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Central Asia Fall Review Text Only

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by Owen Maguire

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Central Asia Fall Review Text Only

  1. 1. CENTRAL ASIA AMDG World History 1 Mr. Maguire
  2. 2. INDUS CIVILIZATIONS (2500-1500 BCE) <ul><li>Early Indus Civilizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>India’s first civilization “Harrappan” named after famous cite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-militaristic peoples lacked weapons to defend themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harrappan Society and Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion- early artifacts of the god Shiva </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture- small villages w/ irrigation, domesticated water buffalo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy- Bronze Age craftsmen and traders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact on Indian Civilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fig Tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yoga Practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ritualized Bathing </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. INDO-ARYAN CIVILIZATIONS (1500-500 BCE) <ul><li>The Vedic Age(1500-500 BCE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indo-Aryans (Europeans) seeking new homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vedas- historical accounts, memorized, written later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brahmanas- “Forest Books” about nature/sacrifice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upanishads- books on nature of reality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Political Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warrior assemblies (raja)- ↑ land = ↑ bureaucracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended Family- patriarchal, eldest male held the power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomous Village- small farming villages, pillar of Indian society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caste System- meant to preserve racial Indo-Aryan identity </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. CASTE SYSTEM <ul><li>Originally created by Indo-Aryans for race identity </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-level system (Varna) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Priests (brahmins) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rulers and warriors (kshatriyas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artisans, merchants, and agriculturalists (vaishyas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Servants and slaves (sudras) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impure tradesmen (untouchables) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hereditary system, forbids intermarriage/interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Dharma - tells responsibilities/obligations to gods/humans based upon caste </li></ul><ul><li>2 positives: social stability & economic security </li></ul>
  5. 5. HINDUISM <ul><li>Hinduism- traditional Indian beliefs/values + revisions = social structure </li></ul><ul><li>Failed to create one main liturgy, writing, authority </li></ul><ul><li>Accepts/assimilates all religions- mono / poly </li></ul><ul><li>All deities manifest from Brahma (World Soul) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brahma (creator), Vishnu (protector), Shiva (destroyer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular folk cults, deities, practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom to believe and worship, inspires loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Validates Vedas (histories), social systems (caste) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-violence, reincarnation , karma , holy laws to live by </li></ul>
  6. 6. BUDDHISM <ul><li>Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment (nirvana) Buddha (Enlightened One) </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Way between hedonism and asceticism </li></ul><ul><li>Reincarnation (samsara), release (moshka), & non-violence (ahimsa) </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected caste system, World Soul = UNEQUAL! </li></ul><ul><li>Four Noble Truths, Eightfold Path guide how to live </li></ul><ul><li>No concepts/institutions left by Buddha </li></ul><ul><li>Split into Theravada and Mahayana </li></ul><ul><li>Spread to China, Korea, Japan, & Vietnam </li></ul>
  7. 7. THE MAURYAN EMPIRE 322-184 BCE <ul><li>The Rise of the Magadha 545-322 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military kingdom of Magadha dominated N. India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used Persian model of govt., powerful army/economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chandragupta Maurya 322-298 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>led rebels forces against the Magadha in 322 BCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most powerful ruler in India, unites N. India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fights and beats Seleucus (Macedonian general) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kautilya - chief minister, politician, ruthless, BRUTAL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ashoka the Buddhist Emperor 269-232 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended empire into Deccan (South), Kalinga (East) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sorry for expansionist ways, converted to Buddhism, SPREAD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Conquest by morality” > military imperialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of later rulers = COLLAPSE </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. THE GUPTA EMPIRE 320-535 CE <ul><li>Cultural Impact on India = Rome to the West </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of the Guptas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ganges River valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Success in military and marriage- Samudragupta (335-75 CE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As Rome fell, the Gupta Empire enjoyed a Golden Age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Downfall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invasion of Huns, weak rulers, rebellious vassals, and internal struggle for the throne </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gupta Feudalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed conquered rulers to remain on their thrones as vassals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politically/economically efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classical Indian Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poetry, drama, and fiction flourished; Mahabharata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism, Jainism, and Hinduism flourished </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. THE MONGOLIAN EMPIRE AMDG World History 1 Mr. Maguire
  10. 10. CENTRAL EURASIAN PASTORAL NOMADS <ul><li>Mongolian Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depend on herds for food supply, clothes, shelter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horse central to their lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal changes in rainfall and temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patriarchal clans and tribes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urdos- big groups of nomadic clans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Khan- leader (king) of the Urdos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nomadic military </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cavalry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mounted Archers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flee and fight tactics </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. THE MONGOLIAN EMPIRE 1206-1368 <ul><li>Rise of Genghis Khan 1167-1206 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temuchin orphaned as a young boy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Success = more followers = more success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1206, united the entire central steppe, became Khan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conquests 1206-1234 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China (1211-1234) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shahs of Iran (1218-1224) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Millions died, carnage, devastation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When Genghis dies, empire split 4 ways to sons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pax Mongolica </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongols guarantee safe passage for trade caravans, travelers, missionaries </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. EMPIRE SPLITS INTO FOUR <ul><li>Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia/China) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kublai Khan, grandson, defeated/unified China ( Yuan Dynasty ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopts Chinese culture into his court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conquers Korea, defeated at Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Ilkhan Khanate (Persia) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Captured and sacked Baghdad, adopted Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Chagatai Horde (Central Asia) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsuccessful and obscure, failed to spread </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Europe and the Golden Horde (Russia) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longest lasting of the Mongol successor states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reached into Central Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal strife + advancing Russians = END </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. YUAN DYNASTY (1279-1368) <ul><li>Mongol Conquest of China 1211-79 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict between Jin Dynasty and Mongols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After fall of Jin, conquered Southern Song </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kublai Khan 1260-94 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genghis’ grandson, greatest leader of the Yuan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-unified China, conquered Korea, Vietnam, & Burma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disastrous naval expeditions in Japan (1274 & 1281) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fall of the Yuan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongols never accepted by Chinese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mongol caste system unfair (Mongols, allies, THEN Chinese) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhist rebellion overthrows Mongols in 1368 </li></ul></ul>

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