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Rails 3 overview
 

Rails 3 overview

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    Rails 3 overview Rails 3 overview Presentation Transcript

    • { Rails 3
    • Overview
    • A Lot Like Rails 2.3
    • Quick Refresher
    • What Hasn’t Changed?
    • MVC
    • REST
    • Resources
    • Controllers
    • Migrations
    • AR Ideas
    • Big User-Facing Changes
    • File Structure
    • con g.ru # This file is used by Rack-based # servers to start the application. require ::File.expand_path( '../config/environment', __FILE__ ) run Tutorial::Application
    • con g/boot.rb require 'rubygems' # Set up gems listed in the Gemfile. gemfile = File.expand_path( '../../Gemfile', __FILE__ ) if File.exist?(gemfile) ENV['BUNDLE_GEMFILE'] = gemfile require 'bundler' Bundler.setup end
    • Gem le source 'http://rubygems.org' gem 'rails', '3.0.0.beta3' gem 'sqlite3-ruby', :require => 'sqlite3'
    • con g/environment.rb # Load the rails application require File.expand_path( '../application', __FILE__ ) # Initialize the rails application Tutorial::Application.initialize!
    • con g/application.rb (1) require File.expand_path( '../boot', __FILE__ ) require 'rails/all' if defined?(Bundler) Bundler.require(:default, Rails.env) end
    • con g/application.rb (2) module Tutorial class Application < Rails::Application config.encoding = "utf-8" config.filter_parameters += [:password] end end
    • environments/production.rb Tutorial::Application.configure do config.cache_classes = true config.consider_all_requests_local = false config.action_controller.perform_caching = true config.action_dispatch.x_sendfile_header = "X-Sendfile" config.serve_static_assets = false end
    • initializers/session_store.rb Rails.application. config.session_store( :cookie_store, :key => '_tutorial_session' )
    • script/rails (1) #!/usr/bin/env ruby # This command will automatically # be run when you run "rails" with # Rails 3 gems installed from the # root of your application. ENV_PATH = File.expand_path( '../../config/environment', __FILE__ )
    • script/rails (2) BOOT_PATH = File.expand_path( '../../config/boot', __FILE__ ) APP_PATH = File.expand_path( '../../config/application', __FILE__ ) require BOOT_PATH require 'rails/commands'
    • app/mailers $ script/rails g mailer welcome create app/mailers/welcome.rb invoke erb create app/views/welcome invoke test_unit create test/functional/welcome_test.rb
    • app/layouts/application.html.erb <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>Tutorial</title> <%= stylesheet_link_tag :all %> <%= javascript_include_tag :defaults %> <%= csrf_meta_tag %> </head> <body> <%= yield %> </body> </html>
    • public/ javascripts/ rails.js
    • github.com/ rails/jquery-ujs
    • db/seeds.rb
    • rake db:setup
    • db:create db:schema:load db:seed
    • lib/tasks/setup.rake task :bundle do system "bundle install" end task :setup => ["bundle", "db:setup"]
    • Rails Command ★ generate | g ★ destroy ★ console | c ★ benchmarker ★ server | s ★ profiler ★ dbconsole | db ★ plugin ★ application ★ runner
    • Block Helpers
    • Block Helpers (Before) <% form_for @post do |f| %> <% end %>
    • Block Helpers (Before) <% box do %> <p>Hello World!</p> <% end %>
    • Block Helpers (Before) def box(&block) content = "<div class='box'>" << capture(&block) << "</div>" if block_called_from_erb? concat(content) else content end end
    • Block Helpers (After) <%= box do %> <p>Hello World!</p> <% end %>
    • Block Helpers (After) def box(&block) "<div class='box'>" "#{capture(&block)}" "</div>" end
    • Block Helpers (After) def box(&block) "<div class='box'>" "#{capture(&block)}" "</div>".html_safe end
    • Router
    • Note: Signi cant Changes Ahead
    • Also Note: Old Mapper Still Available
    • Matching map.connect "posts", :controller => :posts, :action => :index
    • Matching map.connect "posts", :controller => :posts, :action => :index match "posts" => "posts#index"
    • Matching map.connect "posts", :controller => :posts, :action => :index match "/posts" => "posts#index"
    • Optional Segments match "/posts(/page)" => "posts#index"
    • Optional Dynamic Segments match "/posts(/:id)" => "posts#index"
    • Default Parameters match "/posts(/:id)" => "posts#index", :defaults => {:id => 1}
    • Default Parameters match "/posts(/:id)" => "posts#index", :id => 1
    • Named Routes match "/posts(/:id)" => "posts#index", :id => 1, :as => "posts"
    • The Root root :to => "posts#index"
    • Scopes
    • Path Scope match "/admin/posts" => "posts#index" match "/admin/users" => "users#index"
    • Path Scope scope :path => "admin" do match "/posts" => "posts#index" match "/users" => "users#index" end
    • Path Scope scope "admin" do match "/posts" => "posts#index" match "/users" => "users#index" end
    • Module Scope match "/posts" => "admin/posts#index" match "/users" => "admin/users#index"
    • Module Scope scope :module => "admin" do match "/posts" => "posts#index" match "/users" => "users#index" end
    • Both match "admin/posts" => "admin/posts#index" match "admin/users" => "admin/users#index"
    • Both namespace "admin" do match "/posts" => "posts#index" match "/users" => "users#index" end
    • HTTP Methods
    • Get Request match "/posts" => "posts#index", :via => "get"
    • Get Request get "/posts" => "posts#index"
    • Scoping scope "/posts" do controller :posts do get "/" => :index end end
    • Scoping get "/posts" => "posts#index"
    • Default Resource Route controller :posts do scope "/posts" do get "/" => :index post "/" => :create get "/:id" => :show put "/:id" => :update delete "/:id" => :delete get "/new" => :new get "/:id/edit" => :edit end end
    • Default Resource Route controller :posts do scope "/posts" do get "/" => :index, :as => :posts post "/" => :create get "/:id" => :show, :as => :post put "/:id" => :update delete "/:id" => :delete get "/new" => :new, :as => :new_post get "/:id/edit" => :edit, :as => :edit_post end end
    • Constraints
    • Regex Constraint get "/:id" => "posts#index", :constraints => {:id => /d+/}
    • Regex Constraint get "/:id" => "posts#index", :id => /d+/
    • Request-Based Constraint get "/mobile" => "posts#index", :constraints => {:user_agent => /iPhone/}
    • Request-Based Constraint get "/mobile" => "posts#index", :constraints => {:user_agent => /iPhone/}, :defaults => {:mobile => true}
    • Request-Based Constraint get "/mobile" => "posts#index", :user_agent => /iPhone/, :mobile => true
    • Object Constraints class DubDubConstraint def self.matches?(request) request.host =~ /^(www.)/ end end get "/" => "posts#index", :constraints => DubDubConstraint
    • Rack
    • Equivalent get "/posts" => "posts#index" get "/posts" => PostsController.action(:index)
    • Rack >> a = PostsController.action(:index)
    • Rack >> a = PostsController.action(:index) => #<Proc:0x0000000103d050d0@/Users/ wycats/Code/rails/actionpack/lib/ action_controller/metal.rb:123>
    • Rack >> a = PostsController.action(:index) => #<Proc:0x0000000103d050d0@/Users/ wycats/Code/rails/actionpack/lib/ action_controller/metal.rb:123> >> e = Rack::MockRequest.env_for("/")
    • Rack >> a = PostsController.action(:index) => #<Proc:0x0000000103d050d0@/Users/ wycats/Code/rails/actionpack/lib/ action_controller/metal.rb:123> >> e = Rack::MockRequest.env_for("/") => {"SERVER_NAME"=>"example.org", "CONTENT_LENGTH"=>"0", ...}
    • Rack >> a = PostsController.action(:index) => #<Proc:0x0000000103d050d0@/Users/ wycats/Code/rails/actionpack/lib/ action_controller/metal.rb:123> >> e = Rack::MockRequest.env_for("/") => {"SERVER_NAME"=>"example.org", "CONTENT_LENGTH"=>"0", ...} >> e.call(a)
    • Rack >> a = PostsController.action(:index) => #<Proc:0x0000000103d050d0@/Users/ wycats/Code/rails/actionpack/lib/ action_controller/metal.rb:123> >> e = Rack::MockRequest.env_for("/") => {"SERVER_NAME"=>"example.org", "CONTENT_LENGTH"=>"0", ...} >> e.call(a) => [200, {"ETag"=> ‘"eca5953f36da05ff351d712d904ef28d"’, ...}
    • Match to Rack class MyApp def call(env) [200, {"Content-Type" => "text/html"}, ["Hello World"]] end end get "/" => MyApp
    • Redirection get "/" => redirect("/foo")
    • Redirection get "/" => redirect("/foo") get "/:id" => redirect("/posts/%{id}") get "/:id" => redirect("/posts/%s")
    • Redirection get "/" => redirect("/foo") get "/:id" => redirect("/posts/%{id}") get "/:id" => redirect("/posts/%s") get "/:id" => redirect { |params, req| ... }
    • Rack App def redirect(*args, &block) options = args.last.is_a?(Hash) ? args.pop : {} path = args.shift || block path_proc = path.is_a?(Proc) ? path : proc { |params| path % params } status = options[:status] || 301 body = 'Moved Permanently' lambda do |env| req = Request.new(env) params = [req.symbolized_path_parameters] params << req if path_proc.arity > 1 uri = URI.parse(path_proc.call(*params)) uri.scheme ||= req.scheme uri.host ||= req.host uri.port ||= req.port unless req.port == 80 headers = { 'Location' => uri.to_s, 'Content-Type' => 'text/html', 'Content-Length' => body.length.to_s } [ status, headers, [body] ] end end
    • Rack App def redirect(*args, &block) options = args.last.is_a?(Hash) ? args.pop : {} path = args.shift || block path_proc = path.is_a?(Proc) ? path : proc { |params| path % params } status = options[:status] || 301 body = 'Moved Permanently' lambda do |env| req = Request.new(env) redirect(*args, &block) params = [req.symbolized_path_parameters] params << req if path_proc.arity > 1 uri = URI.parse(path_proc.call(*params)) uri.scheme ||= req.scheme uri.host ||= req.host uri.port ||= req.port unless req.port == 80 headers = { 'Location' => uri.to_s, 'Content-Type' => 'text/html', 'Content-Length' => body.length.to_s } [ status, headers, [body] ] end end
    • Rack App lambda do |env| req = Request.new(env) params = [req.symbolized_path_parameters] params << req if path_proc.arity > 1 uri = URI.parse(path_proc.call(*params)) uri.scheme ||= req.scheme uri.host ||= req.host uri.port ||= req.port unless req.port == 80 headers = { 'Location' => uri.to_s, 'Content-Type' => 'text/html', 'Content-Length' => body.length.to_s } [ status, headers, [body] ] end
    • Resources
    • Resources resources :magazines do resources :ads end
    • Member Resources resources :photos do member do get :preview get :print end end
    • One-Offs resources :photos do get :preview, :on => :member end
    • Collections resources :photos do collection do get :search end end
    • Combination scope :module => "admin" do constraints IpBlacklist do resources :posts, :comments end end
    • ActiveRecord
    • New Chainable, Lazy API
    • Chainable Methods ★ select ★ order ★ from ★ limit ★ where ★ offset ★ joins ★ includes ★ having ★ lock ★ group ★ readonly
    • Controller def index @posts = Post. where(:published => true). order("publish_date desc") end
    • Model scope :published, where(:published => true). order("publish_date desc")
    • Model scope :desc, order("publish_date desc") scope :published, where(:published => true).desc
    • Controller def index @posts = Post. where("created_at < ?", Time.now). order("publish_date desc") end
    • Model scope :desc, order("publish_date desc") def self.past where("created_at < ?", Time.now).desc end
    • Model scope :desc, order("publish_date desc") def self.past where("created_at < ?", Time.now).desc end def self.recent(number) past.limit(5) end
    • Pagination class PostsController def index @posts = Posts.page(5, :per_page => 10) end end class Post < ActiveRecord::Base def self.page(number, options) per_page = options[:per_page] offset(per_page * (number - 1)). limit(per_page) end end
    • named_scope with_scope nd(:all)
    • scope
    • ActionMailer
    • Massive API Overhaul
    • Sending Emails def welcome(user) @user = user mail(:to => user.email, :subject => "Welcome man!") end
    • welcome.text.erb welcome.html.erb
    • Layouts layout "rails_dispatch" def welcome(user) @user = user mail(:to => user.email, :subject => "Welcome man!") end
    • rails_dispatch.text.erb rails_dispatch.html.erb
    • Be More Speci c def welcome(user) @user = user mail(:to => user.email, :subject => "Welcome man!") do |format| format.html format.text { render "generic" } end end
    • Defaults default :from => "wycats@gmail.com" def welcome(user) @user = user mail(:to => user.email, :subject => "Welcome man!") do |format| format.html format.text { render "generic" } end end
    • Attachments def welcome(user) @user = user file = Rails.public_path.join("hello.pdf") contents = File.readfile) attachments["welcome.pdf"] = contents mail(:to => user.email, :subject => "Welcome man!") end
    • Interceptors class MyInterceptor def self.delivering_email(mail) original = mail.to mail.to = "wycats@gmail.com" mail.subject = "#{original}: #{mail.subject}" end end
    • Interceptors class MyInterceptor def self.delivering_email(mail) original = mail.to mail.to = "wycats@gmail.com" mail.subject = "#{original}: #{mail.subject}" end end config.action_mailer. register_interceptor(MyInterceptor)
    • Interceptors Delivery Observers
    • delivering_mail deliver delivered_mail
    • Bundler
    • gembundler.com
    • gembundler.com /rails3.html
    • railsdispatch.com /posts/bundler
    • yehudakatz.com/ 2010/04/12/some-of- the-problems- bundler-solves/
    • yehudakatz.com/ 2010/04/17/ruby- require-order- problems/
    • Choices
    • rspec-rails
    • generators rake tasks controller_example view_example request_example mailer_example
    • Mailer Generator $ script/rails g mailer welcome create app/mailers/welcome.rb invoke erb create app/views/welcome invoke rspec create spec/mailers/welcome_spec.rb
    • dm-rails
    • generators rake tasks append_info_to_payload i18n_scope IdentityMap middleware
    • generate a resource $ rails g resource comment invoke data_mapper create app/models/comment.rb invoke test_unit create test/unit/comment_test.rb create test/fixtures/comments.yml invoke controller create app/controllers/comments_controller.rb invoke erb create app/views/commentses invoke test_unit create test/functional/comments_controller_test.rb invoke helper create app/helpers/commentses_helper.rb invoke test_unit create test/unit/helpers/comments_helper_test.rb route resources :commentses
    • generate a resource $ rails g resource comment invoke data_mapper create app/models/comment.rb invoke rspec create spec/models/comment_spec.rb invoke controller create app/controllers/comments_controller.rb invoke erb create app/views/comments invoke rspec create spec/controllers/comments_controller_spec.rb create spec/views/comments invoke helper create app/helpers/comments_helper.rb invoke rspec route resources :comments
    • rails g $ rails g stylesheets Rails: DataMapper: controller data_mapper:migration generator data_mapper:model helper data_mapper:observer integration_test mailer Rspec: metal rspec:controller migration rspec:helper model rspec:install observer rspec:integration performance_test rspec:mailer plugin rspec:model resource rspec:observer scaffold rspec:scaffold scaffold_controller rspec:view session_migration