iv) accelerated training for the officers; and (v)an intensified national recruitment drive. The major challenges to stability are terrorism- related, due to the revival of the Taliban in the south and southeast. The Government’s secu- rity forces and their international partners will focus on fighting terrorism, illegally armed Security 53
    • groups and neutralizing armed elements oper- ment plans and addresses issues such as the ating along the borders. Given that many of development of economic infrastructure, de- these groups receive support from foreign mand reduction, poppy eradication, countering sources, both regional cooperation and diplo- drug trafficking and establishing alternative matic initiatives are vital. To defeat terrorism, livelihood programs. As the police are re- new strategies attuned with political objectives formed and the judicial system strengthened, a of the Government are being adopted, such as major effort will be made to reduce corruption, strengthening the effectiveness of ISAF and better policing officials involved in cultivation Coalition Forces assistance. This includes spe- and interfering with eradication efforts. cial attention to building the professional capa- bilities of Afghan security forces designed to defeat terrorism and to render assistance to Illegal Armed Groups victims of war and avoid civilian casualties. Wars and violence have turned Afghanistan The government aims at strengthening its into a fully armed society where people use ownership over law enforcement to effectively guns to earn a living or to control resources. overcome internal security problems. Further- Illegally armed groups pose a direct threat to more, combating criminal activity and in- national security. The long-term presence of creased narcotics production are integrated illegal armed groups in different parts of the components of the security strategy. country is obstructing Government control, hindering development of local democratic Countering a terror-dominated Taliban and institutions and posing a serious threat to na- illegally armed groups is an extremely complex tional unity. They are obstacles to the rule of form of warfare. In many ways it is a competi- law and stand in the way of social and eco- tion for the support of the population. The ac- nomic development. Many commanders of tive support of the Afghan people is vital to illegal armed groups have close links with po- success. This demands a firm political will and lice or even belong to local governments. This substantial persistence by the Government and situation enhances corruption and is consid- the Afghan people, and unwavering long term ered a key obstacle in cracking down on the commitment and patience from the interna- narcotics industry. Unless the Government is tional community. Government legitimacy is a able to provide adequate security with police pre-requisite if we are to isolate the Taliban. presence in every village and district, people The Government’s support and legitimacy will will feel the need to keep guns for self- increase only if we can assure the security of protection. People are now required to have a the people and provide them with the basic license to carry arms and this law needs to be necessities of life: food, water, shelter, health- enforced effectively. care and the means to make a living. The use of excessive force in operations should be The Disbandment of Illegal Armed Groups avoided, targets should be accurately identi- (DIAG) and the continuation of the Disarma- fied, and collateral damage and especially ment, Disintegration and Rehabilitation pro- casualties among civilians be avoided as much gram (DDR), is the first step in disarming ille- as possible. gal armed groups. The existence of arms and ammunition caches and mines in different parts of Afghanistan also pose a threat, because Narcotics opponents of the government can use them for Poppy cultivation and production of narcotics terrorist operations. The government –in coop- poses a serious challenge to Afghanistan’s se- eration with international organizations – is curity. The high level corruption that enables trying to garner support from local communi- the narcotics industry to thrive endangers for- ties to get rid of these arms caches. eign assistance to development. Huge reve- nues from opium and production of narcotics have drawn in terrorist elements, organized- Mines and Explosive Remnants of crime groups and extremists. Revenues from War (ERW) opium and drug trafficking is also a consider- Mines and other ERWs are major obstacles to able source of funding to remnants of illegal infrastructure and economic reconstruction. armed groups. The Government’s strategy co- The benchmark for locating and destroying all ordinates international efforts with Govern-54 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • stockpiles of anti-personnel mines was reached Jaddi 1389, (end-2010): the Governmentin 1386 (October 2007). However the existence will establish a nationally respected, pro-of mines and explosives still pose a threat to fessional, ethnically balanced ANA that isthe lives of four million Afghans. Only two accountable, organized, trained and wellprovinces have been completely cleared of equipped to meet the security needs of themines. Statistics have shown that about 5,000 country. It will be increasingly fundedAfghans have been either killed or wounded in from Government revenue, commensuratemine explosions since 1380 (2001). Unknown with the nation’s economic capacity. Sup-arms and ammunition caches and mines in dif- port will continue to be provided to ex-ferent parts of Afghanistan pose an additional pand the ANA towards a ceiling of 80,000threat because opponents of the Government personnel with additional 6,000 personnel,can use these for terrorist operations. including trainers. The pace of this expan- sion will be adjusted on the basis of peri- odic joint quality assessments by the Gov-POLICY FRAMEWORK ernment and the international communityThe National Security Policy is drafted for a against agreed criteria which take into ac-period of five years and reviewed annually. count prevailing conditions.The policy contains two interrelated strategies: The Afghan National Police: By Jaddi 1389National Security Strategy and Security Sector (end-2010) a fully constituted, professional,Reforms Strategy. functional and ethnically balanced Afghan National Police and Afghan Border PoliceThe Security Sector Reforms Strategy estab- with a combined force of up to 82,180 willlishes a mechanism to regulate relations be- be able to effectively meet the securitytween ministries and departments to ensure needs of the country and will be increas-effective coordination. The policy encompasses ingly fiscally sustainable.the functions of other government departments DIAG: All illegal armed groups will dis-including the legislative, judiciary and law en- banded by 20 March 2011 in all provinces.forcement. The reforms establish responsibili- Approximately 2,000 illegal armed groupsties and coordination in the security sector for have been identified. Nearly 300 are nowimplementation of programs and give guide- fully or partially disbanded and 1200 morelines for planning, prioritization, assessment of are engaged to cooperate with DIAG.resources, and operations. Sustained financial Removing Unexploded Ordnance: Bysupport is needed to avoid compromising ei- Jaddi 1389 (end-2010), in line with Af-ther development or security objectives. The ghanistan MDGs, the land area contami-OECD DAC Implementation-Framework for nated by mines and unexploded ordnanceSecurity Sector Reform provides a useful will be reduced by 70%; and by end-2010framework for increasing national ownership all unsafe, unserviceable, and surplus am-and laying out the core elements of a ‘right- munition will be destroyed. The goal is tofinancing’ framework.37 clear 90% of all known mine/ERW con- taminated areas by 1391 (2012). The goalThe Government is committed to addressing furthermore is to clear all emplaced anti-the following strategic benchmarks to achieve personnel mines by 1391 (1 March 2013) ac-the security sector strategic vision: cording to the Ottawa Convention. A ca- pacity to remove mines and ERWs beyond The Afghan National Army: (i) Through the 2013 MAPA transition deadline proba- Jaddi 1389 (end-2010), with the support of bly will be needed. and in close coordination with the gov- Counter-Narcotics: By 2013, the area under ernment, the NATO-led ISAF, Operation poppy cultivation will be reduced by half Enduring Freedom (OEF) and their respec- compared to 2007 levels. tive Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) will promote security and stability The security sector expected outcomes are: in all regions of Afghanistan, including by Effectively coordinated security sector, strengthening Afghan capabilities. (ii) By where decisions and plans are timely made and implemented and external and internal37 See http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/43/25/38406485.pdf Security 55
    • threats are deterred, contained or elimi- National Security Council nated; ANA and ANP operationally capable of The National Security Council is the highest performing those missions and tasks as- institution for identifying and addressing na- signed; tional security issues. The Council, led by the ANP and ABP expenditures are fiscally President, is responsible for developing strate- sustainable; gies and policies, determining priorities, and is Citizens have an enhanced level of justice responsible for the oversight and coordination with the help of Police and the Army; of the security sector and institutions. The Na- Narcotics industry is reduced in line with tional Security Advisor identifies the needs and counter-narcotics national strategy; requirements of the sector and leads the Policy Reduction of corruption in the ANA, ANP Action Group (PAG) which has been estab- and amongst other government officials; lished as an emergency response mechanism to Reduced level of deaths and casualties address the deteriorating security conditions in caused by UXOs, reduce the number of af- the six southern provinces. The PAG directs fected communities and increased safety and coordinates security, development work, precautions; reconstruction and strategic relations across all Enhanced public trust on government abil- functional areas of the Government and the ity to deliver justice and security as ille- International Community (both civilian and gally armed groups are disbanded and re- military). integrated; and Eventual eradication of Poppy Production Ministry of Defense (MoD), and the and crack down on drug trafficking. Afghan National Army (ANA) MoD is responsible for establishing and main- SECURITY INSTITUTIONS taining peace and security. The Minister of Afghanistan’s security sector includes a num- Defense is a civilian with the ministry being ber of institutions responsible for maintaining non-political and non-partisan. MoD stands security and enforcing laws. Increased capacity ready to provide support to the MoI, which is and improved coordination is necessary to responsible for border control in emergency achieve the strategic objectives for this sector. situations. Reforms and capacity building ini- tiatives are in process to make the MoD more The security sector includes ministries, de- transparent and accountable with a strong ad- partments and institutions that are responsible ministration and internal discipline. The MoD for enforcing security and laws to protect the is developing an ethnically balanced, non- Government and the Afghan people. These political army with a single military doctrine include among other: National Security Coun- and operational capabilities. Education, train- cil (NSC), Office of the National Security Coun- ing and equipping the national army to create a cil (ONSC), the Policy Action Group (PAG), professional army with strong operational ca- Ministries, National Directorate of Security pability to fight terrorism and armed groups (NDS), National Army and Air Forces, Afghan are top priorities. The MoD must ensure that National Police (ANP), Presidential Guard, Par- all military units under its command observe liamentary Commissions on Security and and respect Islamic religion and Afghan values. Monitoring, Public Audit and Evaluation Of- MoD’s primary responsibilities include: fices, justice and judicial institutions, Ministry of Justice, Prosecution Departments and the National defense against foreign military Human Rights Commission. To improve pro- aggression; fessional capabilities of the security institutions Fighting illegally armed groups and terror- their duties and responsibilities need to be co- ism, and help establish the rule of law; ordinated. This will guarantee appropriate Deter wars and ensure stability to secure regulations, set priorities in policy making, national interests; help forecasting financial expenses and ensure Play an active part to solve crisis and con- correct allocation of funds. trol emergency situations; Render assistance to civilian officials to control any emerging security crisis, natu- ral disasters and emergency situations;56 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Protect and expand Afghanistan’s national with regard to security are to ensure internal interests; and security and fight criminal activity. High prior- Support the National and Border Police to ity activities include: curb organized crime. Crack down on organized and interna-To achieve these goals, the MoD has estab- tional crimes including drugs and humanlished the ANA. trafficking; fight terrorism and other na- tional security threats in cooperation with MoD, ANA, ISAF and Coalition forces;The National Army (ANA) Establish a border police force to controlThe National Army is responsible for protect- cross-border movements and assist withing Afghanistan’s territorial integrity, uphold- collection of customs revenues in coopera-ing and protecting the Constitution, defending tion with MoD, ANA and Ministry of Fi-national interests and the Islamic religion, and nance (MoF);establishing a favorable environment for public Enforce justice by detecting crimes, carrywelfare and progress. The National Army, led out investigations, and promptly handoverby civilian leadership and supported by the suspects to the judicial authorities withoutNational Police, has a mandate to improve in- delay in accordance with the law;ternal security. It also plays a role to boost re- Provide witness protection and support togional security through military cooperation victims of crime and establish detentionwith ISAF and regional and international allies. centers;A reassessment of the design, composition and Implement the DIAG program: Collect un-size of the ANA has led to intensified national registered arms in cooperation with otherrecruitment drive and training. security departments and implement and enforce new regulations regarding privateFollowing a presidential decree to establish a security companies.National Army in 2003 the Ministry of Defenseand the Afghan National Army have achievedconsiderable progress. The ministry is respon- The National Police (ANP)sible for maintaining professional cadres to The Police are undergoing reforms aimed en-design appropriate policies, manage the ANA hancing efficiency by improving police trainingand defense institutions, and establish neces- and education, upgrading staff and equippingsary coordination among security institutions the department adequately. The current MoIand international partners. The quality and Tashkeel allows for 82,180 uniformed person-quantity of the ANA is rapidly growing, and nel in the ANP. Police capacities have beenwill continue to grow until the army is capable increasing with extensive help from donorsof maintaining the stability of the country, de- that has led to the expansion of governmentfending its sovereignty, and contributing to control to provinces. However, there is a needregional security. The National Army has a to accelerate recruitment, education and train-mandate to assist the civilian administration ing programs to ensure not only professionaland police whenever needed. If instructed by performance but also to improve the reputationthe National Security Council, the ANA will of the ANP. Ensuring quality police perform-cooperate with the National Police, Anti- ance and accountability of police and the MoI isDisasters Department, Afghan Red Crescent the key to stabilization of the society and gain-Society and other civilian charity organizations ing popular support for the Government.to tackle emergency situations requiring disas-ter response and humanitarian assistance. The Border Police (BP) are responsible for bor- der control, in cooperation with customs offi- cials. The BP establish check points to monitorMinistry of Internal Affairs (MoI), crossings, particularly in areas with suspectedand the Afghan National Police (ANP) terrorist activity, and are responsible for pre-The Ministry of Internal Affairs is responsible venting human trafficking, and drug smug-for ensuring internal security, establishing the gling. The Counter-Narcotics Police of Af-rule of law, justice and protecting the country’s ghanistan (CNPA) has been especially estab-international borders. MoI’s responsibilities lished to work on drug related crimes. Security 57
    • Significant steps have been taken since 2001 to stability and support economic programs revamp and train the Afghan National Army that help in securing national interests; and the Afghan National Police. Police capaci- Support and promote bilateral and multi- ties have been increasing with extensive help lateral economic initiatives with neighbors from the international community. Large mili- to secure national interests. tias have been integrated into the Ministry of Defense, with the majority demobilized. A multi-sector donor support scheme has been Ministry of Counter Narcotics (MCN) established where individual donors are allo- The Ministry of Counter Narcotics is responsi- cated responsibility for overseeing support for ble for the implementation of the National each of the key elements of the reform, includ- Drug Control Strategy (NDCS). The MCN’s ing: disarmament, demobilization, and reinte- policies are designed to address: (i) develop- gration of ex-combatants; military reform; po- ment of projects to provide alternative liveli- lice reform; judicial reform; and counter- hood opportunities in districts where poppy is narcotics. grown; (ii) programs to reduce demand for drugs including addiction treatment facilities in affected provinces; (iii) development of effec- National Directorate of Security (NDS) tive mechanisms to deal with drug-related The National Directorate of Security is respon- crimes; and (iv) media and public awareness sible for lending support to the military and campaigns to discourage people from growing police in fighting terrorism, anti-government poppy and producing narcotics; and (v) poppy elements and narcotics. NDS fulfill its duties eradication programs.. by collecting and analyzing information and offering specific recommendations on security. The Directorate is designed to help improve ‘RIGHT-FINANCING’ effectiveness of operations carried out by na- SECURITY SECTOR REFORM tional security agencies. NDS also shares in- formation and cooperates with international Fiscal sustainability is essential for a sound and security organizations stationed in Afghani- stable security forces. Given the limitations of stan. NDS is non-political institutions with the National Budget at present, additional time merit based promotion system. is needed before security sector expenditures can be included in the ordinary budget. The security sector must therefore rely on contin- Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MoFA) ued assistance from Afghanistan’s international allies. Limited internal revenue will inevitably The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible force the Government to make some very for organizing and following Afghanistan’s tough decisions when it comes to security sec- relations with other countries and international tor spending. The Government supports the organizations. It is mandated to: development of a ‘Right-financing’ approach to the security sector, within which to strike an Establish cordial international relations appropriate balance between current security based on sovereignty and mutual trust; needs and the goal of building a fiscally sus- Set foreign policy objectives in line with tainable security sector based on realistic re- national military strategies and activities of source projections. the National Army and border police; Afghanistan has no wish to be a burden on the Support and promote international peace international community for longer than is nec- and welfare by upholding and implement- essary. In line with a three phased effort to ing international laws, conventions and na- develop the Afghan military, coalition allies tional development strategies ; will move progressively from carrying the ma- Support development and encourage in- jor burden of combat operations to a support- vestment in Afghanistan and promote ing and enabling role. The First Phase, an ac- trade; celerated development both in numbers and Promote regional peace and prosperity, capabilities of Afghanistan’s security forces adopt active diplomacy to achieve regional that are adequately manned, equipped and trained to defeat all internal and external58 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • threats, is well advanced. The Second Phase is tries that are related. The Government seeks toto transition from coalition-led, to an Afghan- cooperate with its neighbors by strengtheningled and NATO-supported security operation. regional security linkages with intelligenceAlthough much of the security burden remains sharing to tackle cross-border infiltration, ter-with our coalition allies, there has been pro- rorism and narcotics trafficking.gress in combined Afghan/Coalition opera-tions, and in independent ANA security opera- The Government will make every effort to en-tions. Phase Three will encompass efforts to sure regional stability, security and prosperityfurther improve professionalism, discipline and for itself and for neighboring countries. Theoperational cohesiveness and the ANA will Kabul Declaration on Peaceful Coexistence andconduct independent operations and lead the Good Neighborliness was signed in 1381fight. ISAF will move to a supporting role. At (2002). It obliges Afghanistan and its neighborsthe end of this final phase, a capacity to defend to respect each others’ territorial integrity, es-the country will have been established, and the tablish friendly relations and cooperation, andpartnership with allies will become one of ensure non-interference in each other’s internalnormalized defense relations. affairs. All of the Government’s efforts to maintain security and accelerate social and economic development will not work withoutSOUND ADMINISTRATION, some degree of cooperation and support fromJUSTICE AND JUDICIAL Afghanistan’s neighbors. A secure Afghanistan in a stable region is in the best interest of entireSYSTEM world. The Government will work with theEstablishing a transparent and accountable ju- international community and neighboringdicial administration is a key in achieving du- countries for an effective diplomatic solution torable stability in the country. The Government security challenges. This will require: (i) con-is committed to strengthening the justice sys- certed diplomatic pressure against the safe ha-tem, incuding the Supreme Court, Attorney vens enjoyed by terrorist groups outside of Af-General´s Office, Chief Prosecution Depart- ghanistan’s borders; (ii) coordinated and effec-ment, Ministry of Justice, and military courts in tive measures for strengthening border andthe capital and provinces. Priority programs of cross-border security; (iii) support for the pro-the Government include appointing profes- grams agreed in recent regional economic co-sional cadres, coordinating law enforcement operation conferences; and (iv) a furtherand justice sector development programs to strengthening of the Tri-partite Commission toestablish a prosperous, stable, and a just society dialogue with Pakistan on substantial issues.based on democratic values and internationalstandards. An effective legal administrationthat ensures the rule of law is important for CONCLUSIONpeople to have faith in their government. The The Government is fully committed to success-Government is implementing programs to fully: (i) implementing an integrated and com-strengthen and support reform in the Ministry prehensive national security policy and strat-of Justice, the Supreme Court, and the Attorney egy; (ii) building a robust security sector reformGeneral’s Office. program; (iii) strengthening synergies between civil and military operations; (iv) increasing the role of security forces in counter-narcotics ac-RELATIONS WITH tivities; and (v) strengthening the civilian com-NIEGHBORS AND ponents of security entities. While interna-INTERNATIONAL ALLIES tional assistance is vitally necessary at the pre- sent time, the Government is planning andAfghanistan’s security is closely linked with looking forward to taking on an increasinginternational developments. The country bor- share of the responsibility for security in Af-ders with six countries and inevitably has eco- ghanistan.nomic and political interests with these coun- Security 59
    • Table 5.1. Integration of the Cross Cutting Issues into the Security Sector Anti-Corruption Gender Equality Counter-Narcotics Environment Regional Co-operation Capacity BuildingPrograms within the Sector Increase the number of quali- The international forces in Improved secu- Establish and develop Reforming defense and the securityStrategy emphasize ac- fied female staff throughout Afghanistan must cooperate rity will ensure good international rela- sector is a priority of the Afghancountability and transpar- the security sector. with the Afghan National sustainable de- tionships based on mu- Government to strengthen Afghanency. Army (ANA) to facilitate for velopment with tual respect, non- capabilities and transform the Af- Promote gender mainstream- Afghan counter-narcotics op- minimum nega- interference. Enhance ghan security forces into effectiveBy Jaddi 1392 (end-2013), ing and gender-balance erations. tive impact to Afghanistan’s active and modern force, confirming tocorruption in the govern- throughout the security sector. environment. position as a positive international standards.ment at all levels especially Afghan security forces provide Increase awareness of gender and effective member ofin security and, customs force protection and law en- Implement DIAG MoD reform and reconstruction aim and rights, raising women’s the UN.will be significantly re- forcement for eradication and and mine/UXO to rehabilitate a strong defense sector decision-making role and en-duced. interdiction operations clearance pro- Enhance cooperative to protect national security and to be suring that women have equal grams to enhance border management able to begin assuming primary re-A monitoring mechanism employment opportunities Eradication of poppy crops security that with Afghanistan’s sponsibility for Afghanistan’s secu-to track corruption at high within the Sector. needs to be enforced, in par- would allow for neighbors to crack rity with a gradual withdrawal ofplaces, including the secu- ticular where those who bene- Recognize in all policies and extensive land to down on illegal border international security forces.rity sector, will be put in fit are using the profits for anti programs that men and be taken back crossing and trafficking.place by Jaddi 1387 (end- government activities. Intensive field and operational train- women have equal rights and into use for farm-2008). Regional cooperation to ing is and will continue to further responsibilities through the There is a need to enhance ing and devel- improve security will enhance the capabilities of the ANABy Jaddi 1387 (end-2008), security sector. border control to crack down opment. lead to overall stability and ANP.the Government will estab- on drug trafficking. Ensure that monitoring Stability in the region.lish and implement a pub- Capacity and budget needs of the mechanisms are in place to By Jaddi 1389 (end-2010), the throughout thelic complaints mechanism. Multilateral and bilat- ANA and the ANP will be under realize goals for gender equal- Government will increase the country isThis will include com- eral agreements reached constant review. There is a need for ity. This calls for setting indi- number of arrests and prose- needed to pre-plaints against the security with the countries of the overcoming financial challenges and cators to monitor improve- cutions of traffickers and cor- vent natural re-forces or the security sec- region and further ef- insufficient funds to realize capacity ments. rupt officials with the help of sources fromtor. forts to promote re- building of the security strategy. the security sector. being degraded. Ensure reduction of violence gional cooperationTargeting corruption is Specific capacity development pro- and harassment against Increased security is needed to would contribute to thevital for security reasons: grams will be required for preparing women in the workplace, by guarantee alternative liveli- stability in the regionNarcotics traffickers thrive the security forces for counter narcot- implementing specific train- hoods. Capacity for eradica- and enhance the pace ofin insecurity and absence ics operations. ing, units/programs (e.g. re- tion must similarly increase. economic developmentof governance; corruption ferral centers) and effective in Afghanistan. Special programs will be developedat the highest levels facili- complaint and redress mecha- for developing gender sensitive secu-tate for narcotics trade that nisms. rity system internally as well for ex-spur anti- government ternal interactions.elements. 60 AFGHANISTAN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY (ANDS)
    • CHAPTER 6 GOVERNANCE, RULE OF LAW & HUMAN RIGHTSThe goal for the Governance, Rule of Law and Three sectors are contained under this pillar:Human Rights is strengthen democratic proc- Governance, Public Administration Reformesses and institutions, human rights, the rule of and Human Rights, Justice Sector and Reli-law, delivery of public services and govern- gious Affairs. Sub-national consultation andment accountability. the Provincial Development Plans (PDPs) were instrumental in developing the sector strategy.Improving governance is essential to the at-tainment of the Government’s national visionand the establishment of a stable and function- GOVERNANCE, PUBLICing society. The government’s guiding princi- ADMINISTRATION REFORMples for improving governance are openness,participation, accountability, effectiveness, effi- AND HUMAN RIGHTSciency, coherence, equity, inclusiveness, justiceand rule of law applied at all levels of the gov- Role of the Sector in ANDSernment. The government will act as a policymaker, regulator, enabler and not a competitor, In the Afghanistan Compact, the Governmentof the private sector. The main priorities for and the international community reaffirmedthe governance sector are (i) to increase the their commitment to certain benchmarks onpace and quality of public administration re- Public Administration Reform, Anti-form; (ii) strengthen sub-national governance Corruption, The Census and Statistics, Nationalstructures; (iii) reform legal and courts proc- Assembly, Elections, Gender, Land Registra-esses; and (iv) strengthen parliamentary and tion, Counter- Narcotics and Human Rightslegislative processes including holding free and within the specified timelines. Functional insti-fair elections. tutions with trained staff will be established in each province to implement appropriate legalWhile much has been achieved in strengthen- frameworks and appointment procedures. Theing the formal and informal structures of gov- Government will also establish a fiscally andernance and rule of law, as well as extending institutionally sustainable administration forhuman rights, considerable challenges still future elections and prioritize the reform of thestand in the way of achieving the goals under justice system to ensure equal, fair and trans-this pillar. These include: (i) the existence of parent access to justice.multiple, parallel structures of state and non-state governance entities; (ii) confusion over The strategy includes out efforts to reducecentre/sub-national governance entities; (iii) gender inequality. Institutional and administra-weak public sector institutions and underde- tive frameworks will be established at the localveloped governance and administration capa- government level that will enable women tobilities; (iv) high levels of corruption; (v) fiscal play an important role in decision makinguncertainty; (vi) weak legislative development (such as the CDCs established under the NSP).and enforcement; (vii) weak parliamentary The Constitution allows limited decentraliza-oversight; (viii) weak community and civil so- tion specifying that a Provincial Councils (PC)ciety institutions; (ix) ineffective and poorly with elected members are to be formed in everydefined justice system; (x) gender inequality; Province and, that District, Village and Mu-and (xi) underdeveloped human rights en- nicipal Councils and Mayors are to be electedforcement capacities. through, free, general, secret and direct elec- tions every three years. Governance, Rule of Law and Human Rights 61
    • Current Situation in the Sector being enacted. As part of the judicial re- form program a number of other important Afghanistan has come a long way in the last 7 laws will soon be approved. years. In 2000 the World Bank assessed the ‘quality’ of Afghanistan’s governance institu- Gender: The National Action Plan for tions as falling in the bottom one percent of all Women of Afghanistan is being imple- countries. The rule of law, adherence to good mented to establishing greater gender governance practices and respect for human equality by eliminating discrimination, rights in Afghanistan is weak but improving. building of women’s human capital and The ANDS vision for this sector is the estab- promoting their participation and leader- lishment of a stable Islamic constitutional de- ship. mocracy where the three branches of govern- Governance: Public administration is gen- ment function effectively and openly, are ac- erally recognized as being weak. The Gov- countable, inclusive and abide by the rule of ernment will undertake comprehensive in- law. stitutional strengthening and capacity building within the ministries, provinces, Progress since 2001 includes the adoption of districts, municipalities and villages. This the constitution; successful parliamentary and will achieve improvements in the delivery presidential elections, and progress in improv- of services to the people and communities ing the livelihood and welfare of females and living in the provinces, districts, munici- other disenfranchised groups. In addition, the palities and villages. ANDS sets out a series of reforms to address these constraints: A number of constraints continue to face the sector: weak public sector capacity; a lack of Justice: The Ministry of Justice (MoJ) is resources and unsustainable fiscal outcomes; a strengthening the review process for laws restrictive legislative environment that limits and regulations and identifying areas for private sector activity; limited legislative over- reform, including instituting a code of eth- sight and representational experience of public ics and professional standards. In March figures; extensive corruption; excessive cen- 2007, the Supreme Court, the MoJ, and he tralization; a lack of coordinated decision- Attorney General’s Office presented new making across Government; limited female comprehensive reform strategies at the participation in the Government; limited direct Rome Conference. These include plans to accountability to clients; and state capture by restructure the institutions; develop merit- illicit power-holders. based and transparent recruitment; promo- tion and accountability mechanisms for improving professional standards, ethics Policy Framework: Sector Strategy and discipline; improving the conditions of The governance agenda addresses three major service for justice officials; and increasing challenges: pervasive corruption, low public women’s representation at all levels of the sector capacity and human rights deprivations justice system. for girls and women in Afghanistan. Corruption: The High Level Commission 80 percent of provinces identified reducing cor- against Corruption has been established to ruption in public administration as a priority assess and analyze the factors contributing during sub national consultations. to corruption. The Commission presented recommendations to prevent corruption The policy framework for the proposed reform and developed the roadmap in its docu- program to strengthen governance includes all ment “Fighting Corruption in Afghanistan national and sub-national government, parlia- - Strategy and Action”. mentary, civil society and political structures. Legislative Reforms: Progress is being The mainstreaming of cross-cutting issues of made in reforming the legal framework of anti-corruption, capacity building and gender the country. Laws have been enacted to are of particular relevance to this pillar. In promote investment and trade. Measures summary, the policy framework for this pillar to deal with illegal drugs, corruption and includes the following goals: money laundering are under review and62 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • National Assembly Empowerment: To Census and Statistical Baseline Data: Theenhance the capacity of the National As- national census will be completed and thesembly in discharging legislative, over- results published. National economic andsight, transparency and accountability poverty baselines will be established.functions. Geodesy and Cartography: Village andPublic Administration Reform: Public Gozar boundaries will be verified andadministration reform will focus on pay mapping exercises will be undertaken.and grading reforms to increase competi- Land Administration: A modern andtive recruitment, hiring of a trained and community-based land administration sys-capable public sector workforce, strength- tem and establishment of a fair system forening merit based appointments, conduct- settlement of land disputes will be estab-ing performance-based reviews. lished.Anti-corruption: Measures to achieve a Independent Directorate of Local Gov-reduction of corruption in the judiciary and ernance (IDLG): A sub-national govern-throughout the government will be intro- ance policy will be developed. People’sduced. There will be increased monitoring participation in sub-national governanceof corruption at senior levels. Appropriate will be increased. Provincial Councils willnew applications will be introduced to be empowered. Laws on District Councils,limit potential corruption. Public reporting Municipal Councils, and Village Councilsand complaints mechanisms will be ex- will be introduced. Regular elections ofpanded. District Councils, Municipal Councils,Enhanced availability of information to Mayors and Village Councils will be held.public and enforcement: Public rights to Public administration will be reformed ataccess to information will be increased. the sub-national level and the capacity ofSanctions will be enforced against those in- the public sector workforce at sub-nationalvolved in the drugs trade. level strengthened. Provincial planning and budgeting will be institutionalized.Enhanced participation of Women inGovernance: Fulfillment of the national ac- Governance Administration: Review andtion plan for women’s rights will be im- assessment of the facilities in all govern-plemented and affirmative action programs ment offices will be undertaken and ap-made available to women. propriate facilities provided.Enhanced participation of Youth in Gov- Communication with and within theernance: A proactive policy to expand op- Government: There will be enhanced flowportunities for young people that encom- of information between all government en-passes all areas of Government activity will tities related to national policy, strategybe adopted. and national budget procedures.Effective system of disaster preparedness Human Rights: The realization, protection,and response: The national disaster man- promotion and extension of human rights,agement and mitigation policy will be im- including the Action Plan on Peace, Justiceplemented. and Reconciliation will be implemented.Independent Election Commission: Thecapacity of the Independent Election JUSTICECommission will be strengthened. A per-manent voters’ registry will be established.Regular national and sub-national elections Role of the Sector in ANDSwill be held as mandated by the Constitu- The role of the Justice Sector in the govern-tion. ment’s development strategy is to ensure im-Single National Identity Document: To proved integrity, performance and infrastruc-enhance public accountability and trans- ture of Afghanistan’s justice institutions in eachparency a single national identity docu- province; to streamline administrative struc-ment will be issued. tures, ensure professional integrity and im- prove coordination and integration within the Governance, Rule of Law and Human Rights 63
    • Justice system between government and civil Contribution of the Sector to Imple- society institutions, and improve access to the mentation of the Compact and MDGs justice system for all. The government has de- veloped the National Justice Sector Strategy Afghanistan Compact: The Justice Sector will (NJSS) to fully articulate these objectives. The have met the four Rule of Law Compact NJSS will be implemented through the Na- benchmarks by the end of 1391 (2010). tional Justice Program (NJP). This will strengthen and improve coordination among Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): Al- the justice institutions, and within the justice though justice and the rule of law are not institutions and their bilateral and multilateral among the eight plus one MDGs, they provide funding partners. In the longer term the sector the enabling environment for poverty reduc- will seek to increase specialization and diversi- tion and economic development. fication of justice practices to meet more com- plex demands – including the important and Current Situation in the Sector necessary interaction and relationship with in- formal justice systems, which are prevalent Achievements: Afghanistan has a mixed civil throughout the country, while expanding jus- law and Islamic Sharia-based formal legal sys- tice services. Transitional Justice is obviously tem that has evolved over many years. In most an important aspect of the sector. The Govern- non-urban areas customary legal systems con- ment’s Action Plan for Peace, Reconciliation tinue to operate. While there is considerable and Justice in Afghanistan acknowledges that variation in these customary legal systems they any mechanism for building peace and justice are usually based around traditional tribunals – must be carried out with the active and mean- jirgas, maracas shuras or mookee khans. Tradi- ingful participation of all national stakeholders, tional systems usually have core principles of including the justice institutions. apology and forgiveness, followed by recon- ciliation. Most Afghan customary systems are based on the principle of restorative justice. Contribution to the ANDS Economic Growth: An efficiently operating The Constitution introduced three major re- justice system will encourage investment and forms to the judicial system: for economic activity to move from the infor- mal to the formal sector, thereby strengthening Art. 97 declared the judiciary an “inde- the ability of the government to raise revenue pendent organ of the State” which “dis- internally. charges its duties side by side with the Leg- islative and Executive Organs;” Employment: Growth of the private sector, a The Constitution created a unified judicial prerequisite of which is an efficient judicial sys- system with an organizational structure tem will generate increased demand for labor. that is headed by the Supreme Court; In addition, improved labor and contract laws will lower the cost of hiring labor and directly The constitution created a unified system encourage increased employment, particularly of laws. The Constitution and statutes cre- in urban centers. ated under the Constitution are legally dominant, with the basic principles of the Poverty Reduction: Economic growth and in- Sharia acting as a guide to the legislature. creased employment will contribute to a reduc- tion in poverty. In addition it should be noted In August 2006 a new Supreme Court was ap- that women and the poor and marginalized are proved by National Assembly. The Supreme most likely to be the ones to suffer the lack of Court then adopted a new Code of Judicial access to a fair and unbiased judicial system. Conduct, based on the internationally recog- nized Principles of Judicial Conduct and estab- Security/Stability: Poor security in certain lishing ethical standards. parts of the country makes service delivery dif- ficult or impossible and justice professionals Donor activity in the justice sector has gener- operate at great personal risk. Police devote ally focused on building capacity of the judicial most of their resources to maintaining security. system, including police training and court construction.64 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Needs Assessment: the following needs have Sector Priority Policies and Goals: These are allbeen identified at the national and provincial detailed in the sector strategy and furtherlevels: elaborated in the NJP, however a brief sum- mary of the policy reform areas is provided Salary support: to improve performance, below under three main goals: mitigate corruption and ensure profes- sional qualification; Integrity, performance and infrastructure: Administrative reform and restructuring of Infrastructure and office equipment: Sub- justice institutions; legal education; sys- ject to survey of essential work to be tar- tematic records systems; enhancing admin- geted. istrative capacity; eradicating corruption; Transportation: Subject to survey of essen- promulgation of ethics codes, engagement tial work to be targeted; of public through complaints systems; ex- pansion of justice services through infra- Operating costs need to be financed to im- structural development, procurement of prove performance of justice institutions; transportation assets and equipment. Capacity building and training: continuing Coordination and integration with other professional development requirements; government institutions and civil society: Information management and human re- Improved legislation through enhanced source management to be established; capacity of drafting and parliamentary per- sonnel; establishment of National Legal Codes of Ethics and oversight mechanisms Training Centre for vocational education to be established for all legal professionals; and vocational excellence; increased oppor- Financial management: budgets are inade- tunities for external stakeholders and civil quate and budget execution rates are low; society to contribute to legal policy devel- Public awareness: There is a need to de- opment in policy analysis and legislative velop tools and instrument which ensure drafting. Support the Provincial Justice Co- access at all level of society. ordination Mechanism (PJCM), to improve the delivery of justice assistance in theChallenges, Constraints, Weaknesses: Weak provinces.infrastructure; lack of trained staff; delays and Improved Justice Practices and Processes:backlogs of appeals; lack of information tech- investigation system established to deter-nology and capacity; uncompetitive salaries; mine delays in criminal justice system andpoor education and vocational training, public lack of representation and improved caseconfidence; resource constraints; security situa- management; Sentencing Policy developed;tion: Security constraints in certain parts of the Juvenile Justice Policy implemented; Spe-country make service delivery difficult or im- cialization to address cross-cutting andpossible. emerging issues in criminal justice; En- hanced and improved civil court case ad- ministration and jurisdictional structures inPolicy framework: sector strategy major litigation categories; nationwide ac-The Government’s vision for justice is of an cess to legal information and representa-Islamic society in which an impartial and inde- tion; investigating policies for improvedpendent justice system delivers safety and se- links between formal and informal justicecurity for life, religion, property, family and sectors and oversight of the informal by thereputation; with respect for liberty, equality formal.before the law and access to justice for all. Governance, Rule of Law and Human Rights 65
    • Table 6.2. Key Objectives of the National Justice ProgramPublic can rely on effectively organized and professionally staffed, transparent and accountable justice institutions.A.1. Justice institutions are structured, managed and administered according to their mandate and functionsA.2. Justice institutions are professionally staffed by men and women who are equally remunerated according to theircompetencies and qualifications.A.3. Justice institutions have established the organs necessary for implementation of the national justice programA.4. Justice institutions and organizations have adopted and are enforcing codes of professional conduct and ethicsA.5. Justice institutions have developed transparent operating proceduresA.6. Justice institutions have adopted effective anti-corruption measuresJustice institutions have access to infrastructure, transportation, equipment, and supplies adequate to support effectivedelivery of justice services.B.1. Justice institutions, including the central prisons directorate, are provided with buildings necessary for fulfillment oftheir tasks.B.2. Justice institutions are provided with equipment and supplies necessary for their tasksB.3. Justice institutions are provided with means of transport necessary for their tasksLegal education and vocational training are adequate to provide justice professionals with sufficient know-how to performtheir task.C.1. Universities provide legal education which equips graduates with the intellectual skills and substantive knowledge toperform well as justice professionals.C.2. Justice institutions equip new professionals with the practical and professional skills necessary to fulfill their dutiesC.3. A system of continuing legal education for justice professionals, paying specific attention to women, is in place andoperational.Statutes are clearly drafted, constitutional and the product of effective and consultative drafting processes.D.1. The taqnin has sufficient capacity and resources to review, amend or draft legislation.D.2. All laws in force have been reviewed for constitutionalityD.3. Capacity for legislative drafting has been enhanced throughout other government institutions including parliamentD.4. System is in place to ensure consultation of stakeholders regarding proposed or pending legislationJustice Institutions effectively perform their functions in a harmonized and interlinked manner.E.1. Coordination and cooperation among justice sector institutions is enhanced, resulting in improved criminal and civiltrials and case managementE.2. Adequate institutional organization structures capable of addressing cross cutting issues in rule of law are in placeE.3. Criminal justice is administered effectively, and in accordance with the law, the constitution, and internationalstandards.E.4. Civil justice is administered effectively, and in accordance with law, the constitution, and international standards.E.5. Policies regarding introduction of administrative law structures are in place.E.6. Policies are in place to ensure that the corrections system operates in accordance with international standards.E.7. Enhance legal and policy framework related to juvenile offenders and children in conflict with the law.Citizens are more aware of their rights and are better able to enforce them.F.1. Practices and procedures governing trials and routine legal transactions, including registration of documents, havebeen streamlined and rationalizedF.2. Enhanced access to formal legal system for indigents, illiterates, women, and childrenF.3. Enhanced monitoring of human rights enforcement throughout the governmentF.4. Increased knowledge of laws, rights, and responsibilities through legal awareness campaignsF.5. The role of traditional dispute resolution in the rule of law is defined, and tdr decisions consistently meet internationalhuman rights standards.F.6. Begin the process of establishing a transitional justice system to record past human rights abuses and preserve therights of victims consistent with the government’s action plan for peace, reconciliation and justice.66 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Integration of the PDPs: Seventeen out of the With respect to this the Government will im-thirty-four PDPs cited security as the main ob- prove religious infrastructures includingstacle to development and stability, and cited it mosques, shrines and other holy places. Theas the priority sector in their provinces. As a Government will also develop religious schoolsresult, many of the projects requested by the (madrassas) and will significantly strengthenpeople indicate the need for justice sector infra- the training of imams, preachers and religiousstructure and a law enforcement presence at teachers. The Government will provide train-the district level. ing opportunities for Islamic teaching. In order to meet these objectives, the strategy requires the provision of religious services, poverty re-Sector Related Issues duction and effective economic development ofRole of the Private Sector: The justice sys- the countrytem lowers the cost of doing business and al-lows firms to enter into commercial enforceable Contribution of the Sector Strategycontracts. Businesses in the formal sector havea strong interest in promoting an efficient judi- Economic growth: The Government recog-cial system nizes that Islam is contrary to many challenges that Afghanistan faces today such as corrup-Role of Civil Society: Civil society urgently tion, poppy production and others and that byrequires a judicial system at both the national raising public awareness of the link betweenand provincial level that can be trusted to ad- economic recovery, the role of the economy inminister justice and has the confidence of the strengthening Afghan society and Islamic val-general population. ues support of the Government’s efforts to im- plement number of key reforms will bePolicies to improve Aid Effectiveness: An strengthened.important criticism has been that the donorcommunity has neglected provincial issues and Poverty reduction: The religion of Islam re-aid has been uncoordinated. Donors should not quires all Muslims to support the poor and vul-attempt to impose an external judicial system nerable in society, as well as promoting thethat may not be accepted throughout the coun- idea of social solidarity and actively encourag-try. ing charity. With the establishment of the Za- kat Administration within the government, as well as the possibility of a Zekat-based tax, do-RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS nations can now be collected and redistributed in an organized manner among the most needy.Role of the Sector in ANDSThe ANDS strategic objective for this sector is Stability: The religion of Islam is a religion ofto provide competent and qualified religious peace. The sacred religion of Islam calls on allservices and increase the public awareness of Muslims to treat people with kindness andIslamic religion and values in order to promote mercy and always try to forgive and avoid badpeople’s participation in the poverty reduction deeds. Religious scholars and leaders will playand development programs. The Govern- a significant role in propagating an end to thement’s primary goal is to ensure that all Af- current conflict and encourage national recon-ghans have equal opportunities to exercise ciliation.their Islamic and religious believes and thatIslamic values will be embedded in the Afghan Human rights: Islam is based on humanrecovery and development. The religious af- rights, including the rights of women, orphansfairs strategy intends to establish a system and children. Affirmation of these basic rights,which ensures that religious values are re- like all other Islamic values, will build supportflected with every aspect to Government policy for the reform and implementation of theand contributes to the overall development of ANDS. Basic human rights and freedom arethe country. The sector strategy was developed essential to building a strong free market econ-after extensive consultations with religious in- omy in addition to being essential for any de-stitutions, scholars and religious leaders at both mocracy.national and sub-national levels. Governance, Rule of Law and Human Rights 67
    • Current Situation in the Sector Low level of professional capacity: lack of adequate facilities and competent profes- Achievements: A great deal of work has been sionals which hinders the effective imple- done since the establishment of the transitional mentation of programs; government of Afghanistan in terms of reli- gious affairs including: Uncertain funding and the dependence of the religious institutions on private chari- Afghanistan is an Islamic Republic ties. A lack of adequate funding is one of the major constrain in the realization of the The Constitution is fully based on the prin- sector programs, which minimize the abil- ciple of Islam; ity of the government institutions to im- The Constitution states in Article 2: “The plement their projects. sacred religion of Islam is the religion of Security problems: continued insecurity is the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Fol- a barrier to the implementation of the pro- lowers of other faiths shall be free within grams in some parts of the country. the bounds of law in the exercise and per- formance of their religious rituals.” Policy Framework: Sector Strategy Improved Hajj services and strengthening of Ministry of Hajj and Endowment; The vision for the sector is to provide compe- tent religious services and raise religious The construction and rehabilitation of awareness of the public in order to promote hundreds of new mosques and other holy their participation in the development pro- places; grams of the Government. This will ultimately Restoration of the endowed properties ex- lead to poverty reduction and the development torted by individuals; of Afghanistan. Inclusion of Islamic subjects in the new Sector Priority Policies: the government will curriculum of primary, secondary and focus on the following priorities: higher education systems; Establishment and rehabilitation of the Is- Improve infrastructure for religious affairs: lamic Madrasas and Dar-Ul-Hefazs; (mosques, shrines, holy places, religious schools); Rehabilitation of the Department of the Islamic Sciences of the Science Academy; Improve the training and capacity of the Imams, preachers, religious teachers and Growth of the Islamic literature through other scholars to raise public awareness public and private media, “electronic, vis- and to teach; ual and audio”. Finalize overall cultural curriculum for Needs assessments: The rehabilitation and primary and higher education; construction of religious schools is the most Strengthen Hajj arrangement systems for pressing need for the sector. Additionally there pilgrims; is a need to improve the Islamic female educa- tion system and to hire an adequate number of Support efforts of other government agen- imams. cies to improve religious literacy. Expected outcomes: Challenges and Constraints Lack of qualified scholars’ and lack proper All Government activities will not contra- training for the scholars; dict Islamic values; Lack of qualified cadre in religious educa- Improved religious infrastructure; tion; Financial sustainability of religious affairs Weak coordination among the different sector will be achieved; religious government and non-government The religious education system will be im- institutions; proved;68 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Increased participation of Islamic scholars sue. While the donor community can support in rising awareness of importance of key reforms and provide technical assistance, these Government reforms; reforms have to be initiated by internal deci- sions to implement improvements in govern- Strengthening the role of the religious insti- ance. Without good governance and a sus- tutions in programs for poverty reduction. tained social contract for the acceptance of the rule of law, the total development strategy thatGovernment priorities for Religious Affairs: has been developed in the ANDS will fail. This is because the strategy has at its core the devel- Implement reforms in the education system opment of a private sector that will generate and teaching methods in the public and economic growth and demand for skilled labor. private Madrasas; In this framework, the ANDS encourages the Implement administrative reform pro- public sector to concentrate on the creation of a grams in the Ministry of Haj and Endow- safe and conducive environment that encour- ment and its provincial offices; ages the smooth operation of a robust private Reform the Hajj and pilgrimage services sector. This means a much greater focus by systems; Government on governance issues rather than involvement in the production of goods and Reform and improve coordination of the services that can be provided by a significantly Sharia faculties of Afghan Universities; larger and more efficient private sector. Strengthen the support for building and maintaining mosques and other religious Governance and the rule of law will remain a institutions; primary concern of the Government and has directed that a considerable proportion of Improve self-sustainability of the religious available resources be devoted to strengthening institutions through building shops and the institutions responsible for delivering good business centers within the properties governance. They include the National As- owned by mosques and other holy places sembly, the judicial system, including the and opening bank accounts for collecting courts, the AGO, the police, and the Ministries donations; that administer much of the legislation. In its Establish Ulama Councils for settlement of early stages, strengthening of governance and local disputes and implementation of de- the institutions that support governance has velopment programs in the community; tended to concentrate on the central govern- ment level. Establish Zakat related office within the ministry of Hajj and Endowment; The Afghan ‘ownership’ of this strategy re- Establish effective and transparent mecha- quires that the Government seeks donors close nisms for collecting revenues from shrines cooperation in capacity building and know- and holy sites. how transfer, but retains ultimate responsibility so that a system can evolve that allows the best parts of the functional traditional governanceCONCLUSION system to co-exist with a universal system that recognizes and supports principles of socialGood governance and adherence to the rule of diversity, respect for human rights and the rulelaw are much needed reforms that the Gov- of law.ernment of Afghanistan is committed to pur- Governance, Rule of Law and Human Rights 69
    • Table 6.1. Cross cutting issues in the Governance, Rule of Law and Human Rights Pillar Anti-Corruption Gender Equality Counter-Narcotics Environment Regional Capacity BuildingBy Jaddi 1392 (end-2013), the corruption The Government By Jaddi 1389 (end- National Environmental Gov- LOGOTRI is the The capacity of National Assemblyin the judiciary and the government at will fully imple- 2010), the Government ernance: The Government will Network of Local Members will be built in draftingall levels especially in security, customs, ment the Na- will increase the num- establish the following rights Government Train- and ratification of legislation, re-civil administration and municipalities tional Action ber of arrests and of the public (individuals and ing and Research view and input to the nationalwill be significantly reduced. A monitor- Plan for Women prosecutions of traf- their associations) with regard Institutes in Asia budget review, oversight, and rep-ing mechanism to track corruption in in Afghanistan by fickers and corrupt to the environment: and the Pacific. Its resentation, and on issues related tohigh places will be put in place by Jaddi Jaddi 1389. officials, and will im- members are both women’s rights, national security, 1. The right of everyone to1387 (end-2008). By Jaddi 1387 (end- prove its information governmental, international relations, and inter- The Government receive environmental infor-2008), cross-cutting electronic govern- base concerning those autonomous and ethnic relations. will bring legisla- mation that is held by publicment applications will be launched to involved in the drugs private sector insti- tion on affirma- authorities ("access to envi- The Government will strengthenreduce corruption and increase effi- trade, with a view to tutions and or- tive action pro- ronmental information"). the capacity of Provincial Councils,ciency. By Jaddi 1387 (end-2008), the enhancing the selection ganizations in- viding a specific support knowledge sharing andGovernment will establish and imple- system for national and 2. The right of both women volved primarily in percent reserva- exchange among Provincial Coun-ment a public complaints mechanism. sub-national public and men to participate in en- local government tion of seats for cils. The Government will appointments. Public vironmental decision-making. training and re-The citizens have right of access to in- women in the strengthen the elected sub-national officials elected and ("public participation in envi- search. The Inde-formation from government offices in elected district, representative bodies enabling appointed to high posi- ronmental decision-making"); pendent Director-accordance with Article 50 of the Consti- municipal and them to perform their roles and tions will be required to ate of Local Gov-tution. This right will have no limits, village councils 3. The right to review proce- fulfill their responsibilities towards declare their assets be- ernance (IDLG)unless it violates the rights of others. By as well as in the dures to challenge public de- their constituent citizens. fore taking office and will collaborateJaddi 1389 (end-2010), the legal frame- civil service. The cisions that have been made on a periodical basis with the LOGOTRI By end-1389 (20 March 2011), thework required for exercising this right set targets will be without respecting the two during their tenure in with a view to or- Government will build institutionalprovided under the constitution will be seen as a mini- aforementioned rights or en- public office. ganizing training and administrative capabilities input in place, distributed to all judicial mum and not, vironmental law in general and study tours of provincial, district and, municipaland legislative institutions, and made over time, as a The Government will ("access to environmental jus- Afghan sub- administrations to manage basicavailable to the public and, imple- maximum. establish and support tice"). national govern- service delivery through reformingmented. the existing Counter Affirmative ac- Local Environmental Govern- ance policy makers organizational structures, stream- Narcotics units in keyBy Jaddi 1389 (end-2010), the Govern- tion on allocating ance: Natural resources will and Afghan offi- lining management processes, de- ministries and will es-ment will increase the number of arrests seats for women be managed through commu- cials at LOGOTRI veloping essential skills and knowl- tablish coordinationand prosecutions of traffickers and cor- will be linked to nity-based mechanisms and member- edge of civil servants. mechanisms for a coor-rupt officials, and improve its informa- education re- with the support of legitimate institutions in Asia dinated Government A training policy for entire publiction base concerning those involved in forms for women. local governments. and the Pacific. response. sector workforce will be developedthe drugs trade, with a view to enhanc- Educating Natural Resource Manage- and implemented. Institutionaling the selection system for national and women will help The National Assembly ment-related interventions arrangements shall be put in placesub-national public appointments. Pub- break the gender will organize trainings will be based on broad consul- to ensure that each member of thelic officials elected and appointed to bias and prepare for its members on CN tations with local communi- workforce gets trained at least oncehigh positions will be required to declare women for more issues, in particular the ties (that include marginalized in two years in organization specifictheir asset before taking charge of their significant par- CN Law. groups like pastoralists or and job specific training along with ticipation in gov- 70 AFGHANISTAN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY (ANDS)
    • Anti-Corruption Gender Equality Counter-Narcotics Environment Regional Capacity Buildingoffice. ernance. Youth groups are im- indigenous groups) and will generic training. Women’s partici- portant civil society reflect local values. These will pation will be ensured. The aim of TThe Government will establish a single organizations. Aware- form an essential part of a & D policy shall be to:leadership and monitoring within gov- ness of CN issues will process of poverty reduction,ernment and parliament on anticorrup- Provide job-related education, be incorporated into since improved productivitytion process and implementation of training, and development oppor- the programs devel- will directly increase ruralUNCAC. Institutional arrangements tunities for all Civil Servants so that oped for youth groups. livelihoods, food security andwithin the Government to fight corrup- they may perform their jobs compe- market participation.tion will be rationalized and strength- Provincial level counter tently and happily. This recognizesened. narcotic initiatives will that when strategically planned and be implemented with implemented, Training and Devel-The Government will fight corruption the cooperation of the opment is vital for strengtheningwith resolve and commitment and im- Governors and the Civil Servants’ knowledge, capabili-prove its capacity to do so. The actions Provincial Council ties, skills, gender sensitive andcontained in the Anti Corruption Road Members supportive attitudes, and values inMap will remain priority actions for the the performance of work.Government in 2008 and beyond. TheGovernment will take steps contained inthe report of Inter-Institutional Commis-sion. GOVERNANCE, RULE OF LAW AND HUMAN RIGHTS 71
    • CHAPTER 7 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENTThis chapter summarizes the sector strategies We aim to “enable the private sector todeveloped as part of the ANDS under Pillar 3: lead Afghanistan’s development”.41 WeEconomic and Social Development.38 The will build a market-based system, drivenANDS strategy depends upon achieving sus- by private sector growth,42 in which Gov-tained high rates of economic growth that will ernment is the “policy maker and regula-increasingly be based on private sector-led de- tor of the economy, not its competitor”.43velopment.39 A key component of the ANDS is If the Government is to achieve its aim ofthe development of an enabling environment significantly enhancing per capita GDP inthat encourages the private sector to play a cen- the next five years,44 it must complete thetral role in the economic development of the foundations for socially responsible pri-country. While the sector strategies cannot vate sector growth and encourage sus-specify private sector investments, which are aresult of private decision making, the actions tained high levels of foreign and domesticand programs designed to establish an ena- private investment.bling environment for the private and non-government sectors are included. The implementation of the private sector de- velopment strategy will contribute directly to the achievement of a number of objectives em-PRIVATE SECTOR bodied in the Afghanistan Compact and the MDGs:DEVELOPMENTThe Government’s economic vision has been Afghanistan Compact: Private Sector De-consistent since 1381 (2002)40 and remains the velopment and Trade: “All legislation,strategic objective for the private sector devel- regulations and procedures related to in-opment strategy. The market based economy is vestment will be simplified and harmo-enshrined in the Constitution, article 10, which nized by end-2006 and implemented bystates that: end-1386 (2007). New business organiza- tion laws will be tabled in the National As- The State encourages and protects private sembly by end-2006. The Governments capital investments and enterprises based strategy for divestment of state-owned en- on the market economy and guarantees their protection in accordance with the provisions of law. 41 President Karzai, Opening Address at the ADF, April 2005, page 9.As President Karzai also stated, 42 Minister of Finance Anwar Ahady, The Budget as a Tool for Accelerating Economic Development and Poverty Reduction, ADF, April 2005. Senior Economic Advisor to the President,38 The full sector strategies are included in the Volume II of the Professor Ishaq Nadiri, The National Development Strategy &ANDS. Key Challenges, Presentation at the Afghanistan Development39 Forum. April 2005. See for example “A Policy for Private Sector Growth and De- 43velopment” presented by the Government at the Enabling Envi- Senior Economic Advisor to the President, Professor Ishaqronment Conference, June 2007. Nadiri, The National Development Strategy & Key Challenges,40 Presentation at the Afghanistan Development Forum. April 2005. See generally, National Development Framework, (2002), 44ANDS Volume II, and Securing Afghanistan’s Future, Chapter 5 Statement of Dr. M. M. Amin Farhang, Minister of Economy,(2004). at the ADF, April 2005. Economical and Social Development 73
    • terprises will be implemented by end-1388 sive or unnecessary impediments to business (2009).” activity that raise costs, and improving the ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ infrastructure essential to effi- Afghanistan Compact: Regional Coopera- cient economic activity. This requires that the tion: “By end-1398 (2010) Afghanistan and private sector have access to necessary inputs its neighbors will achieve lower transit at reasonable cost, including land for commer- times through Afghanistan by means of cial purposes, credit and imported raw materi- cooperative border management and other als and intermediate goods. Efficient land, la- multilateral or bilateral trade and transit bor and financial markets and a stable, open agreements; Afghanistan will increase the trade regime have a major impact on the ability amount of electricity available through bi- of firms to operate competitively. lateral power purchases; and Afghanistan, its neighbors and countries in the region Private sector development requires macroeco- will reach agreements to enable Afghani- nomic stability and an environment where stan to import skilled labor, and to enable there is a general reliance on the rule of law. Afghans to seek work in the region and While it is relatively easy to introduce a suit- send remittances home.” able legal and regulatory framework, it is con- MDGs: Goal 8: “Further develop an open siderably more difficult to ensure that it is ef- trading and financial system that is rule- fectively implemented. This requires that all based, predictable and non-discriminatory, parties, both public and private, reliably abide which includes a commitment to good by the legal system. It is critical that contracts governance, development and poverty re- can be entered into and enforced with disputes duction. Goal 8: In cooperation with the readily resolved. A high priority of the ANDS private sector, make available the benefits is the strengthening of the institutions, includ- of new technologies — especially informa- ing the establishment of effective commercial tion and communications technologies.” courts, responsible for the implementation of commercial laws. The macroeconomic framework presented in Chapter 4 makes clear that maintaining high ANDS strategic priorities to promote private rates of economic growth during the life of the sector development involve activities in the ANDS and beyond depends on a substantial following areas: increase in the level of private investment in the economy. A stable macroeconomic environment and supportive financial system: The Govern- ment will control inflation at low levels Key components of the private sector similar to those achieved in recent years. development strategy The growth of a supportive financial sector The strategy to foster private sector develop- that is able to extend credit to viable firms ment and increase domestic and foreign in- will be supported through legal and regu- vestment consists of three main components: (i) latory reforms, including the implementa- continued efforts to build a strong and stable tion of secured transactions laws. enabling environment that will encourage a Private sector investment: Attracting pri- competitive private sector; (ii) expand the vate investment is the responsibility of the scope for private investment in developing na- entire Government and will be an integral tional resources and infrastructure; and (iii) part of all projects and programs imple- strengthen efforts to promote investment from mented under the ANDS. This will require domestic sources, the Afghan diaspora and institutional strengthening of Government foreign investors. agencies and ministries, including AISA as the lead investment promotion agency. All Component 1: Strengthening the ena- ministries have the scope to expand the opportunities for private business activities bling environment and to increase their contribution to the The main objective of an improved enabling growth and development of the economy. environment is to reduce the costs of doing Donors will be encouraged to fulfill their business. This entails the elimination of exces-74 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • commitments to increase the goods and capacity development throughout theservices sourced within the country. public sector.Legislative Reform: Enact and implement State owned enterprises: The Governmentkey commercial laws and amendments to will continue the program of privatizationestablish the basic legal and regulatory and corporatization of state owned enter-framework that will encourage private sec- prises, a process that is presently on sched-tor involvement in social and economic de- ule. This will: (i) improve the level of effi-velopment and consistent with the Afghan ciency in the economy; (ii) assist in elimi-conditions. ANDS priorities actions in- nating corruption; (iii) encourage better re-clude: source allocation; and (iv) generate in- creased government revenue.o The Government will introduce and implement the remaining commercial Formalizing private sector operations: The laws included in the Afghanistan Government is encouraging firms to for- Compact benchmark. malize their activities by introducing tax number identification and applying com-o The Government will consult with rep- mercial laws and regulations. Considera- resentatives from private business and tion is being given to innovative efforts to civil society in a meaningful and timely channel some public funds now being used manner during the process of drafting for vocational training through properly policies and laws. registered firms in compliance with taxo The necessary steps will be taken to es- laws for their use in financing training for tablish the authority of mediation and their employees in properly accredited vo- arbitration tribunals to resolve private- cational training programs. private and private-public disputes, in- Improve private sector access to finance: cluding land issues. The Government will implement a well de-o The Government will ensure that no fined strategy to expand the availability law will be implemented unless it has and range of financial products and ser- been published in the newspapers, and vices, especially targeting small and me- made available electronically and in dium enterprises. Priority actions include: hard copy to the public. Regulations, o Passage and enactment of four key fi- including import tariff rates, will be nancial laws: Secured Transactions, made readily available on the Ministry Mortgage, Leasing and Negotiable In- of Finance website. struments Laws.Administrative Reform: The Government o Establish an independent banking andwill ensure that ministries and agencies are business training institute as a jointable to competently administer commercial commercial bank – DAB initiative.laws and regulations in an unbiased andpredictable manner. These actions will in- o A credit information bureau will be es-clude: tablished to facilitate commercial and consumer lending.o Invest in capacity development for Na- tional Assembly so that MPs are better o The financial tribunal will be estab- informed and supported in their role lished to provide swift legal resolution and understanding of proposed laws. of financial disputes.o Ensure the competency and transpar- Maintain a pro-trade environment: The ency of tribunals by establishing stan- Government remains committed to main- dards and building the capacity of arbi- taining trade policies with low barriers for trators, mediators and lawyers. imports and exports and a liberal foreign exchange system. The Government’s tradeo Undertake financial audits of state policies will take into account the need to owned assets and corporations. increase domestic revenues and supporto Implement effective programs to pro- increased domestic production by the pri- vide institutional strengthening and vate sector. Pressures can be expected to arise from some groups for tariff protec- Economical and Social Development 75
    • tion, which would likely impose burdens including market information will be pro- on consumers or other producers in the vided to the exporters by the EPAA. economy. Such proposals will only be con- NGOs and civil society: The strategy rec- sidered by evaluating the economy-wide ognizes the vital contribution that NGOs costs and benefits, including the impact on and other civil society organizations are consumers. The Government will under- making in implementing the social and take systematic tariff reform as part of the economic goals of the ANDS. The Gov- budget process and in consultation with ernment will maintain an open and effec- the private sector and will avoid ad hoc tive social dialogue with civil society and changes. The Government will continue to encourage their contributions to social and vigorously seek to increase access for Af- economic development. ghan goods and services in foreign markets though bilateral, regional and multilateral trade agreements. The Government re- Component 2: Expand opportunities mains committed to WTO accession. Ex- for the private investment in infra- panding trade with neighboring countries structure and natural resources devel- will help to establish Afghanistan as an important ‘trading hub’ in the region. opment The country requires enormous investment in Firm-level technical assistance: The Gov- infrastructure, including roads, power genera- ernment is determined to assist the private tion, water supply, and irrigation. A substan- sector develop its competitiveness and to tial part of these requirements could be under- substantially increase the volume of do- taken profitably by private investors with an mestic production. At present, Afghani- appropriate regulatory environment. Private stan’s exports are very low by regional investment in the development of natural re- standards, dominated by dried fruit and sources, particularly minerals development carpets. However, in recent years a num- will become viable when suitable regulations ber of new manufacturing industries have are in place. begun to emerge, some with demonstrated export potential, such as production dairy The Government will establish a multi- products, honey, cement, sunflower prod- sector regulatory authority following an ucts, glass, sugar beet, olive oil, cashmere, approach similar to that used to develop and flowers and floral essences. The Gov- the telecommunications industry. This ernment will seek firm-level technical assis- regulatory system will establish appropri- tance to increase the ability of firms in ate fees and royalties, public purchase these and other new industries to compete agreements (e.g., for power), ensure trans- more effectively in potential export mar- parent procedures and dispute resolution kets. mechanisms. Its mandate will be to maxi- Trade Facilitation: The Government will mize private investment in these areas. introduce trade facilitation measures to re- Opportunities for entering into public- duce the costs of moving goods within the private partnerships for investment in in- country and across borders, including en- frastructure projects, such as roads and deavoring to relax restrictions arising from bridges, will be developed based on inter- transit agreements with neighboring coun- national best practices. tries. Institutional capacity to support the export of domestically produced goods and The Government will encourage private services will be increased, including for ex- provision of public services wherever it ample the technical resources to establish will be feasible, including areas such as that Afghan agricultural products meet health, education, municipal services, etc. sanitary and phyto-sanitary (SPS) require- ments of importing countries and interna- Opportunities to expand private investment tional product standards are met. The occur in sectors where multiple ministries have Government will reduce the burden of ex- responsibilities. This will require improved port documentation and processes will be coordination and strengthening the capacities further streamlined and essential services, of most ministries and agencies. To be success- ful, the development and promotion of private76 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • investment opportunities cannot be the respon- recognizes the importance to the country ofsibility of only one or two agencies or minis- increased private investment and to work withtries, but must entail a concerted effort by the potential investors to assure them that theirentire Government. Efforts to encourage pri- investments will not fail due to unpredictablevate sector investment also require the under- and unfavorable changes in the tax environ-standing and cooperation of the donor com- ment or policies towards private investors.munity. This needs the full support of the international community. This can be done through focusedThis aspect of the private sector development efforts by donors to create conditions necessarystrategy is reflected in many of the sector for increased private investment in the country.strategies set out below. For example, it repre- It can also be done by bilateral donors usingsents a major reform in the energy sector de- their relationships with firms in their ownsigned to attract private investment into the countries that are potential investors in Af-power sector and development of energy re- ghanistan to make known the great importancesources. It is the basic foundation for devel- the Government is now placing on the need toopment of the mining sector. It plays an im- expand private sector investment and opera-portant role with respect to the efforts to make tions within Afghanistan.more efficient use of state owned land to stimu-late commercial agriculture. The Governmentwill seek to attract medium and large scale ag- ENERGYricultural producers and processors to invest incommercial agriculture in order to increase Role of the Sector in ANDS:employment and market opportunities in ruralareas and to develop export markets for higher Energy is a critical input to economic growth.value Afghan products. It is reflected in inno- The ANDS strategic vision and goal for the en-vative efforts to try and use public funding to ergy sector strategy is: “An energy sector thatsupport and improve private provision of edu- provides drivers of growth in the economycation and health services. There is scope for with long term reliable, affordable energyusing donor funding to develop a vibrant and based on market-based private sector invest-competitive domestic private construction in- ment and public sector oversight”. This strat-dustry in the projects being implemented by egy supports (1) commercially and technicallyGovernment ministries. efficient energy delivery as a priority; (2) re- formed sector governance that will safeguard consumers, workers and resources; (3) the es-Component 3: Concerted private sec- tablishment of a market-based enabling envi-tor investment promotion ronment where legitimate private investmentThe third component of the strategy involves will be facilitated; (4) the diversification of en-concerted efforts to promote investment from ergy resources for long term low cost energy,foreign and domestic sources, including from energy security and clean energy use; and (5)the Afghan diaspora. After a long period of identifying and supporting inter-sectoral sup-isolation, Afghanistan must rebuild commercial porting linkages including comprehensive sys-ties and demonstrate that there are consider- tem-based planning not limited to projects, en-able profitable opportunities for investors in ergy for industry and vehicles. The Govern-the country. The Afghanistan Investment Sup- ment puts great emphasis on expanding do-port Agency will play a central role in this mestic capacity for electricity generation andprocess and will be strengthened. But the re- will take steps to provide the basis for a transi-sponsibility for promoting increased invest- tion of the sector from public to private provi-ment will be a government-wide task and will sion of electricity. As the Afghan energy sectorbe an integral part of all projects and programs moves from primarily state owned operationsundertaken as a part of the ANDS. to a more private market orientation, new insti- tutional arrangements will be established.The objective is to make known to potentialinvestors the opportunities available in Af- The Afghanistan Compact benchmarks thatghanistan, to ensure them that the Government specifically deal with the energy sector include: Economical and Social Development 77
    • “By end 2010, electricity will reach at least increase the availability of electricity and other 65 percent of households and 90 percent of energy resources and to carry out the planning non-residential establishments in major ur- necessary to make the transition to a more sus- ban areas and at least 25percent of house- tainable and efficient private sector led energy holds in rural areas.” sector. A power sector master plan (2003-04); a gas sector master plan (2004-05), and a renew- “By end 2010, at least 75 percent of the able energy plan (2006) were developed and/or costs will be recovered from users con- updated. Considerable Investment in expand- nected to the national power grid”, a ing domestic generation capacity has been un- benchmark that the Government now in- dertaken, including the rehabilitation of the tends to exceed for all but the poorest damaged power infrastructure. To a lesser ex- members of society.45 tent, repairs at gas, coal and other energy infra- These are ambitious goals. Meeting these ob- structure have taken place while millions of jectives will require the transformation of the dollars have been spent for diesel fuel and sector similar to the changes that took place in support of more than 1,700 small renewable the telecommunications industry with the re- energy projects. Since 2006, there has been an organization and commercialization of public on-going program for commercialization of sector activities and with a greater role being operations in power operations by the state played by the private sector. owned power company, DABM. The Inter-Ministerial Commission for Energy Current situation in the sector (ICE) was established in 2006 to coordinate The energy sector suffered considerable dam- Government policy in energy; to leverage do- age due to war and operational neglect. The nor resources; and integrate sector planning. country has never had high rates of electrifica- Cadastre and Inspectorate functions are now tion. Today it is estimated that 20 percent of located at the Ministry of Mines to support oil, the population have access to public power natural gas and coal contracts. (grid-supplied) on certain days for a limited number of hours. Nationally seven grids dis- The efforts mentioned above have resulted in a tribute power, with supply coming from do- significant improvement in the availability of mestic hydro generation; imported power and electricity and other energy sources compared thermal generation. Isolated diesel generation to the devastated conditions prior to 2002. has dramatically increased since 2002 and will Electricity capacity compared to 2002 has al- continue to play a large role in power supplies. most doubled, largely due to imported supply, Rural populations use local waste, solar panels, which was non-existent prior to 2002 (see Table batteries and small wood, coal, kerosene sup- 7.1). However, on a per capita basis, the elec- plies for basic cooking and heat. tricity generating capacity is well below what it was in 1978. The present goal of electricity Over the past five years, the Government has availability set for 2010 is below 40 kwh per worked with the international community to capita, (compared to a present availability in, for instance, Tajikistan of over 2,200 kwh per capita). Technical standards of operations re- 45 The poorest members of society rarely have access to electric- main antiquated and do not appropriately re- ity service. flect the new technologies or modern safety measures. Table 7.1. Electricity supply sources and operating capacity Hydro Thermal Imported Other: diesel, micro hydro Total supply Year (MW) (MW) (MW) & renewable (MW) (MW) 1357 (1978) 259 137 0 0 396 1381 (2002) 141 16 87 0 243 1386 (2007) 262 90 167 133 65278 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Despite progress and efforts to date, the exist- tor engagement has immediate potentialing governance arrangements and policy with appropriate regulatory include inde-framework for the sector are still insufficient to pendent power production and oil and gassupport a market-based energy system. Some concessions.of the obstacles to making the desired transi-tion include: In the Provincial Development Plan consulta- tions, a number of issues were frequently high- Dispersed institutional support: Seven lighted across a range of sectors and in a major- ministries include energy as part of their ity of provinces, and therefore emerge as over- portfolio. arching development priorities. Access to elec- tricity, both for domestic use through the ex- Lack of regulatory framework: No legal or tension of availability of electricity to more re- regulatory regime (though an energy law is mote villages, and for productive purposes under preparation) is in place to guide sec- such as factories and businesses was mentioned tor operations. There are no legal profes- in 80 percent of the PDPs. sionals trained in commercial energy law or regulatory processes. No divesting or meaningful commerciali- Policy framework: sector strategy zation of state energy assets: The Govern- Substantial new investment is required in the ment and energy enterprise operations are sector to increase domestic generating capacity overstaffed and highly inefficient, lacking and ensure adequate supplies. A central thrust fundamental tools and capacity to support in the strategy will be increased investment in technically and commercially viable opera- energy related infrastructure. The three key tions. This includes power, natural gas, hydro power projects (described above) will coal and liquid fuels. Some of the state substantially add to generating capacity, but owned enterprises and budgetary units op- also support agricultural growth and improved erate with considerable government sup- management of water resources. Substantial port with virtually no audit, fiscal or legal additional private investment is also required. oversight. The Government will leverage currently avail- A drain on budgetary resources: A sector able donor funds to ensure longer term access that could be generating revenues for gov- to private investment and capital. Policies to ernment with normal rates of taxation ap- support private investments will be estab- plied to sector activities is, under present lished. Improved procurement, accounting arrangements, a major drain on govern- functions, contracting and reporting at the gov- ment resources. ernment level will be put in place. Inefficient and wasteful use of electricity: A new market oriented paradigm will be de- Underpriced electricity is used ineffi- veloped, supported by significant institutional ciently. Appropriate cost recovery will strengthening and capacity development. As provide incentives to cut down on this the energy line ministries shift over time from wasteful use. operating as production-based entities to be- Limited opportunities for private partici- come policy-making regulatory agencies, staff pation: There are no legal impediments to capacity and in-house functions will be reori- private investment in the energy sector. In ented to market practices. The key programs of practice, there is a weak legal and regula- the sector are: (i) efficient operation of infra- tory infrastructure in place to support and structure; (ii) market based sector governance; monitor investments. Potential investors (iii) rural electrification and renewable energy; cite unclear policies and corruption as a (iv) expand supplies, (for additional detail refer barrier to investment. In a well developed to the full sector strategy in ANDS Volume II). market, the majority of services now pro- vided by the 11 SOE and three budgetary The Priority Polices and Projects include: units that support energy operations could be implemented by the private sector in Implementation of key power infrastruc- ways that are more cost-effective and tech- ture projects: The Government will give nically efficient. Areas where private sec- priority to the implementation of four ma- jor infrastructure projects that will substan- Economical and Social Development 79
    • tially increase power supplies, but also con- the development of market-based power tribute to expanded irrigation and rural purchase and production sharing agree- development: (i) the Kokcha-e-Ulia Hydro ments. Power Plant, which will generate a total of Legal reform and Regulatory standards. 1,900 MW and add 57,000 hectares of irri- Finalization of primary legislative and gated agricultural land; (ii) the Baghdara regulatory tools is essential. These include Hydro Power Plant, which will generate mining regulations, the Hydrocarbons Up- 210 MW, benefit more than 105,000 fami- stream Law and drafting legislation for the lies, increasing irrigation coverage; (iii) the electricity sector. There are no meaningful Irrigation and Power Project of Kokcha-e- technical standards or financial standards Sofla, which will generate 100 MW of for operation in place; these need to be ur- power, benefiting more than 950,000 fami- gently developed as well as staff capacity lies in the area; and (iv) the Sorobi II Hydro to implement them. The Government is Power Plant, which will generate 180MW working with the international community and help meet electricity needs in Kabul. to draft a revised Hydrocarbons Law as Other key projects include expansion of the well as mining and hydrocarbons regula- public power grid through the rehabilita- tions). Drafting of regulation for hydrocar- tion and upgrading of Kabul and other key bons is underway in the strengthening of infrastructure areas (i.e., distribution – the cadastre and inspectorate functions and lines, substations, meters); the develop- more focus on grid and off-grid regulation ment of the North East Power System of electricity as well as liquid fuels is re- (NEPS) to be followed by the South East quired. Power System (SEPS), Western and Eastern Power Systems; the development of the Commercialization and/or divestiture of Sheberghan gas and oil fields; construction state and “quasi-state” assets: The Gov- of new transmission and related distribu- ernment will assess its sector assets and a tion for power imports; installation of a plan for liquidation, restructuring and dispatch and control system as well as a re- commercialization or sale. In particular the active power system. Government will provide more support for the corporatization and commercialization Restructured energy sector governance: The of national power operations. Commer- Government will consolidate energy plan- cialization and increasing the efficiency of ning and policy-making functions through the state power company DABM includes, the Inter-Ministerial Commission for En- for example, the installation of interna- ergy (ICE). This may involve some re- tional accounting and procurement prac- grouping of Ministerial functions as well as tices that will follow in other energy sub- improved line ministry staff capacity to sectors. plan and budget. Use of the ICE mecha- nism as well as improved public informa- Improve the enabling environment for pri- tion will be essential for improved gov- vate sector investment. As new energy de- ernment coordination in the energy sector. velopments emerge including new power Related or duplicated energy functions at import transmission, gas-fired power, coal- various ministries will be consolidated and fired power and new hydro generation, the appropriate line ministry terms of refer- introduction of the private sector to finance ences will be introduced. It is essential that and operate these assets will be important. the donors themselves improve the way in In most instances no local capacity is in which they are engaged with the energy place to support these market operations sector. At present there are 25 donors en- and private investments. A market- gaged in the sector; in addition there are 15 friendly enabling environment to facilitate different US agencies. Afghan counterpart private investment must be developed that resources are limited and stretched to the is sufficiently flexible to entice private in- limit. Improved governance will mobilize vestment but effective in how these in- investment, mitigate corrupt practices and vestments are monitored to safeguard Af- improve the technical quality of energy ghan resources, workers, consumers and supply. A viable legal and regulatory environment. The ANDS energy sector framework will be established that includes strategy calls for the establishment of a sec-80 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • tor regulator, which will adopt a transpar- sion of such services by the private sector.ent licensing regime and establish condi- Several private firms are involved in thetions that will attract private investment in development of off-grid power supplieselectricity generation and in the related based on wind or solar power and effortsfields of mining, natural gas and hydro- will be made to encourage the develop-power. A market-friendly enabling envi- ment of these activities, or at least not un-ronment to facilitate private investment dermine their viability with subsidizedwill be developed. Key areas for invest- public sector activities.ment in the near term include: (i) increased Increase Regional Cooperation and Tradedomestic power generation that includes in Energy Products: Afghanistan is geo-new hydro power, natural gas and coal- graphically well positioned to import addi-fired power facilities; (ii) power distribu- tional resources from neighboring coun-tion including lines, substations and meter- tries. Afghanistan joined as a full membering; (iii) power construction and services the Central Asia South Asia (CASA)(i.e., outsourcing); (iv) exploration and ex- 1300mw project in November 2007. Powerploitation of coal, natural gas and oil; (v) purchase agreements (PPA) are being final-installation and operation of rural energy ized for regular power imports fromservices. neighboring countries and new PPAs areExpanded Public Power Grid: The Gov- being negotiated for increased power im-ernment is committed to improving energy ports. Afghanistan is also participating inaccess for people across the country. A ongoing planning for a Turkmenistan-high priority in this area is the rehabilita- Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI) naturaltion and expansion of grid-supplied power, gas pipeline. A number of regional energyincluding investment in new generation, trade and import arrangements have com-distribution and transmission. The Gov- menced and will contribute to long-termernment is also implementing a series of energy security.large and small infrastructure improve- Poverty Reduction Initiatives: The energyments, generation, transmission and im- sector will provide essential power sup-proved distribution of electricity through- plies needed for private sector develop-out the country. Future actions include: (i) ment, job creation and poverty reduction.rehabilitation and upgrading of Kabul and Investments in the sector will create directother key infrastructure areas (i.e., distribu- employment opportunities in the devel-tion – lines, substations, meters); (ii) devel- opment of power plants, oil, gas and coalopment of the North East Power System fields, the construction of grid systems and(NEPS); to be followed by the South East the commercial operations of the sector.Power System (SEPS), Western and Eastern The development of small energy installa-Power Systems; (iii) construction of new tions will contribute to local economic de-transmission and related distribution for velopment particularly in rural areas. Sub-power imports. Installation of a dispatch sidies for electricity will be maintained forand control system as well as a reactive the poorest households. Micro-hydro, so-power system will be underway in 2008. lar, waste and even small diesel power andThese on-going donor funded activities to energy generating sources will be pro-expand the power grids will be adjusted to moted to improve increased rural access tobe compatible with the move to a more power. Commercial operation of these ser-market based system. vices will be encouraged and technicalIncrease Access to rural energy services: standards will be established to ensureMicro-hydro, solar, waste and even small cost-recovery, sustainability and safety. Adiesel power and energy generating number of private firms are currently in-sources will be promoted to improve rural volved in the development of off-gridaccess. Commercial operation of these ser- power supplies based on wind or solarvices will be encouraged and technical power and efforts will be made to encour-standards will be established to ensure age the development of these activities.cost-recovery, sustainability and safety. Environmental Protection: The environ-High levels of cost recovery will avoid pre- mental implications of the expansion of theempting potentially more efficient provi- Economical and Social Development 81
    • energy sector will be fully accounted for. formation refer to Appendixes 3-National These will be both positive, such as re- Action Plan and 4-Monitoring Matrix.) duced pressure for deforestation, while others may be potentially negative, such as increased green house gas emissions. WATER AND IRRIGATION There will be scope for using wind and so- lar energy, particularly in areas away from Role of the sector in ANDS: the regional grids, and the relative benefits of this type of energy should be recognized The ANDS strategic vision and goal of the wa- in policies to support their use. ter sector can be summarized as follows: to manage and develop the water resources in the The energy sector strategy therefore combines country so as to reduce poverty, increase sus- efforts supported by donor funding to expand tainable economic and social development, and public sector operations while laying the improve the quality of life for all Afghans and groundwork for much greater involvement by ensure an adequate supply of water for future the private sector investors. The relative generations. weight given to these two components will be dependent on the relative effectiveness of the There are significant water resources in Af- two efforts over the implementation period for ghanistan. Average annual precipitation is the ANDS (for details refer to ANDS Volume equivalent to about 165,000 million m³, yielding II). an annual surface runoff water volume of about 57,000 million m³. This amounts to ap- proximately 2,280 m³/year per capita. This Integration of the Provincial Devel- would be an adequate amount, except: precipi- opment Plans (PDPs) tation is primarily in the form of snowfall and the resulting snowmelt runs off in a matter of a Access to electricity, both for domestic use few months without adequate catchment sys- through the extension of availability of tems; and precipitation in not evenly distrib- electricity to more remote villages, and for uted geographically. Reliance is therefore productive purposes such as factories and placed on groundwater extraction that is not businesses was cited in 80 percent of Pro- sustainable and currently only an insignificant vincial Development Plans. PDPs in eight amount of surface water storage exists. Deep provinces, principally in the center, south water drilling without adequate investment in and south east of the country report pro- recharge basins or storage structures is degrad- gress in access to electricity since 2005, ing the aquifers on which much of traditional however, provinces in the center and south irrigation systems depend. Despite consider- able assistance in rehabilitating irrigation sys- also most frequently mentioned the need tems, progress towards establishing a compre- for improvement. Little mention or under- hensive plan with prioritized and costed in- standing was cited with respect to the non- vestments is still in the formative stage. electricity use of energy, i.e., for heating, fuel for small equipment, vehicle fuel, etc. The Afghanistan Compact Benchmarks for Wa- ter Management commit both the Government and the donors to the development of sustain- Expected Outcomes: able water resource management strategies and The key outcomes of the sector strategy are: plans covering irrigation and drinking water supply, and irrigation investments will result Improved Governance and Commercializa- in at least 30 percent of water coming from tion large waterworks by end 2010. Other Compact Benchmarks under Urban Development, Envi- Expanded Public Power Grid ronment, Agriculture and Rural Development Increased Access to Rural Energy Services directly address and contribute to the water sector, as follows: Enabling environment for private sector investment in energy sector. (For detail in- Urban Development: Investment in water supply and sanitation will ensure that 5082 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • percent of households in Kabul and 30 per- who often have the responsibility of collecting cent of households in other major urban ar- water for the household. However, this issue is eas will have access to piped water and not confined to the domestic context and the improved sanitation. PDPs in six provinces highlighted the need for access to safe drinking water in public institu- Environment: Environmental regulatory tions such as schools. frameworks and management services will be established for the protection of air and water quality, waste management and Current situation in the sector natural resources. Given the importance of water resources, the Agriculture: The necessary institutional, Government has made improved water man- regulatory and incentive framework will be agement a high priority. Steps are being taken established for securing access to irrigation, to address shortcomings in governance as well water management systems and food secu- as meeting some of the most pressing needs rity. through donor funded projects. Some key Rural Development: Rural development achievements have been: will be enhanced for 90 percent of villages through the provision of safe drinking wa- The formulation of the Supreme Council ter, sanitation (50 percent) and small scale for Water Affairs Management (SCWAM) irrigation (47 percent) by the end of 2010. to coordinate and overcome the problems of diverse ministerial responsibilities for water management. A Technical Secre-Millennium Development Goals: The tariat has been established to develop newMDGs state that: “access to water and sanita- water laws and develop a consistent set oftion, electricity, and livelihoods sources have policies for water management. New envi-been negatively impacted through the decades ronmental laws were recently enacted byof war. Drinking water supplies reach only 23 the National Assembly.percent of Afghanistan’s total population – 43percent in urban areas and 18 percent in rural Steps have been undertaken to re-organizeareas. The country’s total sanitation coverage water resource management on the basis ofof only 12 percent deserves attention. While an Integrated Water Resource Managementaround 28 percent of the urban population is System based on the five main river basins.covered, only 8 percent of rural population had Development will still be planned and im-access to improved sanitation in 2006.46 plemented centrally, but in the future indi- vidual river basin organizations or authori-Target 10 of the MDGs is to halve by 2020 the ties will be established. Feasibility studiesproportion of people without sustainable ac- have been completed or are underway forcess to safe drinking water and ensure envi- small, medium and large water infrastruc-ronmental sustainability. ture projects. The rehabilitation and mod- ernization of hydrological stations haveThe sector strategy incorporates feedback and been started. Research and modeling of thecomments from the sub-national consultations. availability of allocation of safe drinkingAccess to clean drinking water has been identi- water supplies in Kabul are being devel-fied as a priority in the Provincial Development oped.Plans in all provinces. Participants generally Significant progress has been made in pro-voiced concern that unsafe drinking water is a viding increased access to safe drinkingcause of disease, and the provision of safe water and sanitation. The Afghanistan Ur-drinking water is therefore seen to be as much ban Water Supply and Sewerage Corpora-a public health issue as an issue of infrastruc- tion (AUWSSC) has been established.ture, rural and urban development. In over a Some 80 water supply and sanitation pro-quarter of PDPs, the need for access to clean jects have been implemented around thedrinking water is specifically raised by women country. Research and assessment of the underground water resources available to Kabul is on-going. The urban water supply46 According to the best estimates of social indicators for children systems will be transformed into quasi-in Afghanistan, UNICEF, few places in the world face suchscarce and alarming water supply and sanitation coverage levels. public agencies. Two million urban resi- Economical and Social Development 83
    • dents (31 percent) have benefited from in- on ground water resources and information vestments in water supply and 12 percent indicating that un-regulated deep well drilling from investment in sanitation in major cit- may be depleting aquifers that are essential to ies between 2002 and 2007. About 35,000 water supplies and traditional irrigation sys- water points 59 networks and 1,713 water tems (Karezes and springs). There is a lack of reservoirs and 23,884 demonstration la- economic mechanisms regulating water use trines have been constructed. More than and investments for water supply, sanitary sys- three million people have benefited di- tems, irrigation, and hydropower generation. rectly from the rural water supply and sanitation activities in the country. Around Unclear delineation of responsibilities between a third of the provinces reported some im- ministries complicates planning. Some donors provement in access to clean drinking wa- are focused on emergency projects that are not ter since 2005 during the consultative proc- integrated into an integrated system of water ess under the ANDS. use. Access to drinking water and sanitation, while improved, is still not in compliance with Irrigation Rehabilitation has been given the Millennium Development Goals. There is a high priority over the past four or five lack of hydro geological investment in urban years. An estimated 1.8 million hectares of areas. A significant risk exists for underground land is under irrigation; 10 percent gets wa- water contamination. A major river basin wa- ter from engineered systems and large ter supply master plan with good information works, the remaining through traditional on water balances, that is, supply versus de- irrigation methods. Of some 2,100 rehabili- mand for water for drinking, irrigation, hydro tation projects, approximately 1,200 have power and environment purposes is not yet been completed and have been placed back available. There is a pressing need to enhance into commercial service. The Government the ground water resource recharge capacity. will continue to work with the mirabs that Coordination among water related institutions manage these systems. 47 and agencies remains weak. Despite some progress in establishing better This sector strategy incorporates feedback and governance in the sector and in rehabilitating comments from the sub-national consultations. existing assets, a lot more needs to be done. The projects identified and prioritized during Prior to 1979, some 3.3 million hectares were the SNC process are included in the Water Sec- cultivated under various irrigation methods, tor Strategy. Access to clean drinking water compared to the 1.8 million hectares now being has been identified as a priority in the Provin- irrigated. The remaining amount employs tra- cial Development Plan in all provinces. Par- ditional irrigation methods. Out of 7.9 million ticipants generally voiced concern that unsafe hectares arable land, 5.3 million hectares is irri- drinking water is a cause of disease, and the gable. Irrigation water management is a high provision of safe drinking water is therefore priority of the Government. seen to be as much a public health issue as an issue of infrastructure, rural and urban devel- There is a lack of skilled human resources with opment. In over a quarter of PDPs, the need experience in water management. Information for access to clean drinking water is specifically systems are only now being reconstituted and raised by women who often have the responsi- there is a lack of reliable hydrological, meteoro- bility of collecting water for the household. logical, geo-technical and water quality data. However, this issue is not confined to the do- There is a lack of the infrastructure and equip- mestic context and the PDPs of six provinces ment needed to efficiently conserve and utilize highlight the need for access to safe drinking water resources that result from seasonal run- water in public institutions such as schools. off with the snow melt. There is limited data Around a third of the provinces spread across the country report some improvement in access 47 to clean drinking water since 2005. The mirabs are community level organizations that manage traditional irrigation systems. A similar effort has been made under the National Solidarity Program to establish Community Development Councils with a broader mandate for local funding. Policy framework: sector strategy These organizations have different mandates, representatively and are based on a totally different geographical unit. For the immediate future, the Government cen- trally will play the dominant role in setting pol-84 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • icy priorities and decisions pertaining to devel- Key Components of the Water Sectoropment and management of water resources at Strategythe national level. The Government, actingthrough its operating entities, can influence the While an IWRM approach has major benefits,necessary international cooperation relating to supplementary comprehensive river basin dataseveral international water bodies. This ex- management programs are needed to supporttends to coverage provided by policy frame- this approach. It is important to improveworks, appropriate legislation, and institu- mechanisms regulating water use and to attracttional structures under which water manage- investment to rehabilitate and construct irriga-ment can over time be devolved to the river tion, water supply and sanitary systems, asbasin and/or river sub-basin levels. Ground- well as hydropower generation. Essential leg-water on the other hand seldom has aquifer islation and a new policy framework governingboundaries coinciding with river basins. Man- the water sector have been prepared. The sec-agement of groundwater aquifers may necessi- tor is in the process of transitioning from a pro-tate collaboration with special inter-basin enti- ject-by-project approach to a sector-wide ap-ties established for that purpose. (For addi- proach, using an integrated water resourcestional details refer to ANDS Volume II). management (IWRM) system. Improved gov- ernance mechanisms were identified and are being implemented. Foremost among themTowards an Integrated Water Re- was the formation of the Supreme Council forsource Management System (IWRM) Water Affairs’ Management (SCWAM), and its associated Technical Secretariat.The water sector is extremely diverse. The re-sponsibilities for supply management and use Until the IWRM comes into effect, considerableof water are distributed among a number of reliance will have to be put on a project-by-line ministries. The sector’s governance project approach for continued investments inmechanisms (organizational structure, policies rehabilitation of existing systems. New pro-and legislation) are in the process of reformula- jects need to be assessed relative to the returnstion and implementation. Adoption and im- from rehabilitation efforts and returns in otherplementation of an effective IWRM program sectorswill take into consideration all activities anddevelopment requirements influencing water Responsibilities for a number of water relatedresources. This will include sociological and activities are distributed among a number ofecological considerations, in addition to water line ministries and agencies. Each of these enti-supply, irrigation, hydroelectric power, sanita- ties have prepared sector specific strategies fo-tion, land use, fisheries, and forestry. The pro- cusing on their particular sector mandate, oftengram will prioritize a series of specific activities underemphasizing water related programsrequired to effectively implement IWRM policy and/or activities. Development of a water sec-framework. tor strategy therefore requires coordinating all relevant water sub-sector strategies being ad-The river basin approach to water management ministered by individual government entitieswill lead to improvements in capturing surface into one single unified water sector strategywater using storage reservoir and recharge ba- document. The following sub-sectors havesins. By devolving authority to the RBA and been included in this unification: (i) urban andthus encouraging more effective use of water rural water supply and sanitation; (ii) irrigationresources, the water resource strategy (when and drainage; (iii) hydro power; (iv) industrialintegrated with programs in the transport, ag- water supply and wastewater disposal; (v)riculture, health, education, power sectors, flood protection and preparedness; (vi)along with counter narcotics programs, private drought mitigation measures; and (vii) envi-sector development programs) will contribute ronmental requirements, including forestry,to sustainable development and poverty reduc- fisheries, and bio-diversity. Facilitating relatedtion. development of each of these sub-sectors will require institution building, enhancement of legal frameworks, capacity development, enlisting economic mechanisms, and intensive rehabilitation of infrastructure. Economical and Social Development 85
    • The Strategic Policy Framework for the Water National Water Resources Development Sector approved by SCWAM recommended Program: Under the Water Law the Minis- that the following policies, laws, regulations try of Energy and Water is responsible for and procedures should be developed in order the preparation of a national water re- to move forward in the development of the wa- sources development plan. This plan will ter sector. Under this policy framework, the cover the development of water resources Water Law of 1991 will be revised; water re- for the social, environmental and economic sources and irrigation policies and regulations needs of the country as well as: (i) elaborat- will be established along with an institutional ing river basin development and manage- framework for water resources management; ment plans, fostering ministry and water regulations for Water User Associations will be users’ capacity for on-farm and off-farm developed; plans will be developed and steps water management; (ii) preparing for dis- taken to preserve surface and underground cussions on trans-boundary water issues water resources; national urban and rural wa- with some neighbor countries; (iii) support- ter supply and sanitation policies and institu- ing analytical capacity and research; (iv) tional development will be implemented; ac- enabling private investments in the water cess to safe drinking water and improved sector; and (v) proper planning and im- drainage and sanitation systems will be estab- plementation of infrastructure for rain and lished; and key groundwater and hydropower flood water harvesting, supplementary ir- development plans and policies will be estab- rigation, groundwater recharge and soil lished. stabilization. As a first step in the devel- opment of this national development plan, For the immediate future, the Government will a Master Plan for the Kabul River Basin has play the dominant role in setting policy priori- been prepared. In addition, the Ministry ties and decisions pertaining to the develop- has prepared a list of water resources de- ment and management of water resources. velopment projects in the five river basins. This extends to policies, legislation, and institu- Irrigation Rehabilitation Program: Several tions under which water management can in projects to address the immediate needs in time be devolved to the river basin and/or irrigation infrastructure have been devel- river sub-basin levels. (Management of oped.48 Although these projects mainly fo- groundwater aquifers may sometime necessi- cus on the infrastructure, they contribute to tate collaboration with special inter-basin enti- the development of water resources and ties established for that purpose.) Ongoing and address related issues like the rehabilita- planned water sector projects have been struc- tion of the hydro-metric network for data tured into eight programs (i) Institutional Set- collection on river flows and weather. up and Capacity Building (ii) National Water Components of the emergency irrigation Resources Development (iii) National River rehabilitation program for the period 2008 Basin Management (iv) Irrigation Rehabilita- to 2013 include the rehabilitation of the Na- tion (v) Urban Water Supply and Sanitation (vi) tional Hydrological Stations to aid in the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (vii) River- undertaking of national hydrological sur- bank Protection (viii) Agriculture “Food Secu- veys to aid in planning and building irriga- rity for All”. For detail on all of the programs tion infrastructure; and rehabilitation of na- refer to ANDS volume II. The highest priority tionwide small, medium and large tradi- programs are: tional irrigation schemes, such as the ‘Emergency Irrigation Rehabilitation Pro- Institutional Building and Capacity De- ject’ – a three year country-wide project for velopment Program: Activities in this pro- the rehabilitation of infrastructure and ca- gram focus on the institutional and human pacity building. capacity development of water resources management as well as infrastructure de- These programs respond to the dual tasks of velopment at national, river basin and sub- remodeling and modernizing institutions while basin levels. These activities have been combined into a comprehensive program to enhance cooperation between projects 48 See the discussion on hydro power projects for the energy and avoid duplication of efforts. sector.86 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • at the same time rehabilitating and improving of rural communities within the national econ-infrastructure. They consider short term emer- omy. This will require transforming agricul-gency water infrastructure rehabilitation and tural production so that it is more productiveincome generation needs as well as the long and increasingly commercially oriented andterm goal of sustainable development of insti- expanding off-farm employment opportunitiestutions and creation of new multifunctional as the basis for increasing incomes among theinfrastructure. rural population. This sector strategy articu- lates a road map for the way forward in whichThe development of the country’s water re- poverty reduction through economic regenera-sources will continue to be heavily influenced tion is the central objective. A central focus isby programs and projects implemented by do- on supporting the poorest and most vulnerablenors. It is essential that these activities be effec- segments of rural society and promoting thetively coordinated and aligned with the priori- development of medium and large scale com-ties in the ANDS. SCWAM will undertake a mercial agricultural activities. Advancementsleadership role among government organiza- in the sector will improve the quality of life fortions in providing coordination with the inter- rural citizens, increase food security, improvenational community. The ANDS water sector the delivery of basic services, increase incomesgoals are achievable with the implementation and contribute to establishing a safe and secureof an effective integrated water resource devel- environment.opment strategy. Some of the benefits will berealized only over the long term, while others The Afghanistan Compact Benchmarks relatedwill be realized within a very short time span. directly to agriculture and rural development call for measurable improvements in:Expected Outcomes Compact Benchmark 6.1The key expected outcomes of the Water SectorStrategy are: The necessary institutional, regulatory and incentive framework to increase produc- Improved water sector legal and govern- tion and productivity will be established to ance structures and institutions in place create an enabling environment for legal agriculture and agriculture-based rural in- Sustainable water resource management dustries. strategies and plans covering drinking and irrigation water supply developed and im- Public investment in agriculture will in- plemented. crease by 30 percent. Particular considera- tion will be given to perennial horticulture, Water resources for drinking and irrigation animal health, and food security by: insti- purposes improved as well as poverty re- tuting specialized support agencies and fi- duction and employment creation. nancial service delivery mechanisms, sup- Infant mortality decreased and life expec- porting farmers’ associations, branding na- tancy increased as result of higher access to tional products, disseminating timely price clean water. (For more detailed information and weather-related information and statis- refer to Appendixes 3-National Action Plan tics, providing strategic research and tech- and 4-Monitoring Matrix.) nical assistance, and securing access to irri- gation and water management systems.AGRICULTURE AND RURAL Compact Benchmark 6.2DEVELOPMENT assistance to and rehabilitation and integra- tion of refugees and internally displacedRole of the Sector: persons; andThe ANDS long term strategic vision for agri- assistance to female-headed householdsculture and rural development is to ensure the that are chronically poor and increases insocial, economic and political well-being of ru- their employment rates.ral communities, especially poor and vulner-able people, while stimulating the integration Economical and Social Development 87
    • Other major Government goals relating to agri- The contribution of agriculture to GDP in- culture and rural development should be creased from 48 percent in 2006 to 53 percent in noted, including: 2007, although the longer run trend (not in- cluding opium) is down due mainly due to creating the necessary policy and regula- rapid growth in construction and other activi- tory framework to support the establish- ties. Other achievements include: 5.5 million ment of micro, small and medium-size ru- metric tons of wheat and other grains produced ral enterprises; in 2007 compared to 3.7 million metric tons in creating the enabling environment for sus- 2002; 0.9 million metric tons of horticulture and tainable management and use of Afghani- industrial crops produced in 2007 compared to stan’s natural resources; 0.4 million metric tons in 2002; 3.2 million ani- mals received veterinary and health services; access to safe drinking water will be ex- 5,000 metric tons of improved wheat seed was tended to 90 percent of villages, and sanita- produced and distributed to farmers in 28 tion to 50 percent; provinces; $120 million is to be invested in road connectivity will reach 40 percent of commercial agriculture; more than 3,000 coop- all villages. eratives and farmers organization have been created and strengthened; and 20,000 coopera- 47 percent of villages will benefit from tive members trained. small-scale irrigation. (See ANDS Volume Two for more details) However, significant improvements are still to be made. With a few notable exceptions, all Current Situation rural citizens are poor in relative and absolute terms, lacking both physical and social assets. Agriculture has traditionally been the major 80 percent of the Afghan population live in ru- activity for a large proportion of the popula- ral areas, most of whom are engaged in agricul- tion, particularly in the most remote areas. The ture to some degree, although many are also years of turmoil left much of the country’s agri- heavily engaged in processing, trading or mar- culture and rural infrastructure in a serious keting activities of agricultural products; 12-15 state of disrepair and led to a significant reduc- percent of total land area is suitable for cultiva- tion of cultivatable land and degradation of the tion; water constraints inhibit cultivation of up environment. Between 1978 and 2004, agricul- to one third of irrigated land; three million hec- tural production declined by an average of 3.5 tares of land are rain-fed, in a country of re- percent a year; 50 percent of the livestock herd peated droughts; 58 percent of villages have was lost between 1997 and 2004. limited seasonal or no access roads (the average distance to the nearest road is 4.6 km); 13 per- Recent performance in the sector has been posi- cent of rural Afghans have access to electricity tive. Measurable progress has been achieved at some point during the year; more than 70 since 2003 in improving rural livelihoods. percent of rural Afghans do not have access to Through a variety programs, almost 20,000 km safe drinking water; 96 percent of rural Af- of rural access roads (i.e., all weather, village- ghans do not have access to safe toi- to-village and village-to-district center roads) lets/sanitation (28 percent have no toilets at have been constructed or repaired, increasing all). The continued high population growth access to markets, employment and social ser- projected for Afghanistan will imply continued vices. More than 500,000 households (36 per- decline in per capita levels of agricultural re- cent of villages) have benefited from small- sources unless major investments are made in scale irrigation projects. Currently, 32.5 per- improved water management. cent of the rural population has access to safe drinking water and 4,285 improved sanitation Ongoing instability, widespread poverty and facilities have been provided. More than lack of governance resulted in a dramatic up- 336,000 households have benefited from im- surge in opium poppy cultivation, involving proved access to financial services. Some 3.3 million people (14 percent of the popula- 18,000 CDCs have been established and are tion). Poppy production is now highly concen- implementing community-led development trated in five southern and eastern provinces, projects. whereas production in the other 29 provinces has fallen and is half 2004 levels.88 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Further, the unstable security situation coupled Policy and Strategic Frameworkwith capacity constraints presents major obsta-cles to program implementation, including The Government is committed to working tocommunity mobilization, survey and design of address the needs and articulated priorities ofprojects, service and input provision, selection the rural population. This long term effort re-of qualified contractors and NGOs willing to quires a considered and cohesive policywork in high-risk areas, and the ability to framework across ministries and sectors. Themonitor projects for quality assurance and fi- following are the key components of this policynancial control purposes. These constraints framework of this sector:affect the pace, cost and quality of developmentactivities. Comprehensive and strategically cohesive poverty reduction programsMost farmers are engaged in subsistence or Public/Private sector responsibilitiesnear-subsistence agriculture, and many farm- Assurance of food securitying families lack food security with risky liveli- The restoration and expansion of Afghani-hoods often combined with chronic debt. Fur- stan’s licit economy through the promotionther, many rural households are involved in of livelihoods free from dependency ondown-stream agricultural activities, including poppy cultivationprocessing, transporting and marketing. As a Land tenure securityresult, the country’s vulnerability to natural Assistance to farmers to increase produc-disasters and food shortages is high. The abil- tion and productivityity to engage in agricultural pursuits is central Environmental protection and assistance toto improving wellbeing of the rural poor. communities to manage and protect Af- ghanistan’s natural resource base for sus-Limited coordination between ministries and tainable growthbetween the Government and the international Improvements in agricultural and ruralcommunity has impeded progress. Govern- physical infrastructure and irrigation sys-ment funds have been channeled through tems providing services to meet basic hu-highly centralized ministries, with many na- man rightstional programs and donor-funded projects Development of human resource capitalworking independently of each other. The role The strengthening of local governanceof provincial administration units has been and Institutional coordinationremains unclear, especially in the areas of eco- Cross sector policy developmentnomic planning, budget execution and service Strengthening of national capacitiesdelivery. Provincial governments have limited Mitigation of natural and man-made disas-authority, budgetary resources or technical tersskills to facilitate development. Ministrieswhich deliver services to the rural population The strategy intent focuses on five thematicare still struggling with the legal structures of areas of programming. The following five the-past administrations and over-centralization of matic areas are loosely sequenced, based uponadministrative processes has impeded the their level of interdependencetimely and effective delivery of services to localcommunities. Local Governance Agricultural ProductionThe Government recognizes that to meet these Agricultural and Rural Infrastructureenormous challenges nationwide, progress Economic Regenerationmay be slow, incremental and uneven; it may Disaster and Emergency Preparedness (Seetake a generation or more to adequately meet ANDS Volume Two for more details)the needs of all rural Afghans. Nevertheless,the Government is committed to providing a The key priorities of this program are the:proper enabling environment for the ruraleconomy and working to address the needs Development of a comprehensive set ofand articulated priorities of the rural popula- programs and projects – the Comprehen-tion. This long term effort requires a consid- sive Agriculture Rural Development pro-ered and cohesive policy framework. gram – designed to improve rural liveli- hoods and reduce rural poverty; and Economical and Social Development 89
    • Support of commercialized agriculture, gram (NSP), the Government’s main commu- leading to an improvement in agricultural nity development program. Implemented by productivity throughout the rural econ- the Community Development Councils (CDC), omy. the more than 50,000 projects benefit approxi- mately 2 million people in rural areas. The Comprehensive Agriculture and Rural NSP is developing the capacity of CDCs to Development program: The Comprehensive identify community needs and transfer funding Agriculture and Rural Development program and necessary support resources to fund local- (CARD) is a series of programs designed to ized small scale activities of importance to rural support the poorest and most vulnerable seg- communities, such as roads, irrigation, water ments of rural society. The CARD represents wells and school. It is a successful and popular the Government’s approach to providing di- program used to empower these communities. versified income sources, through income sup- It is a major contributor to meeting a number of port, direct provision of assets, skills training the Compact benchmarks and is a successful and market opportunities, and is crucial to example of country-wide Government, donor providing alternatives to producing narcotics. and NGO coordination. It establishes the Interventions will be targeted and tailored to framework for future programs that provide specific regions and groups. greater control to local communities, including the private sector, over development funds. In implementing the CARD, the Government will ensure that efforts to promote activity in The other 14 programs of the CARD in- the sector will stimulate and not displace spon- clude: taneous viable private sector development. The devolution of authority will be undertaken The National Food Security Program will over a number of years to ensure the capacities promote and implement food security op- at all levels of government exist. The Govern- portunities at the household level, benefit- ment will work to reconcile the introduction of ing over 1.2 million households by 2010. sub-national governance measures down to the This will decrease malnourishment rate village level with existing community organi- from 57 percent to 35 percent. A key com- zations. In particular, the role between pro- ponent of this program is the support to posed Village Councils and the existing Com- improve local governance in 38,000 vil- munity Development Councils set up under the lages. National Solidarity Program and which have been given legal status will be clarified. The National Area Based Development Program will support all District Develop- Strengthening sub-national governance struc- ment Assemblies to develop district level tures in line with the newly-formed Independ- development plans which will support ent Directorate for Local Governance will also comprehensive rural development and re- be undertaken. generation. The Government will work with NGOs, civil The Horticulture Program will support society and the international community on the horticulture development and supply prioritization of the sub-components of the farmers with saplings, provide equipment overall CARD program and to develop the for trellises and establish pest control sys- funding requirements in some detail within a tems leading to a 20 percent increase in log frame matrix, identifying what will be done perennial crop production and significant by when. This will allow a cooperative effort exports through public private sector part- by the international community and the Gov- nerships. ernment to reallocate resources towards those The Livestock Program will support live- efforts that appear most effective in improving stock production by importing purebred rural livelihoods. Ongoing monitoring and sheep, establishing commercial dairy evaluation will be essential to address identi- plants and poultry units for women farm- fied constraints and successes and alter the ers, increasing productivity and output. programs as necessary. The National Rural Access Program will The principal program among the 15 programs support rural road construction and reha- of the CARD is the National Solidarity Pro-90 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • bilitation that will provide all weather road trict levels needed to successfully imple-access to 65 percent of villages by 2013. ment the other CARD programs. (See ANDS Volume Two and Appendix “Na-The Rural Water Supply and Sanitation tional Action Plan/Policy Matrix” for moreProgram will assure that by 2013 98 percent details)of villages will have access to safe drinkingwater and 50 percent of villages will haveimproved sanitation facilities. This will Support for Commercial Agriculture: There is virtually no large scale commercialsubstantially improve health, hygiene and agricultural activity currently undertaken inwelfare in rural communities. Afghanistan. This has not always been theThe Irrigation Program will establish irri- case. Earlier turmoil destroyed much of thegation infrastructure on an additional country’s agricultural and physical infrastruc-105,000 ha of new irrigated land by 2018 ture, halting commercial activities. There hasand improve on-farm water use efficiency. been limited recovery since 2002. This includesThe National Resource Program will es- ongoing efforts to increase the internationaltablish National Resource Management community’s, including ISAF, procurement ofcommittees and develop national resource agricultural products from local producers,management plans for forests, rangeland, promoting large scale production and supplywildlife and desertification control. chain processes.The National Surveillance System Project The Agriculture and Rural Development Zoneswill assist MRRD and CSO in the develop- (ARDZ) program is the Government’s ap-ment of a national poverty, vulnerability proach to expanding commercial activities andand food security surveillance system and increasing agricultural productivity. This isenable the government to provide credible necessary to increasing incomes and employ-and timely information to all government ment opportunities in rural areas and to de-and non-government agencies. velop potential agro-based export potential.The Rural Electrification Program willresult in over 4,000 villages being con- The ARDZ recognizes that geographic priori-nected to local electrical facilities. ties have to be set in support of the develop- ment of commercial agriculture. These geo-The Rural Enterprise Program will pro- graphic priorities will be used to target infra-vide training and finance to establish rural structure, utilities and other support by variousenterprises across 70 percent of all CDCs ministries. The Government will release pub-and create an estimated 2.1 million jobs, licly held land to increase private investment.better integrate the rural economy with the Competitive bidding for the rights to leasenational economy and reduce poppy culti- these lands will be similar to the competitivevation. bidding to lease development rights for min-The Research and Extension System will eral resources and the competitive bidding forestablish a research and extension capabil- the rights to use the telecommunications spec-ity; provide access to credit, support farm- trum. Further, the Government will continueers organization and private sector market to investigate, implement and monitor keydevelopment through cooperatives, lead- steps necessary to increasing financial anding to agricultural growth and diversifica- technical support so that private firms are abletion. to expand operations. This will ensure the process of transforming underutilized stateThe Emergency Response System will land into commercially viable agro-processingprovide a mechanism for humanitarian and enterprises will be as fast and efficient as pos-disaster response that will provide emer- sible.gency assistance, assure access to areas af-fected by snow and disasters and protect The Government’s objective is to largely relyvulnerable people and assets. on private investment and public sector sup-The Capacity Building Program will pro- port to transform agriculture in some well de-vide the institutional and organizational fined zones where the conditions for growthcapacity at the national, provincial and dis- are most favorable and high value added commercial agricultural activities can flourish. Economical and Social Development 91
    • This requires integrating and upgrading exist- which is the important agricultural produc- ing private and public sector networks and in- tion town in Lashkargah) and which is vesting in essential infrastructure projects that linked to the regional market in Quetta, shorten trade distances, reduce costs and in- Pakistan; and crease productivity, encouraging entrepreneurs a Western Zone which is centered on the to expand private sector activity. primary market town of Herat and which includes four secondary market towns and In implementing the ARDZ, the Government which has linkages to markets in and will: through Iran. identify and map agricultural growth zones; As part of the ARDZ, the Government has begun the process of establishing the Ex- quantify the necessary factors required for ecutive Management Unit with Presiden- accelerated growth within each zone; tial authority to coordinate and develop a identify key competitive product value five year action plan and organize the nec- chains and the connector firms that drive essary funding and commitment from line these value chains; Ministries and donors so as to establish a develop plans to extend the reach of agri- program implementation plan. This unit cultural zones into more remote rural ar- will ensure critical infrastructure, such as eas; power, water, transportation links, tele- ensure rural development activities are communications, financial services and national in scope and linked to the agricul- vocational programs are available. The tural growth zone plans; and Unit will work with relevant Ministries to ensure priority is given to providing ser- mobilize private sector investment and op- erations as the key element in the success vices in these zones. (See ANDS Volume of the agricultural growth zone initiative. Two for more details) To date, five distinct agricultural growth Expected Outcomes zones have been identified: The Agriculture and Rural Development ex- a North Western Zone centered on the pected outcomes are as follows: primary market town of Mazar-i-Sharif that includes ten secondary market towns Strengthened Local Governance: Func- and which is well positioned to take advan- tioning formal and informal local govern- tage of trade linkages with the Central ance, including social and economic activi- Asian Republics; ties implemented and maintained by com- munities that contribute to the human capi- a North Eastern Zone centered on the pri- tal development and improved livelihoods. mary market town of Kunduz that includes Improved management of local natural re- seven secondary market towns and which, sources including clarifying the legal status with the new bridge at Shirkhan, is well of natural resources, roles of both commu- positioned for trade with Tajikistan and, nities and institutions in governance and with good road connections to Urumqi, management will help ensure food secu- with China; rity, contribute to poverty alleviation and a Central Zone centered on the primary improve both ecological integrity and the market town of Kabul that includes thir- natural resource base. teen secondary towns and which is linked Poverty Reduction and Food Security: The with the important market center in Jala- National Food Security Program (NFSP) labad and the regional market in Pesha- will increase household food security and war, Pakistan; nutritional status while contributing to na- a South Eastern Zone centered on the pri- tional food security and economic growth mary market town of Kandahar and which in rural areas. includes four secondary towns (one of92 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Increased Agricultural Production and ity to completing the rehabilitation and exten- Productivity: Public and private sector sion of this system over the past six years. Due partnerships strengthen horticulture indus- to the significant impact of the road system on try. Increased livestock production and economic activity and the impact on poverty productivity will improve food security reduction, this will continue to be a high prior- and incomes that will lead to a reduction of ity under the ANDS strategy. illicit agriculture and a decline in livestock imports. Agriculture diversification The Transport Sector Strategy will achieve the through various value-added activities, re- following targets established in the Afghani- search, extension, access to credit, market stan Compact. (i) Roads: Afghanistan will have development, establishing/strengthening a fully upgraded and maintained ring road, as farmers’ organization, private sector devel- well as roads connecting the ring road to opment, trainings, will improve the rural neighboring countries by end-2008 and a fis- economy. (See ANDS Volume Two for cally sustainable system for road maintenance; more details) (ii) Air Transport: By end-2010, Kabul Interna- tional Airport and Herat Airport will achieve Provision, and maintenance of Agricul- full International Civil Aviation Organization ture and Rural Infrastructure: Successful compliance; Mazar-i-Sharif, Jalalabad and crop production requires: technical irriga- Kandahar will be upgraded with runway re- tion management (e.g., availability of irri- pairs, air navigation, fire and rescue and com- gation water supply, improving water effi- munications equipment; seven other domestic ciency and productivity, building effective airports will be upgraded to facilitate domestic and efficient irrigation and village based air transportation; and air transport services irrigation infrastructures, utilize modern ir- and costs will be increasingly competitive with rigation technologies and human resource international market standards and rates. (iii) water management (e.g., organizing and Regional Cooperation: By end-2010 Afghani- strengthening mirabs, farmers associations, stan and its neighbors will achieve lower tran- irrigation associations, decentralization of sit times through Afghanistan by means of co- irrigation management at basin and sub- operative border management and other multi- basin levels, water allocation. etc.). lateral or bilateral trade and transit agreements.TRANSPORT Current situation in the sector Since 2001, significant achievements have beenRole of the Sector in ANDS made in the transport sector as donors contrib-The ANDS strategic vision and goal for the uted over $3.3 billion to rebuilding the trans-transport sector is to have a safe, integrated port system between 2002 and 2007. Some oftransportation network that ensures connec- the main achievements include:tivity and that enables low-cost and reliablemovement of people and goods domestically as An estimated 12,200 kilometers of roadswell as to and from foreign destinations. This have been rehabilitated, improved, or builtwill give impetus to economic growth and em- including segments of the ring road sys-ployment generation and help integrate Af- tem, national highways, provincial roadsghanistan into the global economy. A high pri- and rural roads.ority is to have in place an efficient and viable Kabul International Airport has been ex-road transportation network for achieving eco- panded and extensively rehabilitated.nomic growth and poverty reduction, particu-larly in rural areas. Four major airports (at Herat, Mazar-i- Sharif, Jalalabad, and Kandahar) as well asIn the 1960s and 1970s, a large portion of the seven other regional airports are either‘ring road’ and connecting roads to neighbor- slated for, or currently undergoing, exten-ing countries were constructed. This network sive rehabilitation and expansion.was subsequently largely destroyed during In July 2007, trade and transit agreementsthree decades of war and political strife. The with Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan wereGovernment has continued to give high prior- reached. A transit agreement is currently Economical and Social Development 93
    • being drafted with Tajikistan. These Transport sector ministries and institutions agreements will help reduce transit time are weak in the human capacity and or- for shippers moving goods trans- ganization to carry out budgeting; pro- nationally. curement and contract administration; and adequate management of transport-related The introduction of the automated customs assets. The institutions lack the necessary and data systems (ASYCUDA) has been regulatory and enforcement frameworks initiated which will reduce transit times and personnel management systems. and encourage promote trade, and aid in There are overlapping ministerial respon- tracking customs collections. sibilities in the sector. There is a lack of co- ordination and communication within the Much remains to be done to expand and transport sector governance institutions improve the transportation system. Road, and with other sectors. For detail refer to air and rail links all require significant in- ANDS Volume II. vestment. Some of the most pressing needs include: The Transport Sector Strategy incorporates feedback, proposed projects and comments A system for road maintenance and reha- which emerged from the Sub-National bilitation urgently needs to be put into Consultations process. The construction of place and made operational. Roads that roads was among the top five most priori- have been reconstructed will begin to dete- riorate unless maintenance is done in a sys- tized sectors in the PDPs. In areas such as tematic way. Badakhshan, Bamyan, Ghor and Sari Pul, road construction was listed as the number Approximately 85 percent of the total one priority. 130,000 km road network (some 43,000 km of national, regional, urban and provincial roads and an estimated 87,000 km of rural Policy framework: sector strategy roads) is significantly degraded, with a ma- The Government continues to give high prior- jor portion not passable by motor vehicles. ity to rehabilitate a badly damaged road sys- Most bridges and culverts are in bad condi- tem. This includes: (i) completion of a fully tion and at risk of collapse. upgraded and maintained ring road and con- A limited number of airports are available nector roads to neighboring countries, (ii) im- for commercial use and all are in need of proving 5,334 km of secondary (national, urban infrastructure improvements. None of the and provincial) roads and (iii) improving and civil air services meet the international building 6,290 km of rural access roads as a standards and practices required by the In- key to raising rural livelihoods and reducing ternational Civil Aviation Organization poverty and vulnerability in rural areas.49 Bet- (ICAO) and the International Air Transport ter rural roads will improve market access and Association (IATA). While there has been opportunities for rural households. The actual private entry into the civil aviation sector allocation of resources amongst these three ar- and regional connections have expanded, eas of planned activity will depend on the es- much must still be done to create a truly timated rates of return from analysis of con- ‘open skies’ regulatory framework that crete proposals put forward for funding by the both encourages new entry but maintains international community or by the Ministries international standards for safety. involved in implementing the Transport sector The country has no internal rail links, but strategies. A Transport Sector Inter-Ministerial relies on rail heads in neighboring coun- Working Group has been formed to coordinate tries for trade. The railhead transfer sta- the work of the ministries in the sector to as- tions are inefficient, increasing the costs of sure that projects are properly designed to ob- rail transportation. Mines cannot be devel- tain the highest returns and greatest impact on oped and potential resources cannot be ex- plored and utilized without having a rail- way links to the neighboring/regional 49 More detailed information on road construction projects can be countries. found in the Transportation Sector Strategy and in the94 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • the poverty reduction goals. Careful considera- the agreement for developing the Aynaktion will be given to increasing employment copper fields in Logar province and the en-opportunities, and assuring that the local re- ergy transmission lines developed undersources or funds channeled through local transit arrangements.communities are effectively used to maintain Urban Road Networks: Under the urbanthe rural roads established as part of this strat- sector strategy, much greater authority andegy. The main programs of the strategy are (i) responsibility is being given to municipali-Regional, National Highways and Provincial ties. The development of the national andRoads (ii) Rural Road (iii) Urban Transport (iv) regional road networks will be coordinatedCivil Aviation (v) Transport Sector Mainte- with municipal authorities with responsi-nance (vi) Pubic Transport (vii) Railway Pro- bilities for the urban road networks. Mu-gram. (For further details refer to ANDS Vol- nicipal transportation management will beume II.) strengthened to improve urban road qual- ity, road network maintenance, road net-In addition to the above work on the road work planning, and transportation facilitiestransportation system, there are many areas and services.that need to be addressed to both increase re-turns from an improved network but also toimprove other aspects of the total transporta- Railways: The Government will pursuetion system. These include: the Afghanistan Railway Project which will include 1,824 km rail links to connect Ka- Transportation Services and Trade Facili- bul, in the East with Islam Qala in the West tation: Improved transportation services, through Kandahar and Hirat. The Gov- customs, and logistics management will ernment will also undertake feasibility require new investment and coordinated studies to assess the economic viability of multilateral efforts, including work with railway links with neighboring countries. the Economic Cooperation Trade Agree- ment (ECOTA), the Central Asian Region Aviation: The Government will seek in- Economic Cooperation (CAREC), and the vestment in a new international airport in Shanghai Cooperation Organization. The the Kabul area to provide Afghanistan with Government will undertake feasibility a modern international airport and imple- studies to assess the economic viability of ment programs to ensure that the principal railway development within Afghanistan airports and the civil aviation authorities and links with neighboring countries. conform to the requirements of the ICAO Air transport links: The Government gives and IATA, including establishing a new high priority to the development of a new Civil Aviation Authority to promote air airport in Kabul. In addition, the Govern- transport in a competitive environment. A ment will implement programs to ensure regulatory framework will be introduced to that the principal airports and the civil encourage private sector investment under aviation authorities conform to the re- an ‘open skies’ policy. quirements of the ICAO and IATA, includ- Interaction with vulnerable groups: Use ing establishing a new Civil Aviation Au- an integrated participatory regional devel- thority to promote air transport in a com- opment approach in rural areas, combining petitive environment. A regulatory improved roads with agriculture, water, framework will be introduced to encourage education, health, and counter-narcotics private investment under an ‘open skies’ initiatives so that the poor derive the bene- policy. fit from roads. Undertake transport devel- Regional Transportation and Transit: Re- opment through investments in secondary gional transportation investments will be and rural roads to significantly increase coordinated by the Inter-ministerial Work- provincial and village access to the national ing Group for Transport to assure that in- road system. vestments are designed in such a way as to best serve the development goals of Af- ghanistan. Relevant investments include the rail links that will be constructed under Economical and Social Development 95
    • Expected Outcomes the effectiveness, efficiency and transparency of the public sector and the provision of social The key expected outcomes of the transport services. All Afghans, men and women alike, sector strategy are: will in time be able to access ICT to access in- formation and social services, foster the re- An efficient and safe road transportation building process, increase employment, create system, through: a vibrant private sector, reduce poverty and o improved connectivity throughout Af- support underprivileged groups. ghanistan; ICT provides an opportunity to bridge the o lower road user costs; communications gap that exists within the o improved business environment for country. Women in particular face movement private sector development, creating restrictions due to security concerns and local jobs and reducing poverty; traditions. To establish greater national unity, it is important that all 365 districts, major vil- o lower accident and fatality rates, lages and rural areas should be able to com- measured by personal injuries per mil- municate with Kabul, with each other, and lion vehicle kilometers; and with the rest of the world. ICT is a basic en- o reduced journey times due to conges- abler of informal social and economic discourse tion. necessary in the strengthening of civil society and the promotion of economic activity (e.g. A viable civil aviation sector that provides access to markets and pricing). Despite its im- efficient access to the country and region: portance, there are no explicit AC benchmarks o increased domestic and international or MDG goals for this sector. The ICT Sector passengers and freight traffic; Strategy will achieve the following targets es- tablished in the I-ANDS: By end-2010, a na- o improved stakeholder information on tional telecommunications network to be put in the viability of air transport systems; place so that more than 80 percent of Afghans o improved governance within the civil will have access to affordable telecommunica- aviation sector; and tions; and more than $100 million dollars per year will be generated in public revenues. o overall improvement in urban air qual- ity from reduced congestion, better fuel quality and improved fuel efficiency. Current situation in the sector (For more detailed information refer to Appendixes 3, National Action Plan In early 2003, Afghanistan had fewer than and 4, Monitoring Matrix.) Information 15,000 functioning telephone lines – a tele- and Communication Technology phone penetration rate of 0.06 percent, among the lowest in the world. In addition to a short- age of basic telephone switching capacity, the INFORMATION AND local transmission network delivering last mile services, presented an even more difficult bot- COMMUNICATIONS tleneck. The cabling conduit, trunk cables and TECHNOLOGY copper wires were old or completely de- stroyed. Afghanistan did not have a function- ing long distance network to provide national Role of the sector in ANDS or international connectivity. The absence of The ANDS strategic vision and goal for the In- transmission and switching facilities meant that formation and Communication Technology citizens could only complete calls within their (ICT) sector is to make affordable communica- own cities and were unable to reach any other tion services available in every district and vil- parts of the country or the outside world. lage of Afghanistan through an improved ena- bling environment for private sector invest- The Government adopted major policy reforms ment. ICT will contribute to the Government’s for the ICT sector in October 2002, which was efforts for a broad-based reconstruction effort. immediately posted to one of the first govern- A modern telecommunications sector, incorpo- ment websites. This initial broad policy state- rating e-government initiatives will enhance ment was further refined and divided into two96 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • separate policies – one for basic telecom infra- service to be offered in Kabul within sixstructure and regulatory principles, and a sec- months of the effective date, with nationwideond for ICT applications and a vision for the service within 18 months. Pursuant to theInformation Society. These policies have re- original Telecom Policy, these first two licensesmained the basis for the reforms over the last also were provided a legal duopoly for threefive years. The basic principles have been years. In October 2005 and May 2006, two ad-given a statutory basis, in the form of the Tele- ditional nationwide mobile (GSM) licensescom Law that was promulgated in December were awarded, with identical terms and condi-2005. The telecom infrastructure aspects are tions. There was immediate strong demand forbeing implemented by ATRA, which was es- mobile services, with over 5 million Afghanstablished in June 2006. The ICT applications now having access.aspects are being implemented via the ICTCouncil, which was established in May 2007. The 2003 ICT sector strategy has been the refer- ence template for subsequent reform policies,The transparent approach taken to the adop- procedures and activities. The Telecom Lawtion of the policies and the consistency of the was promulgated by President Karzai on 18thvision from design to implementation has pro- December 2005. The law is compliant with theduced rapid results. The fact that most of the World Trade Organization Basic Telecomexisting infrastructure was either antiquated or Agreement framework requirements in that itbroken meant that the industry was free to es- separates the three basic functions and assignssentially start again with a clean slate. In 2003, responsibilities to three independent sectorthe obvious choice for personal communica- elements, as follows (i) Policy – MoCIT; (ii)tions was wireless. Accepted global standards regulation – ATRA; and (iii) operations – Li-meant that the equipment was reliable, cheap censed Service Providers. The Telecom Lawand could be deployed rapidly. In July 2003, has led to the establishment of the independenttwo nationwide mobile (GSM) networks began sector regulator, ATRA. The legal authority ofoperation, following an international competi- ATRA rests with its five member board ap-tive tender. The licenses required commercial pointed by the President. Figure 7.2. Growth in phone use Y 1381 Y 1382 Y 1383 Y 1384 Y 1385 Y 1386Despite the considerable progress in expanding frastructure in remote areas. Lack of clearthe use of mobile phones, much more needs to property rights adds to construction times.be done to take advantage of the telecommuni- Government bureaucracy (length of timecations revolution in both the private and pub- for simple decisions) adds time and costs tolic sectors. Impediments to the growth of ICT development and operation of the system.sector include: Lack of electricity and high cost of diesel Lack of Security represents an impediment fuel for generators raises construction and to construction and maintenance of ICT in- maintenance costs. Economical and Social Development 97
    • The high level of illiteracy reduces the im- drafting the ICT Law, which will address infra- mediate impact of many internet applica- structure and services, including issues such as tions, especially limiting the access of legal recognition of electronic/digital signa- women to internet services. tures and formation of electronic contracts (af- fecting transactions both in public and private The numbers and skills within ICT work sectors), content regulation, competition regu- force is a constraint to the adoption and lation, electronic evidence, data privacy protec- promotion of ICT. tion, consumer protection and rights, domain The limited awareness and acceptance of name registration and regulation, intellectual ICT within Government leadership property rights, encryption and security, finan- cial and banking sector law and regulation re- lating to electronic transfers and settlements, Policy framework: sector strategy taxation of transfers, customs, jurisdiction, dis- The immediate goal of the sector is to increase pute resolution and civil and criminal offences, access to telecom services to cover 80 percent of limitations of liability of internet service pro- the country. Most populated areas will be cov- viders, cyber piracy and digital rights man- ered by 2010. A key component of this effort agement, facilitation of e-government and cross will be the completion of the Fibre Optic Cable border interoperability of e-commerce frame- and Copper Cable Network, allowing an ex- works affecting trade. pansion of high-speed data services and ex- tending mobile phone coverage. The private- The sector priority policy is passage and im- sector is expected to make additional major plementation of ICT legislation that will create investments in the telecommunication sector. an appropriate environment for further devel- With the establishment of a national data center opment. MoCIT has commenced drafting the by end of 2008, and implementation of e- ICT Law. The telecom law addresses the tele- Government, e-Commerce, e-Health (telemedi- com infrastructure and services, but the law cine) towards the end of 2010 Afghan citizens doesn’t cover the content of the services. The will be able to more fully participate in the in- ICT law will address issues such as legal rec- formation age. For the next five years, MoCIT ognition of electronic/digital signatures and policies, working through ATRA will also de- formation of electronic contracts (affecting ploy satellite-based services to the less popu- transactions both in public and private sectors), lated areas where personal mobile facilities are content regulation, competition regulation, too costly. The current program is to reach at electronic evidence, data privacy protection, least 3,000 villages by 2010. Plans are also un- consumer protection and rights, domain name derway to issue new licenses for the provision registration and regulation, intellectual prop- of fixed wireless access for broadband internet. erty rights, encryption and security, financial and banking sector law and regulation relating There will be a $100 million revenue contribu- to electronic transfers and settlements, taxation tion to Government revenue by 2010. The ICT of transfers, customs, jurisdiction, dispute reso- sector is already the most heavily taxed, pri- lution and civil and criminal offences, limita- marily because it is comprised of the largest tions of liability of internet service providers, formal enterprises in the country. A major cyber piracy and digital rights management, study is currently being prepared that will pro- facilitation of e-government and cross border vide guidance to the ICT Council, and the Gov- interoperability of e-commerce frameworks ernment on improving governance and increas- affecting trade. ing public sector capacity for the industry. The ICT Council, through the MoCIT, will The key programs of the ICT sector are (i) Ena- work to achieve the following: bling Environment (ii) Infrastructure Develop- ment (iii) E-Afghanistan (iv) ICT Literacy. For By end-2008, actions designed to promote detail refer to volume II. In addition to the in- transparency and citizen access to public vestment in the cable network, the policy prior- information will be implemented. This will ity for the Government is the passage and im- include adopting Rules and Procedures to plementation of ICT legislation that will create require all Government institutions to pub- an appropriate environment for further growth lish documents on their official websites (as and development. MoCIT has commenced a supplement to the Official Gazette). Ac-98 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • tions designed to promote Government ef- 37.5 billion Afs ($750 million) in private in-ficiency, reduce costly waste and ensure in- vestment, and adds 50,000 jobs.formation system inter-operability will be National ICT networks will be expandedimplemented. This will involve adopting a and interconnected so that at least 80 per-full set of Rules and Procedures that will cent of Afghans will have access to afford-govern the competitive procurement and able telecom services.utilization of ICT by all Government insti-tutions. An e-Government resource center By end-2018, all pupils should be digitallywill be established for the design and im- literate by the time they leave school. Digi-plementation of projects. MoCIT will pro- tal literacy will be adopted as one of themote private investment for Afghan Tele- basic skills of all young Afghans.com to reduce the financial burden on theGovernment, and adopt the legal instru- The ICT sector strategy incorporates feedback,ments for private investment in the sector. proposed projects and comments from the SubAfghan Post offices will be modernized us- National Consultations. The ministry activelying ICT to ensure reliable collection and utilized its video conferencing capabilities todistribution of mail. The infrastructure of reach out to all 34 provincial capitals and manymobile networks will be adapted to enable of the 240 district capitals that are presentlymobile commerce, meaning the use of served by the District Communications Net-phones to transfer funds and conduct other work (DCN) infrastructure. MoCIT has alsofinancial transactions (pay utility bills and worked with National Assembly to reach alltaxes, make retail purchases). MoCIT will communities. The Ministry has furthermoresubmit draft ICT legislation governing e- conducted planning sessions by bringing to-transactions, electronic commerce, elec- gether representatives from all 34 provinces fortronic signatures and cyber crimes to the workshops in Kabul. ATRA is in the process ofNational Assembly. The Afghanistan Na- instituting greater responsiveness to the needstional Data Center will be ready to host the of remote communities, by making availablee-government applications. financial support from the Telecom Develop- ment Fund (TDF) upon request from commu-A unified curriculum and regulatory nity leaders.framework for private ICT training centerswill be drafted in cooperation with Minis-try of Education. MoCIT will have estab- Policy framework: key initiatives andlished an IT Training center in all provin- issuescial capitals where security permits. The MoCIT is responsible for providing theBy end-2009, further efforts will be made to institutional leadership for the ICT sector. Itreduce corruption by reviewing all Gov- has the primary responsibility for developingernment services and making recommen- policy and supervises the implementation of adations for the adoption of ICT to stream- number of key ICT projects, such as the Na-line and automate (for example, customs tional Data Center, the Optical Fiber Cable andprocessing, procurement and licensing). the Copper Cable Network projects.An ICT Village will be established in Ka-bul, this facility will attract foreign and lo- Afghan Telecom is presently a corporation thatcal investments in ICT. Efforts will be is 100 percent owned by MoCIT however it ismade to ensure that all schools have access being privatized (an 80 percent share is to beto internet and multimedia resources, to- sold), reflecting the Government’s 2003 Tele-gether with a basic curriculum that in- com and Internet Policy. This will lead to thecludes browsing, searching and messaging. further expansion of the mobile phone net- work.By end-2010, the ICT sector will contributefive billion Afs ($100 million) annually to The Ministry’s Information Communicationthe treasury by broadening the tax base (at- Technology Institute (ICTI) provides special-tracting additional investors to the market, ized technical training and certification hasrather than over-burdening the existing launched a four year ICT bachelors programones). ATRA will foster a transparent le- (the first class of 50 students have recentlygal-regulatory regime that attracts a further commenced studies). Since 2003, it is also in Economical and Social Development 99
    • the process of considering a transformation to tor will be increased. ICT access will be gener- public-private partnership in order to ensure ally available in education institutions, includ- that its curriculum meets the needs of the pri- ing many primary and secondary schools. For vate sector (which has a huge demand for detail information regarding outcomes refer to properly skilled workers). action plan and M&E matrices. For detail in- formation refer to Appendixes 3-National Ac- The ICT Council is the primary forum for all tion Plan and 4-Monitoring Matrix. stakeholders in the ICT sector. It consists of all of government institutions that have ICT activi- ties and is open to all other institutions as they URBAN DEVELOPMENT acquire ICT infrastructure and applications. The ICT Council is chaired by the First Vice Role of the sector in ANDS: President and its total membership is fully in- clusive of all interested parties, including the The ANDS strategic vision and goal for urban private sector, civil society organizations, and development sector is to ensure increased ac- academia. The National Assembly has become cess to improved services, and affordable shel- an important institutional player in the ICT ter while promoting sustainable economic de- sector, both in terms of policy and utilization. velopment as part of efforts to reduce urban poverty through encouragement of private in- The role of the private sector is central to this vestment. The urban areas in the country will strategy. A modern telecommunications sector, become hubs for economic growth with all ba- incorporating e-government initiatives wher- sic infrastructure and services. The manage- ever possible, will enhance the effectiveness ment of urban areas will be improved through and efficiency of the public sector. By mobiliz- the devolution of authority and responsibility ing resources to build up the ICT sector within to municipalities in ways that improve urban the public sector institutions, MoCIT will also infrastructure and services, reduce urban pov- be accelerating the development of ICT support erty and allow urban residents to live safe, capabilities of the private sector in Afghanistan, healthy and productive lives and cities to grow both through contracts and via participation in and prosper. Effective management of the the policy processes of the ICT Council. rapid urbanization process will make a signifi- cant contribution to the recovery of the coun- The ICT sector is Afghanistan’s biggest success try. Cities contribute to economic growth story in terms of attracting private sector in- through their high productivity as a result of vestment, $925 million as of the end of 2007. economies of scale and agglomeration, and by This is expected to reach $1.5 billion by end providing opportunities for the accumulation 2010. According to numerous studies this is by of capital, investment, trade and production. far the largest investment in the licit economy. Urban investments create employment oppor- tunities and urban jobs account for a dispropor- tionate share of GDP. Urban growth can Expected outcomes stimulate rural development through increase The key expected outcomes in the Information demand for food, markets for rural products, and Communications Technology sector are; off-season employment for farmers, and remit- tances and provide opportunities to move Improved Enabling Environment goods and services in the region. However, cities are often linked to increased violence, Improved Infrastructure with Fiber Optic crime and insecurity. Improving the urban and Copper. environment, the supply of urban services, E-Afghanistan created providing employment opportunities, utilizing the potential resources and improving the live- ICT Literacy improved lihoods of the population will lead to im- provements in security. It is expected there will be wide community acceptance of ICT facilities. Access to facilities The importance of effective management of the will be expanded. Government administration urban development process has been recog- will be predictable and unbiased, in accord nized in the Afghanistan Compact benchmarks: with all legislation. The role of the private sec-100 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Urban Development: By the end of 2010; new small settlements (satellite townships) Municipal Governments will have have been planned for 1 million people. strengthened capacity to manage urban Regional and city planning: strategic de- development and to ensure that municipal velopment plans are being prepared for 7 services are delivered effectively, efficiently regional cities, while a city development and transparently; in line with MDG in- plan for three major cities (Mazar, Jalala- vestments in water supply and sanitation labad, Kabul) and existing-Kabul plan is will have ensured that 50 percent of house- due for completion by mid 2008. holds in Kabul and 30 percent of house- holds in other major urban areas will have Urban policy: initiatives include a compre- access to piped water. hensive National Urban Program (NUP), a draft National Land Policy was submitted Energy: By end-2010: electricity will reach in 2007 for approval to the Ministry of Jus- at least 65 percent of households and 90 tice. And a draft of national building codes percent of non-residential establishments for construction has been developed. in major urban areas, at least 75 percent of the costs will be recovered from users con- Institutional reforms within MoUD, KM & nected to the national power grid. IDLG (established in 2007) continue, along with investments in strengthening institu-The Millennium Development Goals most rele- tional capacity.vant to the urban sector development include: Almost 5 percent of vulnerable families has been provided improved shelter in major Goal 7: By 2020 halve the proportion with- cities. Private sector so far has made little out access to safe drinking water and sani- contribution to the development of housing tation. Significantly improve the lives of all sector. slum-dwellers by 2020. Sustainable devel- opment to reverse the loss of environ- Three conservation initiatives are under mental resources way in historic quarters of Kabul, Herat and Tashqurghan.Current situation in the sector The Afghan Urban Water Supply and Sani- tation Corporation has been established asAchievements: While investments in the urban a quasi independent public entity.sector continue to lag far behind actual needsacross the country, there have been some As of 2005 nearly a quarter of Afghanistan’sachievements. The most important are as fol- population lived in urban areas. By 2015 it islows: estimated that almost a third of Afghans will be living in urban areas. Current needs include: Water supply and sanitation: 2 million ur- ban residents (31 percent of the total urban Urban Poverty: In 2002, one fifth of the ur- population) have benefited from invest- ban population was living below the pov- ments in water supply and 12 percent from erty line. The NRVA (2005) study found investment in sanitation in major cities be- that 28 percent of urban households per- tween 2002 and 2007. ceive themselves to be food insecure, 31 Up to 1.4 million people (20 percent of ur- percent fall below the minimum level of ban population) have benefited from reha- dietary energy consumption, 45 percent bilitation of public works, with 250,000 (4 borrow money to purchase food, and 48 percent) benefiting from upgrading pro- percent sometimes have problems satisfy- grams ing their food needs. It is estimated that 4.95 million people inhabited informal set- In addition to legislative reforms, a pilot tlements in 2006, suggesting that 68.5 per- land tenure security project is underway in cent of the urban population is living with- Kabul out security of tenure. The Dehsabz City Development Authority Water and Sanitary Conditions: In 2005, has been established to facilitate the devel- about 20-22 percent of urban households opment of new city housing for up to 3 mil- had access to safe drinking water, although lion people north of Kabul. Additionally, Economical and Social Development 101
    • the percentage varies significantly between and PDPs-related consultations as well as CAP urban areas. The country’s total sanitation (City Action Plans based on the city profiles coverage is only 8 percent, (16 percent ur- report) have been integrated into the strategy, ban and 5 percent rural as of 2002). Few reflecting the range of sub-national develop- places in the world face such scarce and ment needs alarming water supply and sanitation cov- erage levels. The percentage of urban households using: (i) traditional covered la- Key components of the urban sector trines and (ii) improved latrines, and (iii) strategy flush toilets are about 67 percent and 15 The objective is to ensure increased access to percent, and 9 percent, respectively. In improved basic infrastructure and services, and Kabul city, 14 percent use a flush latrine, 2 affordable shelter while promoting sustainable percent are covered by a sewerage system. economic growth. The key to the urban sector Roads: About 61 percent of urban dwellers development strategy is a national urban policy access homes through unpaved roads and that decentralizes decision making to the local about 25 percent through footpaths, includ- level, encourages participatory processes based ing in Kabul. on urban community councils or other neighborhood organizations, adopts a market There are a number of challenges and con- based approach that encourages private sector straints facing the Sector: activity and that establishes a regulatory framework focused narrowly on environmental Low coverage of basic services and inade- protection and the rationalization of land use. quate public resources to meet growing The main programs of the sector strategy are (i) needs Urban Governance, Finance and Management (ii) Land Development & Housing (iii) Urban A rapid pace of urbanization partly due to Infrastructure & Services (for details of pro- returning refugees and rural-urban mi- gram refer to volume II). grants, leading to high population density Widespread urban poverty and limited Urban Governance: The Ministry and Mu- access to productive employment nicipalities will be restructured and jointly work to prepare city action strategies and struc- A high proportion of informal settlements ture plans for Kabul and the 34 major urban and associated problems areas, with special attention to local area plans Lack of capacity and coordination among for selected, fast growing areas, strengthen ur- urban sector institutions ban and municipal governance, finance and management. This involves establishing an Limited scale of private sector investment enabling environment where stakeholders par- in urban enterprises, facilities or services ticipate in municipal elections and residents Lack of accurate data on which to base can have a say in policy formulation and the critical policy decisions design of implementation activities. This will be done through democratically elected Com- Land security and titling: Absence of munity Development Councils (CDC) at the proper land registration system, Land neighborhood level, comprising clusters of grabbing, inadequate legal instruments and households, and Area Development Councils institutions (ADC) at the sub-urban district level. Lack of available financial funds due to limited interest of donors in the urban sec- Finance and Management: Steps will be tor. taken to increase revenue generation capacity and improve management by upgrading ac- The Urban Sector Strategy incorporates feed- counting and budgetary practices and linking back, proposed projects and comments from the capital budget to the planning process. Re- the Sub National Consultations (SNCs) and is a view existing revenue base and assets and de- response to the people’s needs and develop- velop action plans for revenue improvement ment goals. Key urban infrastructure needs plans to include widening revenue base, im- emerged from City Development Pland (CDPs) proved collection rates, user charges, co-102 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • financing or co-production with users, property ciently; permit progressive developmentor sales taxes, intergovernmental transfers, through provision of a sanitary core (known asmunicipal borrowing, mobilization of local an “embryo” housing unit). Sectoral agenciesgovernment resources through loan guaran- will consider other options for providing de-tees. Develop mechanisms to increase local velopable land including: land-sharing, landrevenues to finance part of the costs of im- readjustment, land pooling, and infill devel-proved urban service. Promote public partner- opment.ships with the private sector and NGOs tomore efficiently provide urban services or meet Land security will be improved through map-urban needs. The draft Public Finance and Ex- ping and land surveying of communities, ten-penditure Management Law will be enacted. ure formalization, and land registration. If in- formal settlements are recognized and pro-Urban Development and Land Manage- vided with tenure security, they are more will-ment: The Government will prepare a national ing to invest their own financial and other re-spatial development plan. The plan will pro- sources in improving the community and theirvide (i) a framework for balanced urbanization, houses. Moreover, they can use the title as col-urban-rural links, and greater regional coher- lateral. Security of tenure may include formalence; (ii) a town planning policy, processes, and informal arrangements, from full land titlelaws, standards, and guidelines as well as de- to customary rights. Although the tenure le-velopment regulations; (iii) effective land man- galization approach is popular, it is also possi-agement and information systems and a na- ble to regularize without any policy interven-tional settlements plan will be put in place; (iv) tion to legalize tenure. The regularizationimprove tenure security gradually through im- strategy focuses on physical interventions, suchproving infrastructure and services; (v) clarify as infrastructure, amenities provision, andproperty rights, providing temporary certifi- health and education services.cates, addressing environmental and planningconcerns; (vi) land management laws will be The Government, through the Dehsabz Citypassed with the objective of preventing unlaw- Development Authority, will continue to exam-ful occupation of government and private land ine the potential for the development of a newfor economic (and political) gains; facilitating city on the Dehsabz plain north of the existingland registration and adjudication; and ena- Kabul City. As part of the Dehsabz project, thebling government acquisition of private land Barikab area located to the north of the newfor public purposes; (vii) improve land man- city will become a private commercial agricul-agement through steps to register land titles; tural zone designed to not only supply many of(viii) develop a system for settlement of land the needs of Dehsabz, but to become a centerdisputes; (ix) develop a computerized (GIS) for the cultivation of exportable agriculturalland management system; (x) cadastral surveys products. The development of this urban cen-and reconciliation of cadastre with actual con- ter will be undertaken primarily by the privateditions; (xi) linkage of cadastre to a municipal sector. The extent of the Government’s directproperty tax system and with the land registra- role will generally be limited to planning, in-tion data; (xii) linkage to a planning and devel- vestment in some of the basic urban infrastruc-opment control system; (xiii) create new ser- ture and facilitating private commercial in-viced and un-serviced land in connection with vestment. This project will be largely finan-new urban plans that identify real demand for cially self-sustainable and become a center forserviced land at specific locations within indi- new investment in private agro-based and ser-vidual towns and cities and in all urban areas. vice industries. Most of the land in Dehsabz belongs to the Government hence, the sale andStandards of servicing will be based on af- lease of land will generate revenues needed forfordability of target groups. Priority will be investment in the new city and for the pressinggiven to sites and service schemes, an approach reconstruction and infrastructure developmentthat has proven effective in many countries. needs of Kabul.The strengths of these schemes are that theycan: cater to various household affordability Housing: New housing will be produced andlevels and needs through various planning, improved through: (i) public sector housingservicing and technical standards; provide ba- production (ii) support to informal and smallsic infrastructure and services relatively effi- Economical and Social Development 103
    • scale housing producers – the ‘peoples housing health centers, schools, and markets. Support process’; (iii) support to research and develop- will be provided to house construction and re- ment of appropriate building materials and habilitation, but only in line with an approved technologies; (iv) upgrading the skills of con- plan and with careful consideration given to tractors and laborers; (v) supporting entrepre- levels of cost recovery. Steps will be taken to neurs to upgrade or set up building compo- rehabilitate and extend water supply and sani- nents manufacturing units; (vi) support to pri- tation services, giving priority to rehabilitating vate sector production, particularly of rental existing areas to an adequate level of service housing. before extending service to new areas. Exten- sions to new areas will be done in connection Housing programs will consider the particular with an approved plan for new settlement de- needs of various groups such as civil servants, velopment. Improve solid waste management returnees, Kuchis, IDPs, widows and other through waste minimization (reduce, reuse, vulnerable groups. Housing finance will be and recycle) and improved collection, transport provide – for purchase, rehabilitation, and con- and transfer, and disposal alternatives. Con- struction of new housing – through: integrating sideration will be given to privatization, com- housing finance; stimulating private banks to munity management, affordability and cost increase mortgage lending to low-income recovery. Improve urban transportation man- households, through, for example, mortgage agement through improvements to circulation guarantees; initiating community mortgage and road networks, transportation facilities and schemes; lowering mortgage interest rates; re- services by function, type, capacity, and condi- ducing collateral and down payment require- tion, bus system, bicycles and pedestrians, ments; introducing flexible repayment transportation demand management including schemes. This will enhance purchasing power on- and off-street parking system management. of urban inhabitants and attract private in- vestment in housing programs. This will lead The most significant heritage areas will be to a system of affordable land and housing and identified and a detailed inventory of heritage assured cost recovery for the investors. assets will be undertaken. This will be done in coordination with NGOs already working on Housing subsidy programs will be provided the preservation of heritage areas. Conserva- for very low income households, including tion plans for each heritage area (rehabilitation both owners and renters. The following op- and preservation) will be developed and im- tions will be examined: direct loans to purchase plemented through efforts to raise public an existing or construct a new house; govern- awareness, economic incentives to private ment guarantees of loans made by private sec- owners, tourism development, legal protection, tor lenders, thus enabling households to pur- public investment, and outreach to interna- chase houses without a down payment; mutual tional bodies. self-help housing programs which makes homes affordable to groups of households by Key steps to improve and monitor progress valuing to work, or "sweat equity", by each with urban development will include the iden- homeowner; portable rent subsidies that give tification of indicators on which strategic, tacti- eligible households a choice about where to cal, and operational decisions will be based; the live, including market rate rentals subsidies establishment of GIS and databases to manage directly to the property owner who then ap- information; and the improvement of analytical plies the subsidies to the rents that are charged routines and creation of the creation of web- to low-income tenants. based information systems. The priority focus will be on the establishment of land informa- Urban Infrastructure and Services: A con- tion and registration systems in municipalities. certed effort will be made to improve infra- structure including roads, footpaths, storm drainage, water supply, electricity, street lights, Expected Outcomes sanitation, and solid waste collection. Social The following outcomes are expected to be infrastructure will be improved, including achieved in this Urban Sector Strategy in com- open space, children’s’ parks, community and ing five years:104 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Strengthened municipal capacity to man- tractive destination for investment in survey, age urban development and deliver ser- exploration and development of mineral re- vices. sources. The intention is to encourage legiti- mate private investment in the sector so as to Improved institutional coordination and substantially increase government revenues, monitoring of key urban indicators improve employment opportunities and foster Increased access to basic services for urban ancillary development centered on mining ac- households50: tivity. Implementation of the strategy will help to develop effective market-based economic o Kabul: 50 percent of households with policies, promote and regulate sustainable de- piped water, sanitation, drainage and velopment of minerals and ensure that the na- waste collection; 30 percent coverage tion’s geological resources are progressively for programs of hygiene promotion investigated and properly documented. This o 30 provincial towns/cities: 30 percent strategy supports large and small scale mining of households with piped water, sani- for immediate and sustainable economic gains. tation, drainage and waste collection; For mining and minerals, the emphasis is on 10 percent coverage of hygiene promo- the exploration, extraction and delivery to tion programs. market; for hydrocarbons the emphasis is ex- ploration and exploitation. Phased regularization of tenure for 50 per- cent of households in informal settlements, Experience during the period 1987 to 2000 has in parallel with upgrading of public ser- demonstrated that if governments address is- vices and facilities, as well as new urban sues such as: up-dating the mineral policy and area development. strategy; amending the mining legislation (par- Increased availability of affordable shelter, ticularly in respect of mining rights); up-dating with 50 percent increase in numbers of the mining taxation regime; reinforcing gov- housing units and 30 percent increase in ernment supervisory institutions; building area of serviced land on the market, cou- greater capacity (including good governance) pled with access to affordable finance. within institutions; and developing a reliable and comprehensive scientific database; the Improved urban environment with green country can attract significant amounts of in- areas and open spaces. vestment in this sector. Employment and bene-For detail information, refer to Appendix 3- fits from opportunities for skill improvementNational Action Plan and 4-Monitoring Matrix. will be substantial. Most mining related activ- ity is expected to occur in isolated areas where unemployment is high. In addition, the largeMINING contribution that the mining sector will make to government revenues will increase the avail-Role of the sector in ANDS ability of social services, such as education and health services, which will contribute to in-The ANDS strategic vision and goal of the min- creased security and stability.ing sector is to establish Afghanistan as an at-50 Note, these targets are also identified in the Water Sector Strat-egy. Table 7.3. Mining sector reform and its effect on economic growth Exploration (US$m) Production (US$m) Exports (US$m) Before After Before After Before After Country Reform Reform Reform Reform Reform Reform Argentina <3 150 340 1,310 70 700 Chile 15 250 2,400 7,500 2,300 6,900 Peru 10 200 2,000 3,900 1,900 3,600 Tanzania <1 35 53 350 53 350 Economical and Social Development 105
    • The Afghanistan Compact Benchmark calls for ers of the company. The company will also an enabling regulatory environment for profit- establish a railway route from Hairatan port in able extraction of Afghanistans mineral and northern Afghanistan to Torkham in eastern natural resources to be created and for the in- Afghanistan. Ongoing and planned activities vestment environment and infrastructure to be include the: (i) fertilizer and power plants at enhanced so as to attract significant domestic Balkh with capacity of 110,000 tons of urea each and foreign direct investment by end 2010. year, and 48 mega watt power per hour; (ii) Ghori cement factory with capacity of 100,000 tons per year; (iii) Jabal Seraj cement Current Situation factory with maximum capacity of 30,000 tons While geological studies of Afghanistan have per year; and (iv) Herat cement factory and been conducted over the last 50 years, 90 per- Ghori 2 with capacity reaching 200,000 annu- cent of the territory of Afghanistan has not ally. been systematically studied despite highly promising findings. A geological map of Af- In July 2005 a Minerals Law was approved by ghanistan has been prepared and over 400 the Government. In December 2005, a Hydro- mineral deposits have been identified includ- carbons Law was also approved. Regulations ing copper, coal and a number of small and are being drafted which may be finalized dur- medium deposits including gold, silver, plati- ing 2008. num, zinc, nickel, emerald, lapis, ruby, kuznite, tourmaline, fluorite, chromite, salt, radioactive Some of the most immediate needs of the sector elements and numerous deposits suitable for are being addressed as part of a $30 million construction materials. project supporting sustainable development of natural resources. The main purpose of this The availability of oil and gas fields in Af- project is to assist the Ministry of Mines to im- ghanistan has been well known for almost 50 prove its capacity to effectively transform the years. Russian equipment was used to explore sector so that it is primarily operated by the the first fields. Subsequently, gas fields in private sector and contributes to sustainable Yateem Taq, Khwaja Gogerdak, Khwaja Bolan, economic growth through tax revenues, em- Zigdeli and Bayan of Ghor province as well as ployment, rural development and economic outskirts of Sheberghan district of Jowzjan spin-offs. The major institutional strengthen- province have been identified. Afghan and ing objective of the project will be to assist Russian experts identified a total of 500 struc- MoM to make the transition from a producer of tures of which 67 were extended with explora- minerals and other commodities to a policy tory approaches. Known gas reserves have a making institution that will facilitate the opera- capacity of 180 billion cubic meters and an ex- tion of private firms within the industry. It will ploitation capacity of 120 billion cubic meters. also strengthen financial and budgetary proce- Sar-e-pul oil reserves have been identified dures in the ministry, assist with the internal (44.5) million tons with the extractable reserves geological survey work being done, assist in of 14.5 million metric tons. During the past few identifying unlicensed mining operations, and years, five oil and gas fields have been identi- attempt to enforce improved and safer work fied. More work has been carried out in the mining work practices. vicinity of Amu Darya, and Afghan-Tajik ba- sins. The landlocked nature of Afghanistan and the current lack of rail links represent a barrier to The first major investment has recently been the movement of large bulk commodities. Se- announced for developing the Aynak copper curity difficulties limit mining in some areas, deposits in central Logar province, an almost principally in the south. Roads, energy and $3 billion investment. The selection of the water are all lacking. The danger of unex- company was made after an extensive evalua- ploded ordnance makes mining difficult. There tion of tenders from nine major international is a shortage of trained labor. Most of the state- mining companies. There will be important owned mining enterprises are not operating on indirect benefits from this investment. The a commercial basis. The North Coal Enterprise company will establish a power station with has been privatized and is operating success- 400 mega watt capacity at a cost of over $400 fully while Mineral Exploitation Enterprise and million and will construct a town for the work- Afghan Gas are about to be privatized.106 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • This Sector Strategy incorporates feedback and increase utilization of mineral and gas re-comments from the Sub National Consultations sources; encourage expansion of the cement(SNCs). A key finding was the lack of informa- industry and increase power supplies by rais-tion available to local communities on mine ing the production of mineral resources, oil, gasopportunities. There is also reflected a lack of and underground water; and increase the pro-market-based thinking and considerable expec- duction of urea. The main programs of the sec-tation for the Government to provide sector tor are (i) Implementing PRR (ii) Legislativesupport. It should be noted that investments in affairs completion (iii) A comprehensive geo-the mining sector are primarily commercial logical study follow- up program in the coun-decisions that should be taken by the private try (iv) Exploration and exploitation of mineralsector. Projects identified and prioritized dur- resources by private sector or geology surveying the SNC process include the extraction of of MoM (v) Exploration, extraction and exploi-marbles, precious and semi precious stone tation program of gas and oil fields in the coun-mines in Anaba and Shotol districts of Panjshir try by the government or private sector (vi)province. The Ministry of Mines has been Capacity building (vii) Long term geo scienceidentified as the responsible agency for ena- research (viii) Reconstruction program, equip-bling this development. ping of laboratory and technical section of the ministry (for detail refer to ANDS Volume II).Policy framework: sector strategy Priority Projects: Top priority projects, in orderThe sector strategy is geared to supporting de- of priority are:velopment through private firms engaged in amix of large and small operations. The private completing and implementing the hydro-sector will operate within a legislative and carbons regulations by Ministry of Justice;regulatory framework designed to facilitate finalizing of Afghanistan gas law (down-investment and maintain a competitive sector. stream);While there will be some public sector activity,these will be required to operate under the completing the second round of PRR in thesame legislative and regulatory framework as MoM;the private sector. The focus will be on using providing background information andGovernment projects or competitive bidding invite bidding for three blocks of oil andfor exploration contracts to better determine gas in the northern provinces aimed at ex-the extent of natural resources in Afghanistan; ploration and exploitation.on the establishment of an improved, transpar-ent and capable management system for theeffective extraction of mines and natural re- Expected outcomessources; and the establishment of a regulatory Given the known mining resources that areenvironment that facilitates local and interna- available, implementation of this strategy willtional investment in the mining sector. lead to considerable investment in small and large projects. Mining will play a major role inThe key reform will involve the refocusing of achieving the high rates of economic growththe Ministry of Mines from one involved in envisioned in the ANDS and increased gov-production to one that is primarily concerned ernment revenues. Increased revenues will bewith the creation of an enabling environment derived from mining royalties, taxes and cus-that requires mining companies to operate ef- toms revenues on largely private operations asfectively and responsibly in accordance with well as through licenses, permits and otherthe law. Mining legislation will be passed and taxes charged as part of the bidding process.implemented. Planned actions include explora- Mining projects will generate employment op-tion and exploitation of mineral resources by portunities for thousands of citizens, in remotethe private sector or MoM; capacity building areas where alternative legal productive oppor-programs; successful implementation of the tunities are few. Mining firms will increasinglyAynak project; development of long term geo- enter into the formal part of the economy.science projects; and a reconstruction program They will operate within a legislative frame-including equipping the laboratory and techni- work that is accepted and impartially adminis-cal sections of the ministry. Steps will also be tered by MoM. Mining will bring with it accesstaken to raise the production level of gas and Economical and Social Development 107
    • to advanced technology that can be of benefit Current Situation in many areas of the economy. There will also be major indirect benefits from mining, includ- Afghanistan’s health indicators are near the ing the construction of roads, bridges, hous- bottom of international indices, and are far ings, health clinics, mosques, playgrounds, worse, in terms of their health, than any other schools and parks (for detail information refer country in the region. Life expectancy is low, to Appendixes 3-National Action Plan and 4- infant, under-five and maternal mortality is Monitoring Matrix). very high, and there is an extremely high prevalence of chronic malnutrition and wide- spread occurrence of micronutrient deficiency HEALTH AND NUTRITION diseases. For more information refer to volume II. The ANDS strategic objective for this sector is to improve the health and nutrition of the peo- Achievements: Substantial improvements in ple of Afghanistan through quality health care the health system and the health status of the service provision and the promotion of healthy people of Afghanistan have been achieved in life styles. Afghanistan ranks towards the bot- recent years. tom on global measures of health and nutrition. Improving health and nutrition is vital to im- Expansion of primary health care services. proving the livelihood and well being of the The percentage of the population living in Afghan people and to achieving the goals of districts where the Basic Package of Health the MDGS and the Compact which include: Services is being implemented has in- creased from 9 percent in 2003 to 82 per- By end-2010 the Basic Package of Health cent in 2006. The percentage of people in Services will be extended to cover at least Afghanistan who live within two hours 90 percent of the population; walking distance from a primary health By end-2010 maternal mortality will be re- care facility was approximately 66 percent duced; in 2006. By end-2010 full immunization coverage Increased access to female health care for infants under-5 for vaccine-preventable workers. The percentage of primary health diseases will be achieved and their mortal- care facilities with at least one female doc- ity rates reduced by 20 percent; tor, nurse or midwife has increased from 26 percent in 2004 to 81 percent in 2007. Between 2003 and 2015 reduce the under- five mortality rate by 50 percent, and fur- Increased use of reproductive health ser- ther reduce it to one third of the 2003 level vices in rural areas. Between 2003 and by 2020; 2006, use of a modern family planning method among married women in rural Between 2002 and 2015 reduce the mater- Afghanistan increased from 5 percent to 16 nal mortality ratio by 50 percent, and fur- percent, receipt of skilled antenatal care by ther reduce it to 25 percent of the 2002 level pregnant women increased from 5 percent by 2020; to 32 percent and use of skilled birth atten- To have halted and begun the reverse the dants for assistance with delivery increased spread of HIV/AIDS by 2020; from 6 percent to 19 percent. To have halted by 2020 and begun to re- Increased coverage of child immunization verse the incidence of malaria and other in rural areas. Between 2003 and 2006, cov- major diseases. erage of BCG vaccine among children 12-23 months of age to protect against tuberculo- For more details refer to the Appendices I and sis increased from 57 percent to 70 percent II (National Action Plan and Monitoring Matri- and receipt of three doses of oral polio ces). vaaccine increased from 30 percent to 70 percent. The Afghan Compact High Level Bench- mark for reduction of infant mortality has been reached ahead of schedule. From a108 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • high baseline level of 165 infant deaths per Policy framework: sector strategy 1000 live births, a 20 percent reduction in infant mortality was targeted by 2010. With The strategy is for the MoPH to maintain and the infant mortality rate estimated by the strengthen its stewardship role for the Health 2006 Afghanistan Health Survey to be 129 and Nutrition Sector. For that purpose, a new per 1000 live births, a 22 percent reduction organizational chart and programmatic struc- from the baseline level has already been ture have been defined, enabling a comprehen- achieved. sive approach to health service delivery, with primary health care services, hospital services, The Afghan Compact High Level Bench- disease control, nutrition and reproductive and mark for reduction of under-five mortality child health integrated under the same Health has been reached ahead of the schedule. Care Services Provision General Directorate. From a high baseline level of 257 under- The overarching priority policy of the MoPH five deaths per 1000 live births, a 20 percent has been to obtain nearly universal coverage of reduction in under-five mortality was tar- a standard Basic Package of Health Services geted by 2010. With the under-five mortal- (BPHS) through a ‘contracting out’ initiative, to ity rate estimated by the 2006 Afghanistan create strong linkages with the hospital sector Health Survey to be 191 per 1000 live through an effective referral mechanism. births, a 26 percent reduction from the However, the MoPH will also be responsible baseline level has already been achieved. for creating an enabling environment for ex- pansion of the Health Care System beyond theThere are a number of challenges and con- provision of the BPHS.straints that must be addressed if continuedprogress is to be made, including: The MoPH will focus on the following policy areas: Inadequate financing for many of the key programs; Leadership at all levels in policy formula- Reliance on external sources of funding; tion and translating policies into concrete Inadequately trained health workers; actions to ensure that actions are geared toward attaining the specified goals; Lack of qualified female health workers in rural areas; Conducting monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of health care services Dispersed population, geographical barri- in order to ensure quality, equity and effi- ers and a lack of transportation infrastruc- ciency of the health system; ture Coordinating the contributions of all na- Low levels of utilization for certain health tional and international agencies involved services, especially preventive services; in the Health and Nutrition Sector, uphold- Variable levels of service quality; ing standards and mapping services to avoid duplication and gaps; Insecurity which makes program imple- mentation difficult, recruitment and reten- Decentralization of appropriate responsi- tion of staff, expansion of service coverage bility and managerial autonomy to the and monitoring by the provincial and cen- provincial level; tral levels; Increase the active participation of com- Lack of effective financial protection munities in the management of their local mechanisms for poor households to receive health care services through developing the care they need without experiencing fi- strong, active participatory links with nancial distress; shura (community committees) and train- ing and supporting community health Lack of mechanisms for effective regulation workers; of for-profit private sector clinics and pharmacies. Developing legislation and regulations to facilitate growth and assure quality in the private sector provision or civil service provision of health care services. For more information refer to the Volume II. Economical and Social Development 109
    • The Government will give high priority to the ing modern information and technology sys- following projects in this sector for the next five tems at both national and provincial levels. years: Disease Control and Nutrition Program: CDC and Non-CDC Program MoPH will establish and maintain a surveil- Primary Health Care Program lance system (Disease Early Warning System) Hospital Care Program to respond to epidemics and other risks to hu- Reproductive Health and MCH Pro- man health as well as responding to health emergencies in a timely manner. This will in- gram volve implementing actions needed to better Policy and Planning Support Program control communicable diseases through Human Resource Development and strengthened management of integrated, cost- Research effective interventions for prevention, control Pharmaceutical Management Support and treatment. The prevention and manage- Program ment of outbreaks will also be strengthened further through raising public awareness and The Health and Nutrition Strategy comprises responding more rapidly through the Disease eight core programs (Refer Appendix I) – four Early Warning System. A key action will be related to the Health Care Services Programs the development and institutionalization of a (Primary Health Care Program; Hospital Care Comprehensive Health Preparedness Plan at Program; Disease Control and Nutrition Pro- the national and provincial levels and allocate gram; and RH and Child Health Program) and appropriate resources for responding to natural four related to the Institutional Development and man-made emergencies in an effective and program (Policy and Planning Support Pro- timely manner. This plan will set out the pro- gram; HRD and Research Program; Pharma- grams needed to address key emerging public ceutical Management Support Program; and health problems, such as illicit drugs and their Administrative Program). In addition, the ef- use, smoking, HIV/AIDS, blindness, and road forts to stimulate the development of ‘for traffic accidents. profit’ private sector provision of health care services can be considered a third priority MoPH will also work to increase awareness component of the Health and Nutrition Strat- and understanding of potential adverse health egy. consequences of environmental factors, such as poor water supplies; lack of adequate sanita- Health Care Services Programs: Primary tion facilities; inadequate rubbish disposal and Health Care and Hospital Care Programs: The collection; health facility waste; poor food han- MoPH will ensure the provision of a compre- dling and hygiene; and high levels of air pollu- hensive referral network of secondary and ter- tion. MoPH will also oversee programs to re- tiary hospitals that provide, as a minimum, the duce malnutrition of all types, including reduc- Essential Package of Hospital Services and do tion of micronutrient deficiency diseases, so within a framework of agreed upon, to set through integrated and coordinated program- standards to improve clinical and managerial ming and promotion of food and nutrition se- performance. curity for all by adopting a public nutrition ap- proach involving multi-sectoral interventions Pharmaceutical Management Support that address the underlying causes of malnutri- Program: MoPH will also act to ensure the tion, including food insecurity, poor social en- accessibility, availability, safety, efficiency, ef- vironment, and inadequate access to health fectiveness and affordability of medicines, care services. through several means, including establish- ment of a functional drug quality control labo- This program will also develop a flexible range ratory at the central level. Establish and use of integrated mental health support and care standard international level procurement, services at all levels of the health system. Par- stocking and logistics systems to enable inter- ticular attention will be given to post-traumatic national contracting, bidding, stocking and counseling through the training of more com- transportation. MoPH will also establish, main- munity health care workers and psychologists tain and further develop an affordable, useful and their placement in accessible community and functioning communications network us- health facilities; and ensure that people with110 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • temporary or permanent disabilities have ac- the Consultative Group on Health and Nutri-cess to both general health services and special- tion and task forces to work on specific techni-ized services, and detect and treat disabilities cal issues under the leadership of the MoPHearly through more appropriate diagnosis of and further develop Provincial Public Healthnewborn and small children with disabilities. Coordination Committees within each prov- ince.Reproductive and Child Health Program:High priority will be given to ensuring that MoPH will also review and develop relevantdevelopment partners deliver the different legal and regulatory mechanisms, such as ac-components of reproductive health as an inte- creditation systems, that govern health andgrated package, and increase accessibility to, health related work in the public and privateand utilization of, quality reproductive health sectors. The goal of the regulatory system willcare services, including antenatal care, intra- be to facilitate competitive and cost effectivepartum care, routine and emergency obstetric provision of services, carrying out its broadercare and post partum care, counseling and mandate to not only contract out service provi-modern family planning services. This will sion to civil and private groups but also to fa-focus on reducing child mortality, morbidity cilitate growth of the ‘for profit’ sector. Thisand disabilities and improve child growth and being said, MoPH will also review, developdevelopment by promoting exclusive breast and enforce relevant legal and regulatory in-feeding, expanding implementation of inte- struments that govern health and health relatedgrated management of childhood illnesses, en- work to safeguard the public and ensure ser-hancing the control of vaccine preventable dis- vice quality. MoPH will work to identify, en-eases and addressing adolescent health courage, coordinate, and review and in somethrough school health programs. For more in- cases conduct relevant, useful research that canformation refer to the Volume II assist evidence-based decision making and the formulation of new policies, strategies andInstitutional Development Programs: Pol- plans. One area of resource is with respect toicy and Planning Support Program: The na- facilitating the growth of the private sectortional health care system will be organized and providers operating on their own outside themanaged to reduce inequity and improve effi- framework of contracts from MoPH.ciency and accountability at all levels. Stepswill be taken to improve capacity at the provin- Human Resource Development, Researchcial level and to decentralize responsibilities as and Administration Programs: The MoPHprovincial capacity is established. In addition, will work closely with the Civil Service Com-efforts will be made to enhance evidence- mission to implement the National Priority Re-based, bottom-up and participatory strategic form and Restructuring competitive recruit-planning in all levels of the health system ment processes for placing the most highlythrough development of annual, business plans qualified Afghan health professionals in estab-with costs in all departments, strengthened lished posts throughout all levels of the healthlinks between the different levels of the health system. Efforts will be made to promote a cul-system, implementation of the National Moni- ture of quality throughout the Health and Nu-toring and Evaluation Strategy and translation trition Sector, especially in health facilities,of recommendations from research and practi- through leadership and good examples set incal experiences to policy formulation and day-to-day work, strengthen the use of qualityhealth planning. standards, and promote frequent supportive- supervision. A Quality Assurance CommitteeMoPH will enhance coordination between the has been established to promote improvementsMoPH and partner organizations through for- in service within public sector facilities. Oncemal and informal mechanisms and facilitate effective regulatory mechanisms are developedstronger donor coordination, especially when and can be enforced, the MoPH will addressundertaking assessment and planning missions quality issues in the private-for-profit sector,and in supporting health priorities. MoPH will especially pharmacies and drug sellers. Aalso work with both donors, partners and the comprehensive approach to human resourceprivate sector to coordinate the delivery of development will be developed to produce,health care services by setting and distributing deploy and retain where they are needed anpolicies, standards and guidelines, convening appropriately trained health workforce pos- Economical and Social Development 111
    • sessing the variety of skills needed to deliver the later issues have been discussed in describ- affordable, equitable and quality health care ing earlier programs. services. Further develop and maintain a health care worker registration system and a national Civil society plays a role in the delivery of testing and certification examination process health services and in the interaction between (in collaboration with the Ministry of Higher government and the population in determining Education) will be established standards for health needs and priority areas. This strategy accreditation of training institutes and pro- has been designed to specifically target the grams. There will be a significant Expansion of health and nutritional needs of the most vul- the community midwife training program nerable groups in Afghanistan. Civil Society model to other cadres of health workers, with groups will play a key role interacting between particular emphasis on recruiting, training and all players to ensure this happens. Recognizing deploying couples to work together in health that transparency and accountability are essen- facilities in their community after graduation. tial in order to attract resources, and aware that For more information refer to the Volume II in a post-conflict environment many well- and Appendix II, National Action Plan Matrix. intentioned governmental and non- governmental partners tend to impose and ar- Health Care Financing: The MoPH will un- range for the implementation of programs of dertake health advocacy to increase funds and their own design, the MoPH has pursued a resources to the health sector, ensure spending strategy of close coordination with all actors in is in line with priorities and coordinated across the health sector. A Consultative Group for sectors, strengthen transparency in the alloca- Health and Nutrition that includes donors, ma- tion of financial resources and financial man- jor NGOs, ISAF, UN agencies, and other line agement, strengthen coordination of different ministries meets regularly to review recent de- sources of funding, and monitor different velopments in the health sector and to contrib- mechanisms of financing the delivery of ser- ute to making policies and suggesting pro- vices for their cost-efficiency and acceptability. grams for the future. For more information re- MoPH will also coordinate closely with the fer to the volume II Ministry of Finance on the National Develop- ment Budget, the development of mechanisms The Sub-national Consultation (SNC) process to improve total public expenditure from inter- of the ANDS has successfully involved the sub- nal and external resources, the development of national administration of the sector. It has alternative health care financing. Work under- strengthened the sense of cohesion between the taken on facilitating private sector growth in central MoPH and the provincial public health the sector will also be used to explore the po- departments. The MoPH’s evaluation criteria tential costs or savings from efforts to facilitate for the SNC proposals seek equity by looking at such growth or from the budget savings be- the depth of poverty and vulnerability of the cause of such growth population to be served. It takes into account health indicators of mothers and children, utili- Rule of Private Sector and Civil Society: zation and availability of the health services in Through the Basic Package of Health Services, the area of concern, and availability of funds:51 the contracting out initiative, and the focused development of the MoPH’s ability to exercise the proposals that are on-going and/or to the stewardship function, highly effective part- be implemented with the current funds; nerships with non-profit private sector agencies the proposals that are included in the have been achieved. Strategic actions related to MoPH Construction Plan and to be imple- the private sector include: (i) continuing the mented when fund is available; effective partnership with non-governmental organizations in the health sector (ii) further developing the MoPH’s capacity to establish 51 policies, strategies and plans, monitor perform- While maximizing the number of beneficiaries, the MoPH seeks equity by looking at the scientific data on topography, ance in delivery of health services and coordi- depth of poverty and vulnerability of the population to be served nate diverse actors from the public and private for, health indicators of mothers and children in particular, utili- sectors working within health and nutrition; zation and availability of the health services in the area of con- cern, availability of funds and so forth. By doing so, the propos- and (iii) developing regulatory mechanisms for als are categorized according to four criteria. engaging the for-profit private sector. Many of112 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • the proposals that are considered in the Effective Reproductive and Child health HNSS timeframe and implemented when system; and fund is available; and Increased competition amongst health care the proposals that have to be discussed in providers. detail with the MoPH because they are not adhering to the evaluation criteria, collid- ing with the HNSS strategies and/or du- EDUCATION plicating the efforts and inputs of the MoPH and its partners. Role of the Sector in ANDSThe MoPH acknowledges that the SNC is an The ANDS strategic vision for this sector is thatopportunity for all the stakeholders in the sec- regardless of gender, ethnicity, socio-economictor to create more dialogue and thus refine the status or religious affiliation, all Afghans willroute towards the accomplishment of the have equal access to quality education to en-HNSS. able them to develop their knowledge and skills and thereby maximize their potential. AnPrivate Sector ‘For Profit’ Health Care education sector that engenders a healthyProvision: In addition to the contractual ar- workforce with relevant skills and knowledgerangements with NGOs and Private Sector is a key to long-term economic growth.groups to provide MoPH service packages,mechanisms will be developed by which ‘for Over the last six years the sector has experi-profit’ private sector providers of medical and enced a number of major achievements, nota-hospital services can be supported by Govern- bly in terms of enrollment rates. There are to-ment. This reflects the realization that while day more than six million children, youth andpublic funding for many social services such as adults receiving education. Communities haveeducation and health is necessary, ‘for profit’ demonstrated their desire for a better future forprivate sector provision may be more efficient. their children by sending them to school inIn many countries, private sector provision has their millions. Tens of thousands of youth anddeveloped to cover the needs of a significant adults, both female and male attend literacyproportion of the population seeking quality classes and vocational training programs.education and health care. These ‘for profit’ Households are making large personal and fi-private sector providers have emerged despite nancial sacrifices to provide an education fornot have any access to public funding. As part their children. However, much remains to beof the ANDS, an effort will be made to foster done. This strategy outlines the Government’scompetition between public sector providers, priorities for education that will facilitate thepublic sector contractors and ‘for profit’ private development of an education sector fromsector operations. Communities or individual which students will emerge literate, numerateconsumers who feel they can get better service and technologically proficient.from the ‘for profit’ private sector providersshould not lose their claim on public funds just Access to education is enshrined in the consti-because they make this choice. Voucher tution, which states that:schemes and/or direct public sector paymentsfor approved services provided by accredited education “is the right of all citizens and‘for profit’ private sector providers will be used offered free of charge in State institu-to encourage this competition. tions….and that the State is obliged to de- vise and implement effective programs for a balanced expansion of education all overExpected Outcomes Afghanistan” (article 43).The key expected outcomes in the Health andNutrition sector are: The education sector in Afghanistan comprises three sub-sectors: (i) Primary and Secondary Increased quality of health care services; Education, which includes general, Islamic and technical/vocational education, from Grades 1 Increased access to health care services; to 14; (ii) Higher Education for all tertiary edu- cation; and (iii) Skills Development that en- Economical and Social Development 113
    • compasses literacy and technical vocational priority policies include an increase in the qual- education/training ity and independence of the Higher Education system and a move to place vocational educa- The Millennium Development Goal for the sec- tional on a more sustainable basis that can bet- tor is that by 2020 all children in the country – ter contribute to emerging demands for skills. boys and girls alike – will be able to complete a full course of primary education. A set of me- dium term benchmarks (to be met by the end of Current Situation in the Sector 2010) identified in the Afghanistan Compact After decades of disruption to education and has guided the development of strategies for the near total destruction of the education sys- each of the sub-sectors. tem, one of the Government’s top social priori- ties was to get children to return to school. The Afghanistan Compact Benchmarks for the Data from the sub-sector52 indicate unparal- sector is net enrolment in primary schools for leled success giving a clear indication of the girls and boys will be at least 60 percent and 75 aspirations of the people that reflects a social percent respectively; a new curriculum will be transformation taking place (see box 7.4). operational in all secondary schools; the num- bers of female teachers will be increased by 50 percent; 70 percent of Afghanistan’s teachers Box 7.4. Success in the education sector: will have passed a competency test and a sys- increased primary education tem for assessing learning achievement will be The Back to School campaign launched in in place”. The total number of students en- 2002 aimed to get 1.5 million children rolled in universities will be 100,000 of which at enrolled in primary and secondary least 35 percent will be female”.150, 000 men education. From under one million in 2001 and women will be trained in marketable skills the school population has grown to 5.7 through public and private means, million in 2007 and new enrolments into Grade 1 have ranged between 12-14 percent The Government has set itself a target to enable per annum in the last five years. Two at least 1.8 million Afghans to attain demon- million of the children (or 35 percent) strated literacy by 2010, and ensure that at least enrolled are girls – a 35 percent increase in 60 percent of the learners are females, members five years. In keeping with the exponential of minority groups, nomads or persons with increase in enrolment, the number of schools disabilities. has trebled to 9,062 in 2007 including 1,337 all girls’ and 4,325 co-educational schools. Expected Outcomes: The overall education Similarly, the number of teachers has system agreed outcomes include an increase in increased seven-fold to 142,500 of who the literacy rate, improved quality of education, nearly 40,000 are female. Fifty thousand of an expansion in the capacity of the education these teachers have received in-service system to absorb more students (particularly teacher training. Islamic education in female students), equal access to education for Afghanistan has been reviewed and a broad- all, improvement in opportunities and quality based curriculum has been developed for Higher Education, expanded capacity and through a national consultative process. The improved quality of vocational education and number of reformed religious schools that skill development, improved conditions for teach a broad-based Islamic education sport, improved and expanded capacity of the curriculum has increased to 336 and the Academy of Science, and mainstreaming of National Islamic Education Council has been cross-cutting issues. For detail information re- established to oversee and monitor the fer to Appendix 3 National Action Plan and delivery of Islamic education across the Monitoring Matrix country. Sector Priority Policies: Priority short term policies over the next four years involve re- training 70 percent of teachers in primary and secondary school and coping with increased 52 School Surveys Summary Report, 1386 (February 2008), Min- demand for education by increasing enrol- istry of Education, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. ments from 6.1 million to 7.7 million. Other114 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • In Higher Education, universities have re- rolled in schools and there are huge provincial,opened. There are now 52,200 students in gender and rural/urban disparities. Eight-twohigher education institutions taught by 2,713 percent of children enrolled in schools are inlecturers. Demand for higher education is cur- primary grades.rently four times greater than the availableplaces in tertiary education institutions. The Box 7.5. Progress is still required in thenext stage of rehabilitation involves improving education sectorthe quality of education in existing institutionsand expanding the number of places available. Half of all schools today do not havePartnerships with foreign universities and adequate, safe or appropriate learningother educational institutions have been intro- spaces that are conducive to parentsduced in about half the universities. Such allowing their girls, particularly at thepartnerships foster and provide support to de- secondary level, to enroll in schools. Thisvelop and enhance the capacity of these univer- together with a severe shortage of femalesities. teachers in rural areas – 80 percent of rural districts do not have a girls’ high schoolSkills development – through technical and because there are no female teachersvocational education and training as well as available locally to teach in them (there arefocused functional literacy – has also seen sig- only 216 girls’ high schools across thenificant growth in the last five years. The Gov- country, a majority of them located inernment established the National Skills Devel- regional and provincial capitals). Only 28opment Program in 2005 as a national priority percent of all teachers are women and eightyprogram. Technical/vocational education at percent of them are found in urban schools.the secondary level through public institutions Schools for children with special needs arehas seen a 10-fold increase in the last five years woefully lacking while those for Kuchiwith nearly 10,500 students enrolled in 44 children are inadequate. Every year betweenschools. Short-term technical/vocational train- 40,000-70,000 youth graduate from highing courses that focus on specific skills set are schools across the country but only 25-30conducted by the non-government and the pri- percent of them are able to enter tertiaryvate sectors. Similarly, functional literacy for education due to the severe shortage ofyouth and young adults are carried out by both places in higher education institutions. Inthe public and non-government sectors. In the 2006 there were 58,300 applicants for entrypublic sector alone nearly 320,000 persons un- into tertiary education institutions. Onlydertook a 9-month literacy course in 2007, 75 17,700 were successful. Most of thepercent of whom were female students. universities have buildings that require rehabilitation and there is a drastic shortageThe key achievements noted above are com- of qualified lecturers.mendable but are by no means the whole pic-ture. While the Government is satisfied with The lack of access to education in the recentthe progress made so far, it recognizes the past has resulted in a massive backlog of illiter-many challenges that lie ahead in achieving its ate people in Afghanistan. Based on recentlong-term vision and medium term objectives. national surveys54 it is estimated that onlyThese challenges pertain to meeting the grow- 28 percent of the population in the country caning demand for access to quality and relevant read. Disaggregated by gender this statisticeducation. reveals that only 18 percent of females andThe demand for education far outstrips the 36 percent of males are able to read, a female tosupply across the sector in Afghanistan today. male ratio of 0.5. Based on population projec- tions developed specifically for this work andOnly half of all school-age children53 are en- literacy rates by the Afghan Institute for Rural Development it is estimated that there are 11.2 million illiterate persons in the country53 School age refers to children between 6-18 years of age; 6-13years = primary school which is Grades 1-6; 14-18 years = sec-ondary school from Grades 7 to 12. Basic education is described 54as Grades 1-9 (6-15 years of age), which is also compulsory as NRVA 2005 and projected population projections specificallystated in the Constitution. developed for this report. Economical and Social Development 115
    • today, half of whom are out-of-school children length across various training programs and primarily above the age of thirteen. courses are often not sub-divided into levels of competency. The quality of student input is Other quality constraints revolve around teach- low and consequently the quality of students ing spaces, teacher and trainer qualifications, entering formal higher secondary or tertiary skills and motivation, outdated curricula and education do not possess adequate literacy and poor teaching and learning materials. Add to numeracy skills needed to cope with higher this weak assessment and accreditation sys- level theory and practical courses. In the case tems. Only half the teachers employed in the of vocational training the problem is further primary and secondary sub-sector meet the compounded by the lack of prior academic minimum qualification which is set at Grade 12 training. for primary school teachers. But this is ham- pered by the numbers of high schools gradu- Throughout the education sector there is a gen- ates available and/or willing to train as teach- eral lack of engagement with the private sector ers. There is major shortage of qualified master and the use of private sector resources that trainers in the vocational training. would generate competitiveness and thereby encourage and enhance quality of the educa- Primary school curriculum has been reviewed tion services. Benefits to delivery of relevant and revised and new textbooks developed; education services would be greatly enhanced production and distribution of these textbooks through market linkages and the private sector. is still ongoing. However, secondary school students are still being taught from an outdated Perhaps the most daunting challenge facing the curriculum developed more than 20 years ago. sector today is that which is posed by terror- While a new curriculum has been developed ism. Educational institutions, students and over the last 12 months, the development, pro- teachers have become the soft targets through duction and distribution of textbooks, teachers’ which terrorists are depriving the population guides and learning materials will take a fur- their basic rights. Threats to schools, destruc- ther 12-18 month period. Teacher training in tion of school buildings, killing and maiming of the use and teaching of the new curriculum still students and teachers is increasing, particularly needs to be addressed. Libraries and laborato- in the southern provinces. Despite the bravery ries are singularly lacking even in most urban of communities and school authorities in keep- schools and higher education institutions as are ing schools open when threatened or reopening trained librarians, technicians and science them as soon as possible after an incident or teachers. In higher education there is a need to threat, the terrorists continue their campaign of transform the monolithic system into a modern intimidation. In 2007 alone 117 schools were system of independent, well managed universi- burned down or destroyed, 207 schools had to ties that operate in the interests of their stu- be closed due to severe threats, 157 students dents. Technical/vocational education and and teachers lost their lives and over 200 others training are overloaded with academic subjects, have been injured or maimed. For detail infor- have poor laboratory environments for practi- mation refer to Volume II cal training, are short of teaching aids and lack adequate training materials. These programs provide limited exposure to students on the Policy Framework: Sector Strategy practical application of their training. Three dominant policy goals drive the educa- tion sector strategy; equity, quality and rele- The relevance of education as it applies to the vance: content, proper articulation from elementary to high school level and appropriateness for stu- Equity: Access to education for all is enshrined dent learning and teachers teaching are a chal- in the Constitution which makes it illegal to lenge that is still being defined in the sector deny or refuse access to schools for any reason. today. Skills development is rarely linked to Although there has been significant progress in market relevance and weak job linkages. There the past five years at the national level, boys’ is no minimum qualification standards im- enrolment in primary schools is still nearly posed particularly in course content or assess- twice that of girls, while at the secondary levels ment procedures for technical/vocational train- it is three to four times higher. In urban areas ing. Similarly, there is no uniformity in course girls are approaching gender equity but only at116 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • the primary level. In rural areas, girls are much Although improving the pedagogical skills ofless likely to be enrolled at any level but after teachers is a contributor to improving the qual-the primary years boys are more than ten times ity of education in Afghanistan, recent surveysas likely to be enrolled. The shortage of girls’ indicate that the knowledge level of teachers isschools and female teachers, especially at post- also extremely low. This indicates the need forprimary levels, are the greatest risk factors for a teacher training program that consists of bothachieving higher participation rates and gender subject-content training as well as pedagogicalequity in rural areas. Access to education for training. The quality of education will also benomadic children, those with learning disabili- improved by continued updating and revisionties, pre-school children and older children of the curriculum and by increased communitywho have missed the first years of basic educa- involvement in the management of educationtion and now want to enter the system is also delivery. Enhanced quality of education willgenerally low. be measured by the progression rates of stu- dents through the system and the numbers ofEquity in access to primary and secondary teachers who have successfully completededucation will provide a firm base for equity in competency tests and the systems put in placehigher education. In order to improve and in- to monitor and coach teachers on a regular ba-crease access, the government plans to pursue sis.an aggressive building and equipment pro-gram in addition to assessing the potential for Relevance: For education to contribute todistance learning strategies. This will include poverty reduction and economic growth it isassessing the optimal role for government and important that the skills and knowledge ac-identifying strategies for achieving national quired in the education system are relevant tocoverage relatively quickly through the use of present day needs and market demands. Theexisting national facilities. As part of the ag- content of education in Afghanistan has notgressive building program, efforts will be made evolved with the times and not for want ofto include improved security, comfort and hy- good reasons. However, it is opportune now togiene in the building designs in order to im- leapfrog in time and adopt relevant method-prove the physical learning environment. Im- ologies, content and appropriateness that suitprovement in equitable access to education will both the individual and the people at large tobe indicated through increased net enrolment better contribute to and benefit from economicin the various sub-sectors, by gender and spe- growth.cial needs; additional physical infrastructureand facilities for that caters to all including fe- The review and revision of curriculum to makemales, special needs and nomadic communities Islamic education broad-based to allow multi-in suitable locations. ple career paths for graduates, the teaching and learning of technical and vocational skills thatQuality: The quality of education in Afghani- are in demand and will lead to jobs, adult liter-stan is quite low across the sector. There are acy that is linked to productive skills, are somemultiple reasons for this including teachers examples of how government is attempting towho do not have a thorough knowledge of ei- make education more relevant to present dayther the subjects taught or effective teaching Afghanistan. For detail information refer tomethods; the lack of adequate learning spaces, Volume II.as well as the lack of quality teaching andlearning materials. The classroom environmentand the quality of education are critically de- Strategic approachespendent on the quality of teaching. Teacher- The underlying principle of government in en-centered classrooms and rote learning are the suring equal access to education for all is tonorm in Afghanistan’s classrooms across the develop a strategy that is national in scope butsector. Existing classroom-based methods do local in focus and delivery. Different measuresno deliver basic literacy and numeracy and will be required to overcome constraints to ac-they do not develop critical thinking and ana- cess and supply due to geography and therebylytical skills of students. Teachers either do not promote the diversity of Afghanistan.know how to implement more student-centered methods or are not motivated to Government will work towards strengtheningchange their teaching style. partnerships, clarifying responsibility and Economical and Social Development 117
    • transferring skills. The value and contribution tion and Literacy,56 while the quality of educa- of partners to the education sector will be en- tion is assured through the Teacher Education hanced through improved understanding and & Working Conditions, Curriculum Develop- collaborative implementation. ment & Learning Materials, Education Infra- structure Rehabilitation and Development, and A government-led education sector needs to be Education Administration Reform and Man- supported through building an accountable agement. Each of these programs has a set of and transparent system of education financing costed projects that are prioritized and se- and administration. The underpinning strategy quenced for implementation. For detail infor- that the government will employ to achieve its mation refer to Volume II. policy goals, therefore, is the reform and re- structuring of the management systems in Higher Education: The Higher Education place that facilitate the delivery of education strategy involves improving quantity and qual- services. At the primary and secondary school ity aspects to satisfy the demand for the market level, a major policy shift seeks to devolve based economy with skilled professionals. This greater authority to the school level for minor will involve increasing the capacity to accom- operating expenses, planning and execution. modate more qualified students, together with This is part of the overall intention to improve an improvement in the quality of higher educa- governance and management standards. tion by improving the number and quality of lecturers and offering a greater variety of Recruitment processes will be reviewed and be courses. There are plans to provide universi- part of the overall public administration re- ties with greater autonomy. A key component forms. Registration of all teaching profession- of the strategy is to encourage universities to als across the sector, implementation of public enter into cooperative arrangements with other administration reform, teacher salaries and universities, both domestic and foreign, so that other incentives are being reviewed as part of there can be an exchange of lecturers. Imple- the pay and grading process, including appro- mentation of this strategy has already com- priate career development of teaching profes- menced. Eleven cooperative partnerships be- sionals based on merit and performance to in- tween individual universities in the country crease retention, in conjunction with the Civil with well qualified foreign universities are in Service Commission. various stages of finalization. In 2007 a Higher Education Law has been Strategies passed by Cabinet. A Master’s course has al- Primary and Secondary Education: A com- ready begun as part of the objective to offer a prehensive five-year strategic plan55 for the greater variety of courses. Ministry of Higher delivery of education services has been devel- Education has started to introduce accredita- oped by the Ministry of Education to meet the tion through the Academic Coordination medium-term benchmarks for primary and Committee. This body, whilst still in the early secondary education set in the Afghanistan stages will also be involved in quality assur- Compact by 2010. Based on the overarching ance and control, which is an integral compo- policy of attaining national and gender equity nent of the accreditation procedures. This in access to quality and relevant education, in- component of the strategy will be monitored by cluding affirmative action initiatives, the Stra- the structure that has been established through tegic Plan encompasses the National Education an agreement and Memorandum of Under- Program that comprises two subsets of priority standing (MoU) signed with the World Bank programs. The first set comprises service de- on establishment of Afghanistan National livery programs and the second set quality as- Qualification Authority. In its efforts to im- surance and support programs. The service prove the quality of Higher Education, most delivery programs are General Education, Is- funds available to the Ministry will be used to lamic Education, Technical/Vocational Educa- refurbish the existing university campuses and 55 56 National Education Strategic Plan (1385-1389), Ministry of Outputs of these programs contribute to the development and Education, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. delivery of the Skills Development sub-sector.118 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • carry out construction of buildings for libraries the National Education Strategic Plan as is Lit-and laboratories in the existing universities. It eracy and Non-formal education. These twois also important as part of the strategy to con- programs address all three policy goals of theduct a review of university funding so that sector. Under the former a National Institute ofuniversities have greater autonomy. For detail Administration and Management is being es-information refer to Volume II. tablished to address the lack of capacity in both the public and private sectors in basic projectSkills Development and Training: Many of management, accountancy and booking andthe courses delivered by mandated institutions information and communication technology. Asuffer from the similar problems: lack of mod- nation-wide literacy and productive skills pro-ern equipment that can be used by students to gram is being launched that is envisaged mak-acquire trade-relevant skills and lack of ade- ing at least half a million people literate andquately trained and motivated staff. Issues that numerate with skills that will enable them toneed to be addressed include the need to find employment. This would be in addition toclearly identify administrative responsibility numerous other literacy service providers whofor delivering and setting standards in the area coordinate their activities and interventionsof vocational education. There are problems of under the leadership of the National Literacystaff shortages, overbuilding, lack of standardi- Centre.zation in training courses, and qualificationsthat are difficult for potential employers to ac- There are now firm proposals agreed to bycess. These problems are being addressed relevant institutions to the establishment ofthrough the MoU mentioned above. regulatory bodies to operate across the whole of the education spectrum in order to improveThe strategy that has been proposed to address educational standards. These include a Boardthis is to establish a new organization, National of Secondary Education, a National VocationalVocational Education and Training Board Education and training Board, the Islamic Edu-(NVETB) that would manage, but not operate, cation Board and Higher Education Board. Itall vocational training institutions. The NVETB has been agreed to establish the necessary leg-would set minimum core competencies for islation for these Boards and for the implemen-courses, carry out accreditation, and inspect tation of the Afghanistan National Qualifica-vocational institutions, to ensure that they meet tions Framework. In order to oversee theseminimum standards. They would be responsi- components of the strategy a committee onble for calling tenders to operate vocational education and skills policy has been estab-training facilities owned by the state. Tenders lished. This committee covers the entire educa-to operate training centers that comply with tion sector. It is chaired by the Vice-President.NVETB standards could be accepted from both There are four Government members repre-the public and private sectors. The proposed senting MoE, MoHE, MoLSAMD and MoF, twoapproach using NVETB would address the members representing the private sector andproblems of lack of modern equipment that can two members representing the donor commu-be used by students to acquire trade-relevant nity. A committee to monitor Capacity Utiliza-skills, lack of adequately-trained and motivated tion, headed by the Minister of economy willstaff, and lack of standardization in courses. It also be established. This committee will moni-would provide for sustainability of the sector, tor individual projects where there is potentialwhich is currently lacking. Part of the strategy for capacity utilization issues to present im-would involve the development of an accredi- plementation problems. The private sector willtation system for NGO and private sector pro- be represented on this Committee. For detailviders who provide the bulk of vocational information refer to Volume II.training. By 2008 there would be a plan to for-malize existing apprenticeship arrangements In some countries, heavy investments in higherand expand the system. The approach will en- education have resulted in low returns becausesure that a recognized qualification is provided of low absorption capacity for these skills in theto people undertaking apprenticeships who economy, with unemployment rates high forhave achieved specified basic competencies. graduates unwilling to take jobs considered beneath their skill level. If the quality of educa-Technical/vocational education, as part of the tion can be improved, this is not expected to beformal secondary education, is included under a problem in Afghanistan where there is a Economical and Social Development 119
    • dearth of well qualified individuals. Increased The Academy of Science will be strength- investment is crucial for the demand for labor ened and supported so as to use the re- to increase. This requires higher rates of sources and talents of the academy to assist growth, broad investment to increase and pro- with the restoration and development of ductivity to be higher. With increased invest- Afghanistan society ment in many areas of the economy, there will be high demand for well qualified Afghans. Integration of the PDPs: At the provincial and district level Provincial and Development Plans There is an urgent need for qualified teachers, (PDPs), have been developed through a sub- trainers, doctors, professors, for those with the national consultation process. These Plans en- requisite skills for planning and implementing sure that the priorities in the ANDS reflect the improved water management practices, for best interests and most urgent needs of the qualified professionals in the Civil Service, for people. The most urgent provincial needs in skills needed in the management and devel- education, health, and transport have been opment of mineral resources, for meeting the identified and will be integrated in the sector management and safety needs of a growing strategies. A problem in the education sector civil aviation sector, for managing and main- has been direct provincial infrastructure aid by taining an expanding road system, for work in country donors, such as construction of provin- regional trading enterprises centered in Af- cial agricultural colleges, that is not sustainable ghanistan, in developing, energy resources, because the provincial recipient does not have working in Independent Power Producers, and the funds to finance the running costs, includ- in managing and improving electricity trans- ing as salaries and equipment, which are essen- mission and distribution systems, developing tial to enable this type of infrastructure aid to commercial agriculture, and working in opera- make a contribution to provincial development. tions to assist the poor and most vulnerable For detail information refer to Volume III Pro- either within or outside government. If the vincial Development Plans. ANDS educational strategy is successful in ad- dressing the quality shortcomings in the public Institutional Arrangements: Education ser- education system and expanding the scope for vices are delivered by a number of government private education, the expected growth of the institutions. The Ministry of Education is economy will create the demand for well quali- mandated to deliver primary and secondary fied Afghans emerging from the educational education, including general education, Islamic system. Care will need to be taken to assure education, teacher education, techni- that existing but less qualified employees in the cal/vocational education and literacy. The public sector do not block the way of better Ministry of Higher Education is responsible for qualified applicants for these jobs, although all tertiary education while the Ministry of La- these existing employees should also be given bor and Social Affairs is mandated to deliver the opportunity to develop the needed skills vocational training. through in house capacity development pro- grams and through ‘educational leaves’ to up- grade their skills. CULTURE, YOUTH AND MEDIA There are other sub-sector policies covering areas such as Sport and the Afghan Academy of Science. Role of the Sector in ANDS The ANDS strategic vision for this sector is to In sports policy there will be an effort preserve and protect the cultural heritage of made to encourage private sector support. Afghanistan and hand it on to new generations Provided funds are available, there is a to foster cultural creativity and to establish program to build sports complexes and media that are independent, pluralistic and strengthen sports through provincial sports accessible to women and men throughout the departments and sports improvement pro- country thereby promoting an open and de- grams in capital and provinces. The anti- mocratic society, young people (male and fe- narcotics message will be promoted male) to be confident that they have a stable, strongly through sports activities.120 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • prosperous and productive future in the coun- responsible for increased questioning andtry. analysis of Government activities more broadly.Culture provides the social basis that al-lows for stimulating creativity, innovation, The Government is committed to furtheringhuman progress and well-being. In this this public debate and independence of media.sense, culture can be seen as a driving The Government recognizes that public debate is crucial for allowing the needs of the Afghanforce for human development, in respect of people to be fed into development activities.economic growth and also as a means of Independent media report development activi-leading a more fulfilling intellectual, emo- ties and programs and are critically importanttional, moral and spiritual life. to increasing public awareness on the Govern- ment and international community’s efforts.The Afghanistan Constitution article 47 articu-lates that the state shall devise effective pro- At the same time, local independent entertain-grams for fostering knowledge, culture, litera- ment programs have been developed and areture and arts. The state shall guarantee the highly popular. Regional television shows arecopyrights of authors, inventors and discover- also broadcasted meeting the needs of the Af-ers, and, shall encourage and protect scientific ghan people.research in all fields, publicizing their resultsfor effective use in accordance with the provi- Many historical and valuable artifacts that weresions of the law. Freedom of expression shall be believed lost or stolen have been accounted forinviolable according to Article 34 and every and returned. There is now a need for a com-Afghan shall have the right to express thoughts prehensive inventory to determine the extent ofthrough speech, writing, and illustration holdings.The Afghanistan Compact Benchmarks targets In Media, a large number of media outlets,comprehensive inventory of Afghan cultural television, radio and newspapers have beentreasures by end-2007 and measures will be started in the last six years. These stations pro-taken to revive the Afghan cultural heritage, to duce considerable local Afghan content and arestop the illegal removal of cultural material and popular within the country. The media law isto restore damaged monuments and artifacts drafted and is under debate.by end-2010. In Youth a Joint National Youth Program is being implemented. This program is designedCurrent situation in the sector to increase the participation of youth in gov-Achievements: Considerable progress has ernance, recovery, development and peace-been made in the past six years. From virtually building of the country. It has been producedno public debate, there are now over 130 inde- from inputs by eight Ministries and sevenpendent television and radio stations covering United Nations agencies.the entire country. In Kabul alone there are 11independent television stations, while access to Challenges and constraintscable television is increasing. There are largenumbers of independent newspapers. Many of There is an urgent need to take action tothese outlets are managed and target youth, prevent the looting of valuable cultural ar-female and minority groups. This provides tifacts and to encourage other countries toavenues for vulnerable and marginalized return them.groups to have a voice in society. The inability of the Ministry to reach as- signed targets is due to the lack of re-These advancements have created an environ- sources, both human and financial. This isment in which the caliber of public debate is the basic cause of the weaknesses in thehigh and lively. Criticism as well as praise for Sector. Institutional strengthening shouldpublic programs and figures are common and look not only at the resource needs of theencourage the public’s involvement in gov- Ministry but also look at the way resourcesernment actions and the development process. are organized.This debate filters down through society and is Economical and Social Development 121
    • In the area of culture, legal and policy Media frameworks, such as those guaranteeing re- spect of cultural rights for all Afghans, are The contribution of this sub-sector to the ANDS weak and not comprehensive. will be to ensure an independent, pluralistic and accessible media for Afghan men and Most media infrastructure and equipment women throughout the country which it is for both print and broadcast media are out- hoped will promote an open and democratic of-date or have been damaged or deliber- society. The objectives with respect to media ately destroyed. State-owned media needs are: to be reformed in order to ensure that it promotes democratic values and is editori- To establish legislation that will provide a ally independent of influences from vari- stable and predictable environment in ous interested factions. which a largely private sector, independent Media legislation that will provide an envi- media can operate; ronment in which a free, independent and Media will be employed as an educational responsible media can operate has been tool in addition to entertainment. drafted. It will be passed through Parlia- ment in 2008. Despite some setbacks, the Expected outcomes for the media sub-sector in Government is determined that the free- the short term will include: doms that have been introduced will re- main and will be protected by appropriate New Media legislation will have been legislation. passed and Government and the Ministry will successfully administer this legislation Policy framework: sector strategy in an open manner; A country-wide coverage of public Afghan Culture media (radio and television); An increased number of hours of public The objective of this sub-sector to the ANDS broadcasting, and improved quality of will be to establish a system that documents programming; and safeguards Afghanistan’s history and cul- ture for the benefit of future generations. Major Press freedom has been declining drasti- goals include: cally in Afghanistan over the past 4 years and so the need to promote and protect the Establish an accessible and well maintained independence of the media as well as en- cultural artifacts data base; sure press freedom is extremely important; Plans will be accepted, and donors will be Press freedom is a fundamental aspect of a identified, to establish regional museums; democratic society therefore the Govern- ment will work to reverse setbacks and en- Maintain Kabul museum and take meas- sure that press freedom be protected both ures to establish thematic museums such as in legislation and in practice. For detail in- ethnology, anthropology, science and tech- formation refer to volume 2 nology, handicrafts and community muse- ums; Youth The cultural artifacts collection held by the Ministry will be expanded; The contribution of this sub-sector to the ANDS Take appropriate measures to promote live will be to instill in young people a sense of con- culture (Music, Poetry, Arts, Theater & fidence in a stable, prosperous and productive Dance) future in the country. In addition a Joint Na- tional Youth Program is now in the process of In the longer term goals will include the estab- being implemented. This program has been lishment and expansion of museums as well as produced with inputs from eight Ministries of the protection of historical and heritage sites. the Government of Afghanistan and seven For detail information refer to volume 2 United Nations agencies is designed to increase the participation of youth in governance, re-122 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • covery, and peaceful development of the coun- to take necessary measures to support the mosttry. It provides young women and men with vulnerable. Since 2001 progress has beenenhanced capacities, education, and recreation achieved in number of areas: cash transferand employment opportunities. benefits have been established (martyr’s fami- lies and disabled) as the main instrument ofThe Joint National Youth Program contains social support for the victims of the war; regu-four main components: lar support to orphanages has been provided from the Core Budget; the MoLSAMD has es- Strengthening the capacity of the Govern- tablished departments in all provinces and ment to respond to the needs of the youth strengthened its capacity for targeting and co- of the country; operating with the NGOs and the donors. In total, some 2.5 million people have been cov- Promoting non-formal education, increas- ered with some type of public arrangement for ing awareness and developing skills (liter- social protection. acy, leadership, strategic planning, conflict resolution, peace-building, etc.) in young people so to provide better quality of life The pension system has been strength- and livelihood opportunities; ened: Although highly dependent on budget transfers, the basic pension scheme for civil Engaging youth in governance, develop- servants and military personal has been estab- ment and social-political processes at local, lished. The number of pensions paid has stead- district, municipal, provincial and national ily increased from around 10,000 to more than level, ensuring the participation of young 50,000 (in 2006). The MoLSAMD’s Pension women and men in democracy and advo- Department receives technical assistance for cacy; and further improvements and the MoF has intensi- Promoting voluntary efforts for peace and fied its effort on collecting pension contribu- development and establishing a youth vol- tions. unteer corps for the country. For detail in- formation refer to volume 2 The capacity of ANDMA to coordinate disaster preparedness and response has improved asThe most important projects to support the well. Basic risk vulnerability studies have beensub-sector strategies included the development, either completed or initiated. The links withmaintenance and expansion of the database sub-national structures have been established.that documents the collection of artifacts held The Emergency Budget for Disastrous Situa-by the Ministry; and the passage of the new tions has been established under the Presi-Media legislation and its implementation as dent’s authority and a number of interventionswell as the implementation of the Joint Na- for risk mitigation have been made.tional Youth Program. Despite the progress in the strengthening of social protection, important challenges andSOCIAL PROTECTION constraints remain, including security issues and low mobilization of the domestic revenues. A further constraint is limited coordinationCurrent situation within the Government and with the donors,Improving social protection is vital to reducing which leads to duplication of efforts and ineffi-poverty and increasing the livelihood of the cient targeting.Afghan people, particularly the poor and mostvulnerable. This sector strategy is critical to the The ANDS Risk and Vulnerability AssessmentsGovernment’s ongoing poverty reduction ef- indicate that the Afghan people are vulnerableforts. The programs highlighted below form a to number of risks:key part Government’s approach to achievingthis; alleviating the impacts of poverty and im- Security and economic risks: The continuedproving the welfare of the country. insecurity has led to the loss of lives and forced people to migrate. Afghanistan is one of theThe Afghan Constitution defines the role of most heavily land-mined countries. In 2006,social protection and obliges the Government landmines killed or injured an average of 61 people per month. The latest survey (NRVA Economical and Social Development 123
    • Spring 2007) estimated that 42 percent of the A rough estimate shows that half of the Afghan total population was estimated to be poor and population (12 million) requires public sup- living below the CBN poverty line. The inci- port. They are either poor or concentrated very dence of food poverty has been estimated to be close to the poverty line and are vulnerable to even higher. Afghanistan has one of the largest falling into poverty. In 2006 only around 2.5 child populations and the smallest proportion million people benefited from social protection of working age populations in the world. Al- arrangements. Currently social protection in- most 40 percent of the adult population is un- terventions cover several groups: (i) martyr’s employed. families; (ii) disabled with war-related disabili- ties; (iii) orphans and children enrolled in kin- Health and natural risks: Afghanistan has dergartens; (iv) victims of natural disasters; (v) one of the lowest life expectancies in the world pensioners; and (vi) unemployed. A rough with the life expectancy of 43 years for women calculation shows that the Government would and 44 years for men. Unlike in most coun- require annually around $2 billion just to keep tries, the life expectancy of women is shorter the poorest and most vulnerable above the than for men. Faced with natural disasters, poverty line. many vulnerable families sold the assets, chil- dren were taken out of school to work, many pre-pubescent girls were married and many Sector targets and expected results young men migrated in search for work. The implementation the strategy will aim to achieve the following targets in line with the Life-cycle and social risks: Despite legisla- Afghanistan Compact and MDGs: tion prohibiting this practice, around 57 per- cent of girls are married before the age of six- By end-2012/13 the spring national pov- teen. The early marriage of girls, and conse- erty headcount rate (42 percent) will de- quently, early pregnancy, puts women in high crease by 2 percent per year; by end-2010 risk. Widespread poverty and the non- proportion of people who suffer from hun- existence of an effective safety net or pension ger will decrease by 5 percent per year; system leaves a high proportion of elderly peo- ple vulnerable. According to a study con- By end-2012/13 prevalence of underweight ducted by UNIFEM, out of the 1,327 registered children under five in urban and rural ar- cases of violence against women 30.7 percent eas will decrease by 2 percent per year; by were related to physical violence. end-2012/13 proportion of the population below minimum level of dietary energy Environmental risks and seasonality: Peo- consumption (urban and rural areas) will ple’s high dependence on natural resources has decrease by 2 percent per year; increased with rising poverty resulting in seri- By March-2011, the number of female- ous devastation of the environment. Forests headed households that are chronically have been seriously depleted. This adversely poor will be reduced by 20 percent and affects soil stability and weakens flood protec- their employment rate will increase by 20 tion. According to the NRVA 2005 the con- percent; sumption of the poorest is the highest in sum- mer while it typically falls to critical levels in By end-2010 increased assistance will be winter. provided to meet the special needs of all disabled people, including their integration Table 7.6. Reach of social protection programs into society through opportunities for edu- Social protection Number of recipients cation and gainful employment; program By end-2010 skill development training Martyrs’ families 224,850 will be provided for 150,000 unemployed Disabled 87,717 of which women will comprise 35 percent Orphans 10,500 Children enrolled in 25,000 and the disabled will comprise minimum kindergartens 10 percent; Pensioners 54,000 By end-2012/13 the Government will em- Public works 1,700,000 ploy 3 percent of disabled persons within Microfinance 340,000 its administration; Total 2,442,067124 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • By end-2012/13 the Government will em- neglected such as minorities and disabled. The ploy 20 percent of women within its ad- ultimate objective is to build a country of social ministration; justice in line with Islamic values and Afghan traditions. Other important objectives are to By end-2015 reduce gender disparity in support economic growth by improving hu- access to justice by 50 percent, and com- man capital accumulation; and to support the pletely by 2020; stability of the country by reducing poverty By end-2010 the number of treated drug and increasing social inclusion. users will increase by 20 percent; To achieve these objectives the Government By 2012/13 pension reforms will be im- will pursue the following priority policies: (i) plemented; maintain macroeconomic stability, ensure equi- By end-2010 an effective system of disaster table growth and increase mobilization of do- preparedness will be in place; by end-2010 mestic revenues; (ii) build fiscally sustainable an effective system of disaster response social support and pension systems; and (iii) will be in place. improve disaster preparedness and response capacity.Implementation of these strategic objectivesand priority policies will lead to visible pro- Social support: Reform in this area will focusgress in implementation of the following major on the following priority policies: (i) to im-outcomes: (i) poverty and vulnerability reduc- prove efficiency of the public arrangements fortion; (ii) improved social inclusion: (iii) lower social risk management; (ii) to diversify marketinfant and maternal mortality; (iv) reduction in based arrangements; (iii) to strengthen infor-harmful child labor; (v) reduction in drug de- mal arrangements; (iv) to improve targeting;mand within the country; (vi) improved em- (v) to strengthen the capacity and restructureployment; (vii) reduction in vulnerability to the MoLSAMD; and (vi) to improve partner-natural disasters; (viii) improved aid effective- ship with the civil society (NGOs) and enhanceness. aid coordination. In the future social protection will target twoPolicy framework: sector strategy main groups: the population “at risk” and warFiscally sound and well targeted social protec- survivors.tion interventions are of critical importance forimproving the poverty outcomes. The Gov- Box 7.7. Greater support to poor familiesernment is committed to pursuing sustainable with small children: Zakat-based taxinterventions through social support, pensionsystem and by strengthening disaster prepar- Limited resources are impediment for moreedness and response. Given the scarce donor substantial support to the poor families withand public funds the focus will be put on sup- small children. Introduction of the Zakat-porting the most vulnerable (i.e., the poorest of based tax and establishment of thethe poor) by allocating adequate resources to Afghanistan Social Protection Fund to attractthe poorest areas through nationwide targeted charity contributions in line with the Islamicprograms and transfers and by phasing out values could mobilize significant resourcesnon-targeted subsidies (such as energy subsi- to support vulnerable families. Largerdies) and building the planning and adminis- support to poor families with small childrentrative capacity of the MoLSAMD (and other would decrease prevalence of underweightline ministries) to deliver coordinated pro- children and infant mortality. Given this, thegrams and improve social protection. MoLSAMD will initiate public debate about prospects and modalities for introduction ofThe ANDS strategic objectives for the social the Zakat-based tax.protection sector are to decrease vulnerabilityof large number of Afghans and to help the The population “at risk” includes: (i) chroni-poor to climb out of poverty. It is also to em- cally poor female headed households withpower the poor and make their voices heard – small children; (ii) children “at risk”(orphans,to decrease inequality, especially among street working children, children in beggingwomen, and to enhance social inclusion of the Economical and Social Development 125
    • and exploitative work; children in conflict with pact on the poor some arrangements like sub- law; children with mothers in detention; chil- sidies (for fuel, pensions, and kindergartens) dren with severe disability); (iii) poor persons will gradually be eliminated. Support to or- with disability; (iv) victims of violence, such as phanages will remain part of the social support women and children victims of violence, abuse system; however, they will be reorganized to and victims of human trafficking; (v) extremely provide day care services for other children “at vulnerable individuals, including mentally ill risk”. persons, and drug addicts, and (vi) unem- ployed, underemployed and victims of natural The current cash transfers to the martyr’s fami- disaster. lies and individuals with war related disabili- ties will be integrated into the pension system The target group of “war survivors” includes: and will cease to be part of the social support (i) martyr’s families from the previous and on- system. However, this will occur only in the going conflict; (ii) disable individuals with war medium term and after completion of pension related disability, and (iii) civilian victims of reforms. The new direct cash transfers will be the ongoing conflict. gradually introduced for the poor disabled with non-war related disability. The inclusion The civilian victims of the ongoing conflict in- of the poorest families with small children into cludes the following vulnerable groups: (i) direct cash transfers will depend on mobiliza- families who lost the breadwinner or members tion of domestic revenues and possible intro- as result of military operations; (ii) families duction of the Zakat-based tax. who lost their breadwinner or members as re- sult of suicide bombing that targeted interna- Payment in kind, through distribution of tional or Government troops; (iii) families that humanitarian assistance, will continue to be lost the breadwinner or members as result of used to support higher children’s enrolment in military attack at the international or Govern- schools (e.g., food for education) and training ment troops; (iv) individuals which became of teachers (e.g., food for training). According disabled as result of military operations; (e) to the NRVA 2005 the poorest households have individuals that became disabled as result of critically low consumption during winter, es- suicide or military attacks on international or pecially in March. Therefore, a new system of Government troops; and (vi) families or indi- payments in kind will be introduced for the viduals whose property was destroyed or poorest families with small children (winteriza- damaged as result of military operations, sui- tion). The parcels with basic food and non- cide and military attack at the international and food items will be distributed through Afghan the Government troops. Social support to this Red Crescent Society to support the poorest group will be coordinated with the support households in the most difficult period of year. from the MoD and MoI. Given the high incidence of rural poverty the new program will be developed to provide free Implementation of this will be through the Na- distribution of livestock, orchards and tools for tional Social Protection Sector Program and farming helping the poor to diversify agricul- will consist of: (i) public arrangements; (ii) ture production. Both, direct cash transfers and market-based arrangements; (iii) informal ar- payments in kind will be made conditional: rangements; and (iv) capacity building. Pre- poor families will have to enroll children in liminary costing of the program indicated that school and take them to regular health check- around $500 million will be required for the ups. next five years which will need to be met through the Core and the External Budgets. Given the extent of unemployment, skills de- velopment will remain one of the high priority Public arrangements to enhance social public arrangements in the social support sys- support reform: Future social support sys- tem. However, the terms of reference of the tems will include most of the existing public NSDP will be changed to introduce the most arrangements such as: (i) direct cash payments; vulnerable as the highest priority group for (ii) payments in kind; (iii) public works; (iv) skills development training. Public works pro- skills development; (v) lump sum payments; grams, such as NSP, NABDP and NRAP will (vi) support to orphanages; and (vii) land dis- continue to provide job opportunities for the tribution. However, given the insufficient im- poor. Moreover, the new public work program126 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • to re-forest Afghanistan (i.e., “Greening of Af- and include rehabilitation of the disabledghanistan”) will be introduced to supply addi- in the BHP in all provinces;tional jobs to decrease deforestation of the Develop programs for community-basedcountry. All programs will be redesigned to rehabilitation of drug-addicts;reach the most isolated and remote areas. Inaddition to other public arrangements, targeted In cooperation with NGOs implement pilotland distribution and lump sum payments will projects to support extremely vulnerablecontinue to be used to help the poorest war groups which will include options for rein-victims and victims of natural disaster. tegration into families; Conduct surveys to collect data on civilianDiversification of the market based ar- victims of conflict and develop policies torangements: In Afghanistan, market based support civilian victims;arrangements for social protection are domi-nated by microfinance schemes. These will be Conduct reviews of the MoLSAMD andfurther developed and strengthened. How- prepare plans for capacity building and re-ever, efforts will be made to develop other structuring, including the establishment ofmarket-based arrangements such as increasing the Child Secretariat within MoLSAMD.financial market literacy and the introductionof community-based insurance schemes. Loss Strengthening the capacity and restruc-of women’s inheritance entitlements to male turing the MoLSAMD: Implementation ofrelatives and denial of their property rights effective social protection reform will requireprevents women from using collateral and lim- significant capacity building of the MoLSAMD.its access loans for creating employment oppor- The main objectives of this will be to improvetunities. Therefore, future Government policies policy/strategy/elaboration of standards ofwill introduce measures to enforce women’s care, monitoring, targeting and project prepara-rights to inheritance. tion/implementation in partnership with NGOs in charge of service delivery; and to in-Strengthening informal arrangements for crease absorption capacity. Enhanced roles ofsocial risk management: Migration to work the private sector and NGOs in providing thein neighboring countries and remitting funds services will support timely implementation ofwill remain as a key informal arrangement for the projects. Finally, developing courses tothe poor. The Government will ensure that enable university graduates to obtain qualifica-Afghan migrant workers are not subject to tion for social workers will be important forabuse in the countries of their destination. In capacity building.this regard, the Government will conclude in-ternational agreements with the neighboring Pension reform: The main objective of pen-and other countries to regulate the rights of the sion reform will be to improve old-age protec-Afghanistan’s migrant workers. tion (especially for civil servants and military) and establish fiscally sustainable pensionPriority measures to provide social include: schemes. Priorities will include the enhance- ment of fiscal sustainability by increasing col- Integrate the current direct cash transfers to lection of the pension contributions, and build- martyr’s families and people with disabili- ing the capacity of the Pension Department ties into the pension system; Design of the pension reform: Coverage: Develop projects for the distribution of The future pension system will cover the same livestock, orchards and tools for farming; groups of employees that are covered in the Develop projects for the distribution of current system (civil servants and military per- food parcels in winter (winterization); sonal). The system will remain a defined bene- fit system based on a formula that will take into Develop a new public works program: account age, years of service, and a specified “Greening of Afghanistan” accrual rate. The average benefit for an em- Develop mechanisms for distributing direct ployee with 25 years of service will equal 50 cash entitlements to poor disabled indi- percent of final pay after Pay and Grading re- viduals with non-war related disabilities form. The benefit accrual rate will be 2 percent for each year of service. This formula will be Economical and Social Development 127
    • adjusted to increase equity, reduce cost, and Conduct capacity building and training for address human resource needs of the Govern- the staff and managers of the Pension De- ment. Pension benefits will be increased in ab- partment, and develop new IT system and solute terms (as a result of Pay and Grading processes; reform), but reduced as a percentage of last Modernize accounting and internal opera- drawn pay of an employee. They will be tional procedures in harmony with the IT automatically indexed for increases in cost of system implementation and improve re- living to preserve the value of pensions. Em- cord keeping and processes; ployees will be eligible for a pension at age 65 if they have ten years of service and will be able Improve collection of the pension payroll to retire at age 55 if they have accumulated 25 taxes and establish a central database to years of service. In addition to regular pen- store and process the details on pensioners sions benefits will be provided to pre- and their bank accounts; and retirement and post-retirement war survivors. Introduce payments of pensions through The existing direct cash transfers to martyr’s banks in Kabul by mid-2009, and through- families and individuals with war related dis- out the country by end 2010 subject to ability will be integrated into the future pen- availability of banking services. sion system. Strengthening the capacity of the Pension Financing and transition: The pension sys- Department: Employees of the current pen- tem will be self-financed from government and sion department, including management, will employee contributions on wages (payroll tax). be required to go through comprehensive train- Direct budget subsidies will be gradually ing. The staff will be trained in the use of new eliminated. The overall contribution, however, automated systems. Managers will be required will increase from 11 percent of pay to 16 per- to acquire new skills in program supervision cent to ensure fiscal sustainability. Around 2 and project management. The most significant percent (of the 16 percent) will be used to fund attribute of the new pension scheme will be post-retirement survivors’ benefits. Both, the introduction of the payment of pensions Government and employees will contribute 8 through authorized banks. percent of the payroll amount. The employee’s contribution will gradually increase while the Disaster preparedness: The main objectives Government’s will gradually be reduced. Em- of the sub-sector strategy for disaster prepar- ployees retiring before implementation of the edness will be to decrease risks from natural Pay and Grading reform will earn pension disasters and improve disaster preparedness based on the current pension system rules. and response with the aim of protecting human lives, assets, public infrastructure and the envi- The implementation of pension reforms will ronment. This objectives will be achieved also be supported through the National Social through implementation of the following prior- Protection Sector Program. The specific com- ity policies: (i) to strengthen the capacity of ponents of the pension reform will include: (i) ANDMA, not only for coordination and policy budget subsidies to the pensions system (which making, but also for implementation of pro- will gradually be eliminated); (ii) capacity grams and projects; (ii) to strengthen the capac- building, and (iii) modernization of equipment. ity of line ministries for disaster preparedness Preliminary costing of the funding needs have and disaster response; (iii) to enhance the pro- identified the cost of around $150 million vincial and community mechanisms for disas- which will mainly be covered through the Core ter preparedness and response; (iv) to improve Budget (mainly budget subsidies for payments coordination within the Government for disas- of the pensions which will be eliminated in five ter preparedness and response; (v) to improve years). aid coordination in the area of delivering the Priority measures to support implementation humanitarian assistance, and (vi) to address of pension reform: long-term needs for rehabilitation. Promulgate pension reform by the Gov- ANDMA: Under existing legislation, the ernment decree; prime responsibility of ANDMA is to coordi- nate the Government’s efforts and to provide128 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • policy making. However, lack of the responsi- extent the line ministries, require strong capac-bility for implementation of key projects for ity building and equipment modernization.disaster preparedness/response and over- Having rescue equipment, management toolsreliance on the line ministries is a weakness. and operational centers at the provincial levelTherefore, the existing legislation will be will provide the necessary facilities to respondamended to reflect the need to strengthen the to disasters. Strengthening disaster prepared-ANDMA’s role in implementing key projects. ness and response at the community levelIt is important to stress that line ministries will through CDCs will be required. Maintainingremain responsible for the implementation of access to modern technology, such as withmost projects for disaster prepared- alarm systems, is important for reducing casu-ness/response. alties and damages that occur during disasters. Finally, given the existing legal ambiguities, theDisaster preparedness will also be supported role of the ANDMA in leading and coordinat-by the National Social Protection Sector Pro- ing the national efforts for disaster prepared-gram and will include: (i) finalization of risk ness and response will need to be clearly de-vulnerability assessments and disaster prepar- fined and this will require adjustment of theedness plans at the national and sub-national current legislative framework.level; (ii) strengthening the capacity and therole of the ANDMA; (iii) establishing the emer-gency operation centers at the provincial level REFUGES, RETURNEES ANDand regional warehouses; and (iv) moderniza- INTERNALLY DISPLACEDtion of equipment. PERSONSPriority measures to support sub-sector strat- The ANDS strategic objective for the Refugee,egy for disaster preparedness: Returnee and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) strategy is to facilitate the planned and Amend the legislation to clearly reflect the voluntary return of refugees and IDPs and the leading role of the ANDMA in coordinat- reintegration of returnees and IDPs into soci- ing the national efforts but also for imple- ety. This strategy establishes the Governments menting of key programs and projects; efforts in coordinating and reintegrating refu- Approve annual plans for disaster prepar- gees and the IDPs into society. The planned edness, finalize disaster risk analyses and and voluntary return of refugees and IDPs will guidelines for disaster response, and de- contribute to economic growth, the reduction velop the provincial disaster management of poverty and the strengthening of security plans; and stability of the country and the region. World-wide experience has indicated that Develop standardized operating proce- large, unplanned, and essentially involuntary dures for quick assessment and response, returns generate a range of negative conse- reporting, and for rapid mobilization of in- quences as they are managed as emergency ternational assistance; influxes. Establish Emergency Operation Centers at provincial level, response centers and Situation in the sector teams at the regional level and effective early warning systems and develop the More than five million persons have returned community emergency response system to their homes since 2002. Yet over three mil- and develop back-up communication sys- lion Afghan refugees remain in Iran and Paki- tem based on Codan; stan. Several hundred thousand others are pre- sent in former Soviet Union countries (CIS, Construct 12 regional storage facilities for CAR) and Europe. aid assistance and equipment and improve public awareness activities and raise na- The majority of those that remain in Pakistan tional awareness about disaster risks and (2.1 million) and Iran (0.9 million) have been in vulnerabilities exile for over twenty years remain a serious constraint for voluntary repatriation. The pres-Strengthening capacity and improving ence of these communities places strains oncoordination: The ANDMA, and to a lesser both the Government and neighboring country Economical and Social Development 129
    • governments. The desire of the neighboring become drug uses requires viable and visible countries to engineer large scale return is a employment prospects. challenge to the principle of voluntary repatria- tion. Experience indicates that such pressures The sector strategy provides policies for volun- will not produce sustainable or humane out- tary, planned and sustainable return of the comes. This is particularly the case for ex- refugees and IDPs that will support stability of tremely vulnerable individuals: unaccompa- Afghanistan, its economic development and nied women, unaccompanied minors, women poverty reduction. The strategic vision of the at risk, the elderly, the very poor, those in need sector strategy is to provide safe, voluntary, of medical care and drug addicted individuals. gradual and sustainable reintegration possibili- ties for all Afghan refugees, returnees and IDPs Economic and social reintegration faces many choosing to return. This vision supports the constrains and challenges. Since 2005 repatria- rights of all Afghans to return to their homes, tion of refugees has slowed down considerably. reposes property and enjoy all constitutional This is attributable to a number of factors: (i) and human rights. Greater attention to protec- the deterioration in the security situation; (ii) tion of the vulnerable groups among refugees limited economic opportunities, including em- and IDPs, including children and women is an ployment, upon arrival; (iii) access to housing; important part of this vision. (iv) limited access to basic health and education facilities; and (v) the length of time in exile. The main strategic objective of the sector is to Lower return figures have led to an increase in transition out of a purely refugee and humani- the pressures from the neighboring countries to tarian framework for managing population stem the continuing trend of out-migration movements to a more comprehensive set of from Afghanistan. The most visible indication policy arrangements that, will advance durable has been the deportation of over 350,000 unreg- solutions for the remaining 3 million Afghans istered Afghans from Iran. in the neighboring countries, for returnees, and for Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) includ- It is very probable that high levels of mass and ing the most vulnerable populations, and voluntary repatriation are over. The refugees’ which will not rely solely on voluntary returns. long stay in exile, poverty, and dissuasive con- Overall strategic goals and objectives have been ditions in many parts of Afghanistan are likely divided in three categories: to prove difficult obstacles to overcome in fu- ture. The Government’s expected outcomes from the sector strategy are to: Internal displacement remains a significant problem facing the same constrains and chal- support the safe, voluntary, an gradual re- lenges as do refugees: (i) ongoing conflict; (ii) turn of refugees from Pakistan, Iran and natural disasters (drought, floods); and (iii) lack elsewhere; of livelihoods. As a consequence, there are ap- prepare and implement more visible and proximately 160,000 internally displaced per- effective, sustainable reintegration pro- sons, mostly in southern Afghanistan. There is grams and interventions; also evidence of secondary migration of return- ees from places of origin to cities and back to improve social protection and disaster pre- the neighboring countries. paredness; strengthen the management of cross border Further, many of those that return face signifi- movements and economic migration; cant hardships and difficulties re integrating into life in Afghanistan. Drug abuse and its prepare plans to improve the response to socio-economic repercussions on families and internal displacement crisis; and communities are aggravated by the large num- give greater attention to the protection of bers of refugees returning. These groups have the vulnerable groups among refugees and often been exposed to drugs during their stay IDPs, including children and women. abroad. The difficulties of economic and social reintegration also place them at particular risk improve the facilitation for gradual return of drug abuse on their return. Ensuring that of all Afghans who wish to return volun- they do not contribute to drug production or tarily from Pakistan, Iran and other host130 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • countries through policy negotiation and Scenario One: progress towards peace and coordination; security, political stability, economic and social development improves on current strengthen the Government’s capacity to trend lines. There are no changes to cur- plan, manage, and assist the reintegration rent legal and operational frameworks of returning Afghans and IDPs; governing repatriation. Support for reinte- improve the capacity of the Government to gration through national programs benefits plan for and respond to internal displace- from increased and better targeted invest- ment; ments. Afghans continue to enjoy interna- tional legal protection as refugees. Internal improve the terms of stay and conditions displacement continues as a consequence for Afghans in neighboring countries; of localized conflict. Under these condi- make progress towards the implementation tions, it may be envisaged that a projected of the bilateral agreements on temporary figure of between 800,000 and 1,000,000 labor migration; and Afghans return home voluntarily and sus- tainably, predominantly to the west, north improve access to land for the refugee and and central regions of the country. the IDP population. Scenario Two: progress towards peace andFurther, the strategy will support the imple- security, political stability, economic andmentation of the following Afghanistan Com- social development follows current trends.pact benchmarks: The number of Afghans returning outside the Tripartite Framework increases as a re- By end-2010, all refugees opting to return sult of new measures introduced by the and internally displaced persons will be neighboring countries. Support for reinte- provided assistance for rehabilitation and gration through national programs benefits integration in their local communities; their from increased and better targeted invest- integration will be supported by national ments and improved response capabilities. development programs, particularly in key The terms and conditions for registered areas of return Afghans to remain in the neighboring Afghanistan, its neighbors and countries in countries deteriorate. Conflict induced in- the region will reach agreements to enable ternal displacement persists, especially in Afghanistan to import skilled labor, and to southern Afghanistan. Under these condi- enable Afghans to seek work in the region tions it may be envisaged that a projected and send remittances home. overall figure of 600,000 – 800,000 returns voluntarily or are returned. Human rights monitoring will be carried out by the Government and independently Scenario Three: progress towards peace by the AIHRC, and the UN will track the and security, political stability, economic effectiveness of measures aimed at the pro- and social development deteriorate. There tection of human rights; the AIHRC will be are no changes to current legal and opera- supported in the fulfillment of its objectives tional frameworks governing repatriation. with regard to monitoring, investigation, Support for reintegration through national protection and promotion of human rights. programs benefits from increased and bet- ter targeted investments but implementa-Depending on the success of the implementa- tion is weak due to poor operating condi-tion of the ANDS and the specific sector pro- tions (security). Afghans continue to enjoygrams, some broad scenarios for the return and a measure of international legal protectionreintegration sector could be envisaged for the as refugees though less than before. Inter-period (2008-13). These assume that current nal displacement continues as a conse-trends will be unlikely to deviate dramatically quence of localized conflict. Under these(positively or negatively) from the present conditions, it may be envisaged that a pro-situation and that therefore there will still be a jected figure of between 400,000 andsubstantial number of Afghans remaining out- 600,000 Afghans return home voluntarilyside their country in 2013: and sustainably, predominantly to the west, north and central regions of the coun- try. Economical and Social Development 131
    • The Government will implement the following Specifically, the most important measures to be priority policies to achieve the sector objective: taken to support implementation of the strat- egy are to: prepare and implement more visible and effective reintegration programs and inter- fully reflect the principles of voluntary, ventions and to improve mechanism for dignified and gradual return in the Tripar- delivering immediate reintegration assis- tite agreements between countries of asy- tance to returning refugees and IDPs; lum, Afghanistan, and UNHCR; improve social protection and disaster pre- discuss and agree the annual return plan- paredness; ning figures with the Governments of Paki- stan and Iran within the Tri-Partite Com- address concerns of long-staying Afghans missions; that prefer to remain in exile; strengthen the management of cross border develop broader policy responses to popu- movements and economic migration; and lation movements; promote a national framework and policy retain the Tripartite Agreements is an im- guideline for the protection of IDPs as well portant tool to ensure policy coordination as the IDP mapping exercise. and respect for refugee law and humanitar- ian principles; The Government’s policy supports the volun- improve access to land for the refugee and tary, planned and sustainable repatriation the IDP population; movements. At the same time, the Govern- ment is committed to increasing the overall rate improve inter-ministerial coordination; and of returns. This requires improving the liveli- improve aid coordination and increase aid hoods and welfare opportunities in the coun- effectiveness. try, increasing the attractiveness of the country to displaced persons. Specific activities the Government will under- take are detailed below. The Government will work to address the con- straints returnees face on returning, including increasing economic opportunities (employ- Maintaining frameworks to manage ment) and social services (health and educa- repatriations tion). Within the region, the principle legal and op- erational framework governing voluntary repa- The Government, with support from the inter- triation is provided by the Tripartite Agree- national community, will develop a range of ments signed between Afghanistan, UNHCR, political and practical solutions to work with Iran and Pakistan respectively. These agree- and address the concerns of neighbors on the ments are serviced by regular meetings of Tri- recent slowing of repatriation rates. This will partite Commissions at both Ministerial and assist in reducing bilateral tensions on this is- working level. sue. The Tripartite Agreement with Iran was re- The retention of the Tripartite Agreements is an newed for a further year in February 2007; an important tool to ensure policy coordination extension of the agreement with Pakistan for and respect for refugee law and humanitarian three years was signed in August 2007. Af- principles. Ensuring the voluntariness of re- ghanistan has signed similar agreements with turn is critically important in improving sus- Denmark, France, the Netherlands, Norway, tainability and minimizing humanitarian dis- the United Kingdom, Sweden and Switzerland. tress. In view of the potential political and humanitarian consequences of large induced The Government is committed to continue returns, and taking into account the need to working with Iran, Pakistan and the UNHCR develop broader policy responses to popula- on the implementation of the Tripartite Agree- tion movements, future policy actions will ment and the Tripartite Commission. benefit from the active involvement of a wider cross section of Government ministries.132 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Provide housing, facilities and social enhancing emergency preparedness forservices to returnees IDPs to ensure the timely and necessary support is provided to minimize hardshipThe Government will continue to provide and suffering; andhousing facilities, land plots and infrastructureto returnees to encourage voluntary returns. providing public works programs will provide job opportunities together withKey programs and projects to support imple- skill development training.mentation of the strategy will be implementedby several line ministries. These projects will Enhance Government capacity to en-support the reintegration of the returnees by courage voluntary returnsproviding housing, public services and incomegeneration opportunities. Distribution of land Ongoing efforts to increase Government capac-plots to solve the housing problem will remain ity to manage returns will continue. Specifi-an important public arrangement. Public cally, the Government will work to:works programs will provide job opportunitiestogether with skill development training. improve internal Government coordinationThese projects will be developed, costed and mechanisms, intern-ministerial cooperationintegrated into the National Budget by the end and capacity for refugee and IDPs return;of 2008. enhance policy advice, data collection, analysis, research, knowledge generationSince 2002 over a million returnees have bene- and advocacy;fited from a rural housing program imple-mented in all regions of the country. Ap- provide policy advice to provincial authori-proximately 170,000 houses have been built. ties;Over 10,000 water points have been con- promote a national framework and policystructed in key returnee destinations. guideline for the protection of IDPs and an IDP mapping exercise;A Land Allocation Scheme was launched in2005 to address the needs of landless returnees identify and implement programs and in-and IDPs for land for housing. These settle- terventions to support voluntary refugeements have the necessary infrastructure includ- and IDPs return;ing schools, clinics, roads, mosques, potable incorporate IDPs and returnees into devel-water, parks and sanitation. opment and national programs and to pro- vide for a national framework for their pro-Priority has been given to those who have al- tection;ready applied for land (those that returned be-tween 2002 and 2006) and the most vulnerable ensure greater access to land for the refu-(for example the disabled and widowed). Pres- gee and IDP population;ently over 520,000 applications have been regis- ensure refugees and IDPs have greater ac-tered, approximately 100,000 beneficiaries have cess to microfinance loans; andbeen selected, 23,000 plots have been distrib-uted and 5,500 families have moved into improve the capacity of the Ministry forhouses on site. Refugees and Returnees.The Government will also increase the provi-sion of social services available to returnees, CONCLUSIONrefugees and IDPs. These programs include: The sector strategies summarized here identify the ANDS strategic objectives, principal output providing legal aid and vocational training targets and the projects and programs that will for Afghan refugees and support to the be required to reach these goals. More detailed host communities in Pakistan; sector and ministry strategies are presented in improving primary and secondary health ANDS Volume II. care for Afghan refugees in Mashhad and Zahedan, Iran; The objective of the ANDS with respect to eco- nomic and social development is to provide Economical and Social Development 133
    • effective support to the mobilization of the nisms in place to efficiently monitor and evalu- country’s resources through the private sector, ate their performance. In some cases, past at- including efficiently providing the needed tempts to establish the role of government in physical, legal and commercial infrastructure the economic and social development process, and institutional frameworks, while taking ac- for state building purposes, left Ministries and tion to meet the pressing needs of the poor and government agencies with very broad and un- most vulnerable members of the society. This realistic mandates and objectives. strategy recognizes the need to highlight the lessons learned over the past six years. These Efforts are also being made to devolve respon- have been reflected in common themes that run sibilities for narrower tasks to result-oriented throughout the ANDS. departments or authorities, and providing the managers of these institutions with sufficient The ANDS provides a renewed emphasis on authority to achieve results. Thus, responsibil- mobilizing private sector investment, both be- ity for Urban Development is being devolved cause of the limited resources available relative down to Municipalities, where municipal lead- to the tasks at hand, and also because of the ers are expected to be more responsive to real- much greater efficiency evident with private istic needs of their cities and more accountable sector operations compared to either state to their residents for municipal services. Simi- owned enterprises, Ministry implementation lar devolution of both operational control and efforts, and donor funded and implemented responsibility is at the heart of the National activities. This principle is reflected in most of Solidarity Program’s efforts to enable Commu- the sector strategies under this pillar. A model nity Development Councils implement projects for these efforts to be considered is what has to the benefit of their communities. Accord- been accomplished in the telecommunications ingly, independent regulatory authorities will sector. Of course, for many reasons, it is easier be established with well defined mandates to to establish a good enabling environment and encourage private sector investment and put in regulatory framework for telecommunications place regulatory frameworks needed to assure services than it is to bring private investment effective competition. For example, river basin into the development of natural resources, in- authorities will eventually be given greater frastructure and public utilities or even provi- autonomy and responsibility for development sion of educational and health care services. A of the five major river basins in the country; a number of the approaches set out in the ANDS Civil Aviation Authority will be given greater are either built on enabling private investment responsibility for civil aviation development to play a greater role in sectors presently domi- and safety. Various regulatory authorities are nated by state operations (e.g., power, mining) already being given a mandate to create the or to carrying out pilot projects to test the po- conditions necessary for attracting private in- tential for doing so (e.g., education and com- vestment while maintaining a competitive mercial agriculture utilizing state owned land). market place. At the same time, provincial gov- ernors are being given greater responsibility to An attempt has been made to create more fo- oversee development activities in their relevant cused ministries and government agencies. provinces, to be coordinated by the Independ- based on well defined mandates, in line with ent Department for Local Governance under their capabilities within the appropriate role of the supervision of the President for more effi- the public sector activities, and with mecha- ciency.134 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Table 13.0.1. Cross Cutting Issues in Social and Economic Development Pillar Anti- Counter- Regional Capacity Sector Gender Environment Corruption Narcotics Cooperation DevelopmentEnergy The high priority on Improved local Improved supply of Improved sector govern- Regional coopera- Improved technical, commercial and improved sector gov- energy can reduce power can have an im- ance includes environ- tion in the trade regulatory skills are essential in all en- ernance and the devel- traditional women’s mediate impact on local mental regulation as well and transmission ergy sub-sectors. This strategy supports opment of improved household burdens communities by increas- as meaningful measures of energy products (1) the development of vocational train- procurement, tender through efficient ing employment and for enforcement of stan- plays an important ing for power and energy sector workers and contracting proc- stoves, water drawing labor from dards. part in the expan- to become familiar with installation, esses will mitigate cor- pumping and agro- poppy productions sion of power health and safety and monitoring of op- ruption. processing that also Emphasis on energy effi- supplies in Af- erations; (2) improved university and improve women’s Energy as a business ciency, renewable energy, ghanistan. other academic training to instill project By promoting in- and other house- itself– power genera- and improved cooking finance, project management, legal skills creased private sector hold residents’ (i.e., tion, supply and fuel fuels will have measur- and overall commercial capacity; (3) pro- participation, interna- young children, supply - can provide able impact on improved fessional training for government offi- tional operating stan- older relatives) alternative employment environmental condi- cials to implement important regulatory dards and government health conditions. to those presently with- tions; and oversight functions; (4) commercial as sector regulator, a out options for em- skills to manage and operate the sector. new paradigm for sec- ployment in many The current energy law tor operations can im- communities. provides for environ- prove transparency, mental protections that service quality and are now being developed. compliance with the law..Transport The strategy provides a Government Trans- Support enforcement Environmental impact Improved trans- A Transportation Training Institute will framework to improve port agencies will activities of the MoI and assessments and man- portation links be established to boost capacity of sector governance in Trans- increase female police against narcotics agement plans will be will significantly ministries and institutions. This will help portation Ministry. participation smuggling. Checkpoints prepared and imple- improve Afghani- strengthen the planning capacity of staff This includes expand- through additional for narcotics smuggling mented in accordance stan’s links with for all transport modes for feasibility ing merit-based selec- training and new will be built into border with Afghan Law for all regional and in- studies and infrastructure planning. tion and performance opportunities customs clearance sta- works. Better quality ternational mar- based contracts for key tions, truck pull-offs for roads improve the effi- kets. This will Capacity will be increased so that Minis- staff. Penalties for cor- Greater consulta- permanent and roving ciency of vehicles, reduc- strengthen Af- try staff are able to conduct drivers’ li- rupt practices are also tion with women. weigh stations, and ur- ing per km fuel usage. ghanistan’s role censing tests, vehicle safety inspections specified. Also implement the ban bypasses. As civil Fuel and other petroleum and links with a and enforce traffic flow regulations. Ca- National Action airports will be secured products must be clean in number of trading pacity will also be increased in the Civil Plan for the Women against narcotics smug- order to meet Afghan groups, including Aviation Authority in order to take over of Afghanistan. gling. environmental standards. SAARC, CAREC, control of civilian airspace from interna- SCO and ECOTA tional forces Economical and Social Development 135
    • Anti- Counter- Regional Capacity Sector Gender Environment Corruption Narcotics Cooperation DevelopmentWater Resource Adoption of a Access to clean Implementing strong water Environment Law establishes a Since water resources Water sector capacityManagement River Basin ad- water and im- strategy programs having framework for the conservation require the rationaliza- building programs are ministrative struc- proved sanitation extensive user participation and productive use of natural tion of use by different essentially targeted at the ture should de- facilities will im- should infuse effective anti- resources, including water, countries, regional three principal develop- centralize tradi- prove health in narcotics sentiments into the granting enforcement and per- cooperation is re- ment components: Insti- tional mecha- households, populace. mitting rights to the govern- quired for effective tutional, organizational, nisms which have thereby benefiting ment to be implemented management of water and individual. And, been prone to all household Control of water allocations through NEPA. resources shared by each component is fur- foster corruption. members but par- could be sued to discourage different countries. It ther sub-divided ticularly women the poppy cultivation and Water sector strategy programs is an important factor amongst various relevant who often are care- encourage production of and the sector’s institutional in developing effective sub sectors comprising takers and who other high value crops. structure will be used to sup- management of sev- water resources man- face threats to port environmental policies, eral key river basins. agement, rural and urban health during child regulations and laws. water supply, and irriga- birth. tion. Better comm-unicationsInformation and E-Governance Mobile and Elec- Telephone services and the Better communica- Communications is at theCommunications and other E- tronic commerce Will improve enforcement internet reduce the need for tions assists regional forefront of skills devel-Technology Enabled services will make it possi- and detection physical travel. It reduces con- cooperation opment. It encourages(ICT) will reduce the ble for women to gestion costs and pollution from computer literacy which scope for corrup- work at home and vehicles. Emissions. is a key capacity con- tion because it be commercially straint in Afghanistan. provides better viable without of- record sand more fending cultural Because it is based on information sensitivities. English, it encourages key language skills.Urban More effective Women will bene- Contributions could be Introduction of an environ- Focus on the specific The strategy includes aDevelopment scrutiny of tender- fit from improved made to demand-reduction mental focus in planning proc- situation of frontier strong focus on reform ing for public sec- living conditions as through sustainable em- esses and new regulatory cities, including Herat, and strengthening of key tor projects a result of upgrad- ployment and vocational frameworks, to cover wa- Mazar, Jalalabad. urban institutions, both ing. training. ter/waste management, pollu- at the central and re- Monitoring of tion control, etc. Take account of the gional level, as a precon- sources of finance Improved living potential for regional dition of effective urban for private urban conditions could Enforcement of environmental business in develop- governance. development, enhance levels of impact assessments for all ur- ment of new cities. where appropri- female education. ban projects ate. There could be RC for Women could en- urban planning? joy access to hous- 136 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Anti- Counter- Regional Capacity Sector Gender Environment Corruption Narcotics Cooperation Development ing finance and economic devel- opment initiatives. Roles and respon- sibilities of female professionals in government will be enhanced.Mining There will be im- Mining will be an alterna- Inspectorate and Cadastre to be The Ministry proposes There have been There is already con- proved sector tive source of employment established at the Ministry capacity building for its virtually no siderable cross-border governance aimed in some poppy growing Mines. staff members. women entering trade in this sector. at increased le- regions in the South. the sector in recent Opportunities to for- gitimate private This includes environmental years. A targeted malize these arrange- Capacity building will be investment. inspection and regulation. initiative for ments and enhance required to implement “Women in Min- government revenues the hydrocarbon and Reforms include ing” to improve Regulations will be specifically exist. mineral legislation, and improved tender female employ- drafted that address environ- bidding and tendering and contracting ment will be sup- mental requirements for public Government will con- processes, including ten- functions of Gov- ported and private investment. sider opportunities to der evaluation. ernment, and work with cross-border drafting of fun- countries where im- damental legal proved transport (i.e., and regulatory select light rail) and documents, and infrastructure may also include the have mutual benefit. establishment of legal, financial and monitoring institutions. Economical and Social Development 137
    • Anti- Counter- Regional Capacity Sector Gender Environment Corruption Narcotics Cooperation DevelopmentEducation This issue has been The strategy re- There will be spe- Environmental is- The education system is Lack of capacity development in addressed with institu- duces barriers for cific counter nar- sues will be incorpo- regionally dispersed. The the past has resulted in a failure tional strengthening women to enter the cotics programs rated into the pri- primary and secondary to spend allocated funds. programs in all Minis- education sector introduced into mary and secondary strategy has a component to An inter-ministerial committee tries. There are also both as students primary and sec- curriculum support remote and disad- with the education Ministries and improved accounting and teaching staff. ondary school cur- vantage communities. Ministry of Finance has been es- procedures and sup- ricula. tablished to solve this problem. port with procurement The universities both in Ka- Capacity building projects have that will lower the In addition an anti bul and in the provinces are been included in MoE ad MoHE. probability of corrup- narcotics message to be considerably up- tion. will be built into graded, and each university the sports program will be supported by a rec- ognized external university.Culture, Media There will be institu- Gender will be a The Ministry will Preservation and Tourism, culture and media The major capacity weakness isand tional strengthening core issue covered work closely with rehabilitation of his- can be further developed the lack of qualified staff at theYouth program at the Minis- in all state owned the Ministry of torical sites and arti- through an effective and Ministry. try. media. Counter Narcotics facts makes an im- fruitful cooperation with and seek advice portant contribution regional partners. The Ministry requires a computer As part of this, an in- from them about to the environment. department with trained staff ternal audit department the incorporation Regional cooperation can ,software and hardware, an inter- and a computing de- of an anti drugs Under the Youth also support and ensure the nal audit department with ac- partment will be estab- message in all Program, youth will efforts of MoIC by strength- countancy skills, and officials lished and there will be forms of media. be encouraged to ening the legal framework with legal skills to deal with draft- a review of security become invoved in and the enforcement of the ing legislation and retrieval of procedures. The National Youth environmental pro- law in relation to archaeo- artifacts Program, through grams logical sites to stop illicit Legal and diplomatic all its components traffic at the borders, and efforts to retrieve miss- will promote a awareness-raising at both ing artifacts will also be drug-free society. the national and the interna- made tional level. 138 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Anti- Counter- Regional Capacity Sector Gender Environment Corruption Narcotics Cooperation DevelopmentAgriculture and All programs within The focus on com- The Sector Strategy The Government Strategy is to develop insti- Capacity development is an inte-Rural the Sector Strategy munity level devel- focuses on providing will provide ca- tutional linkages in the areas gral part of the ARD Sector Strat-Development emphasize account- opment promotes viable income- pacity develop- of collaborative research, egy. In addition to internal capac- ability and transpar- gender mainstream- generating alterna- ment to assist technology transfers and ity building and institutional re- ency ing and gender- tives by raising the communities to training/skills enhance- form both at the central and local Local governance pro- balanced develop- profitability of licit be able to manage ment, and the exchange of levels, every program intervention grams reduce corrup- ment crops, promoting their natural re- scientific information with in agriculture and rural develop- tion, since the act of market linkages and sources and im- regard to Afghanistan’s dis- ment has a significant capacity community ownership Strategy is designed creating off-farm plement projects aster preparedness program. development component. and participation to ensure that women employment. based on sustain- promotes a sense of have community able use. AREDP will require a high obligation and ac- representation and to Rural communities level of regional interaction, countability which is promote gender- are closely knit. Government is particularly in the area of continually reinforced sensitive develop- Those communities currently devel- current imports and poten- through all functions ment planning, im- isolated from gov- oping the regula- tial future exports. of project manage- plementation and ernment are more tory environment ment. monitoring of all pro- prone to grow poppy in such areas as Afghanistan’s membership jects. and other illicit environmental in the South Asian Associa- crops. Those benefit- impact assess- tion for Regional Co- Involvement in in- ing from integrated ments, protected operation (SAARC) will come-producing ac- rural development areas manage- operationalize a Regional tivities. programs are less ment and compli- Food Security Reserve and likely to grow poppy. ance and en- proposed Regional Food Skills development forcement. Bank and other capacity Improved govern- building programs ance can influence The Center on Integrated will contribute fur- entrenched attitudes Rural Development for Asia ther to both women’s and is therefore vital and the Pacific (CIRDAP) is empowerment and to the enabling envi- a regional intergovernmen- increasing household ronment to tackle tal autonomous organization income levels. drugs production. established for the promo- tion of integrated rural de- velopment in the region. Economical and Social Development 139
    • Anti- Counter- Regional Capacity Sector Gender Environment Corruption Narcotics Cooperation DevelopmentHealth & Nutri- Strategic actions re- The Basic Package of The MoPH is the Environmental health, Afghanistan is fully com- The strategy provides ation lated to anti- Health Services is aimed line Government of including water and mitted to the implementa- framework for increasing corruption include: at women and children. Afghanistan agency sanitation, indoor and tion of International Health the capacity of staff in the with primary re- outdoor air quality and Regulations 2005, through sector to better deliver Establish Health Ser- The MoPH has placed sponsibility for de- proper housing is an which the MoPH is respon- health and nutrition ser- vice Ombudsmen unit emphasis on having fe- livery of treatment important pillar of sible for detecting, report- vices. as a fully autonomous male health staff em- and rehabilitation public health. ing and responding to all entity. ployed at every health services to drug public health emergencies Strategic actions include: facility. users throughout Strategic actions re- of international concern. undertaking a Training Promote public Afghanistan and lated to the environ- Needs Assessment of awareness campaign Increased implementation of ment include the: en- Afghanistan has increas- MoPH staff; building the related to the Health number of qualified fe- HIV prevention forcement of existing ingly become a full partici- core skills of MoPH staff in Service Ombudsmen male health workers at programs. laws, by-laws and pant in health activities in English, report writing, local facilities regulations; strength- the South Asia region and basic computer skills, basic Raise professional Strategic actions ening human resource its role in international or- management and introduc- standards in key Increase awareness of related to counter- expertise in the field of ganizations, including tory public health; estab- MoPH entities gender and health and narcotics include environmental protec- WHO and UNICEF, has lishing different levels of rights, raising women’s the: implementation tion; raising awareness strengthened over the past training courses suited to Promote Civil Service decision-making role in of the National of environmental is- few years. the Afghan situation; im- Commission Code of relation to health seeking Drug Control Strat- sues with the public; proving the coordination Conduct practices. egy; and implemen- formulating a National Strategic actions include: between MoPH and its tation of the Environmental Action implementing the Kabul partners in the implementa- Establish permanent Ensuring that women Counter-Narcotics Plan for Afghanistan; Declaration on Regional tion and revision of the MoPH transparency have equal employment Implementation and monitoring the Collaboration in Health; MoPH training plan; and working group. opportunities within the Plan. progress toward the and fostering a stronger Sector achievement of a clean partnership with Iran and determining the unmet and safe environment. Pakistan that will provide a training needs based on the Monitor equity issues. platform for dialogue and job description of the em- ensure joint actions for ad- ployees dressing critical cross- border health issues. 140 Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS)
    • Anti‐ Sector  Gender Equality  Counter‐Narcotics  Environment  Regional Cooperation  Capacity Building  Corruption Social   to improve  to introduce benefits for  to improve treat‐ to prepare and  to support implementa‐ to improve MoLSAMD’s capacity for Protection  management  chronically poor female  ment of the drug  implement new  tion of the SAARC’s  vulnerability analysis, targeting and  of the direct  headed households, victims  addicts  public work pro‐ Social Protection Chart  project preparation and implementa‐ cash transfers  of violence and other cate‐   gram (Greening of    tion  and eliminate  gories of women “at risk”  to improve rehabili‐ Afghanistan) to  to establish the Na‐   irregularities    tation of drug ad‐ reduce de‐ tional Coordination  To improve the capacity of the Pension    to improve legislation to  dicts and their access  forestation of the  Committee in line with  Department for implementation of the  to ensure that  ensure women’s rights to  to education, skill  country and miti‐ the SAARC’s recom‐ pension reform  distribution of  inherit  development and  gate environment  mendations    the land plots    job opportunities  risk       To improve ANDMA’s capacity for co‐ will be free of  to improve “Food for Scholl”    ordinating the disaster preparedness  corruption  programs to increase pri‐ to contribute to re‐ process within the Government, with  mary school enrolment of  duction in domestic  sub‐national level and with donors and