Biology 1031 Lab Final

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Biology 1031 Lab Final

  1. 1. Kingdom Animalia Labs 8 – 15 review
  2. 2. Exercise 8 - Porifera & Radiata Phylum Porifera – sponges No symmetry, no true tissues Cellular level organization spongocoel, osculum, holdfast - Fig. 8-1 Spicules and spongin – Fig. 8-2 – supporting framework for sponge and maintain integrity of canal systems
  3. 3. Figs. 8-1 & 8-2
  4. 4. Exercise 8 - Porifera & Radiata Phylum Porifera – sponges Know also simple, intermediate, complex body types – Fig. 8-3 Choanocytes – movement of water thru sessile body is produced by choanocytes also called flagellated collar cells (pg. 8.4) Sexual and asexual reproduction
  5. 5. Fig. 8-3
  6. 6. Phylum Porifera Don’t forget glass sponge! Skeleton of silica spicules
  7. 7. Radiata Phylum Cnidaria True tissues Radial symmetry Stinging cells – cnidocytes Tentacles around mouth Gastovascular cavity – incomplete digestive system one opening in and out! After larval stage (planula) there may be polyp, medusa stage or both!
  8. 8. Fig. 8-4 Hydra with bud
  9. 9. Cnidocytes vs. nematocyst
  10. 10. A. Outer epidermis, B. mid - noncellular mesoglea C. Inner gastrodermis
  11. 11. Phylum Cnidaria Three classes Hydrozoa – solitary or colonial with polyps & medusae in life cylce – Hydra, Portuguese man of war, ‘water animals’ Syphozoa – solitary large medusae, polyps absent or reduced, jellyfish, ‘upside down cup’ Anthozoa – solitary or colonial polyps, no medusae, the ‘flower animals’, sea anemone & coral (carbonate exoskeletons)
  12. 12. Fig. 8-6 Life cycle of Obelia
  13. 13. Fig. 8-7 Medusa
  14. 14. Exercise 9 - Bilateria Bilateria – because these animals have bilateral symmetry Forming a true head – cephalization – associated with these animals www.biologycorner.com
  15. 15. Bilateria Different body cavities! Acoelomate – no body cavity Psuedocoelomate – has a body cavity with mesoderm on one side and endoderm on the other Coelomate (or eucoelomate) – a “true” body cavity, surrounded by mesoderm on both sides
  16. 16. docstoc.com
  17. 17. Coelomates Coelom surrounded by mesodermal tissue More complex organs can be formed
  18. 18. Bilatera Non-molting protostomes Phylum Platyhelminthes – flatworms Phylum Annelida – segmented worms Phylum Mollusca - mollusks
  19. 19. Phylum Platyhelminthes Bilateral Acoelomate Dorsoventrally flattened, but not segmented! Incomplete digestive tract Hermaphroditic Organ-level organization
  20. 20. Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Trematoda – fluke, small leaflike body, suckers present, all parasitic Class Cestoda – tapeworm, long tape like body, has anterior scolex and many proglottids, all parasitic Class Turbellaria – flat worms, soft flattened body, ciliated epidermis
  21. 21. Fig. 9-2 Class Cestoda tapeworm
  22. 22. Fig. 9-4 Class Turbellaria Planarian acoelomate as are all flatworms
  23. 23. Phylum Annelida Segmented, often separated by septa Use coelom for hydrostatic skeleton Closed circulatory system Have excretory tubules – metanephridia Have chitinous bristles – setae – used for sensing and for staying in ground when bird (or fisherman) tries to pull the out!
  24. 24. Phylum Annelida Class Polychaeta – many setae, parapodia on each segment for locomotion, well-developed head, example clamworm Class Oligochaeta – few setae, head is poorly developed, earthworm Class Hirudinea – suckers present, no setae or parapodia, leeches
  25. 25. Phylum Annelida
  26. 26. Phylum Annelida Class Oligochaeta -earthworm Fig. 9-6
  27. 27. Phylum Mollusca
  28. 28. Molting Protostomes Members of this group molt – called ecdysis, they do this in order to grow 2 Phlyum Phlyum Nematoda – ‘thread like’ Phylum Arthropoda – ‘jointed foot’
  29. 29. Phylum Nematoda - roundworms Molt – ecdysis Pseudocoelomate But do have complete digestive system First example of sexual dimorphism Dioecious – male smaller has hooked end, female larger Have longitudinal muscles for movement Many free living, but some parasites
  30. 30. Phylum Nematoda vinegar eel - Ascaris
  31. 31. Phylum Arthropoda
  32. 32. • “joint-foot” – jointed appendages • segmented – often with some fusing and distinctive regions (details later); very distinct cephalization • complete digestive system; coelomate • exoskeleton containing chitin; used for protection, and for muscle attachments • molting (ecdysis) – shedding of exoskeleton for growth; new exoskeleton later hardens Phylum Arthropoda – arthropods
  33. 33. • diverse group & successful group • over 1 million named species, most species of any phylum (in fact, 2/3 of ALL named species) • Estimates as high as 30 million living species yet unnamed • Most species (well over half) are insects Phylum Arthropoda
  34. 34. • focus on both subphyla and classes for tests • 4 subphyla, 6 selected classes to cover • Subphylum Cheliceriformes • Subphylum Myriapoda • Subphylum Crustacea • Subphylum Hexapoda Phylum Arthropoda – arthropods
  35. 35. • body plan: cephalothorax and abdomen • on cephalothorax, starting at anterior end: • paired chelicerae • paired pedipalps • 4 pairs of legs • selected classes: • Merostomata – horseshoe crab • Arachnida – spiders, scorpions, mites, ticks, etc. Subphylum Cheliceriformes
  36. 36. • Body plan: head & multisegmented trunk • on head: • one pair of antennae • paired mandibles • Legs on trunk (either one or two per segment, depending on class) • appendages are uniramous (unbranched) • most have tracheal respiratory system Subphylum Myriapoda
  37. 37. • two classes you need to know: • Diplopoda (millipedes) • Chilopoda (centipedes) Subphylum Myriapoda
  38. 38. • Diplopoda (millipedes) • two pairs of legs per trunk segment • Chilopoda (centipedes) • one pair of legs per trunk segment • venom claws on trunk segment nearest the head Subphylum Myriapoda
  39. 39. • One class (also called Crustacea) • barnacles, crayfish, crabs, lobsters, shrimp, etc. • on cephalothorax, starting at anterior end: • two pairs of antennae (unique feature) • paired mandibles (jaws) • Most have 5 pairs of chelate appendages (pincher-like) – first pair usually used as pinchers, rest as legs • abdomen often has appendages called swimmerets Subphylum Crustacea
  40. 40. • appendages are biramous (two-branched; another unique feature) Subphylum Crustacea
  41. 41. • Hexapoda – “six feet” • One class to worry about: Insecta • Body plan: head, thorax, and abdomen • On head: one pair of antennae • On head: paired mandibles • On thorax: three pairs of legs • On thorax: often two pairs of wings • appendages are uniramous (unbranched) • most have tracheal respiratory system Subphylum Hexapoda
  42. 42. Find telson, pedipalp, and chelicerae (#’s 5, 14, 15)  Know also that Cephalothorax is a fused head & thorax  Don’t forget the grasshopper has A typanum (eardrum)  Look over other parts
  43. 43. Deuterostomes Mouth forms from 2nd opening Phylum Echinodermata Phylum Chordata
  44. 44. Phylum Enchinodermata Coelomate, & unsegmented Pentamerous radial symmetry! Water vascular system Dermal endoskeleton with spines
  45. 45. • Asteroidea (sea stars or starfish) – remember madreporite on aboral or opposite mouth side of starfish • Ophiuroidea (brittle stars) • Echinoidea (sea urchins and sand dollars) • Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers) Phylum Echinodermata
  46. 46. Phylum Echinodermata
  47. 47. • group unified by four traits present at some point in the life cycle for all members • dorsal tubular (hollow) nerve cord • notochord • pharyngeal gill slits • postanal tail Phylum Chordata
  48. 48. • three subphyla • Urochordata – tunicate or sea squirt • Cephalochordata – lancelet or amphioxus • Vertebrata – have a backbone; fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals (classes listed later) Phylum Chordata
  49. 49. • Subphylum Urochordata – tunicate or sea squirt • sessile adult; cellulose tunic, holdfast, siphons, pharynx Phylum Chordata
  50. 50. Subphylym Cephalochordata – lancelet or Amphioxus note oral hood, fins, myotomes, dorsal nerve cord, notochord, pharynx, pharyngeal gill slits, postanal tail Phylum Chordata
  51. 51. Subphylum Vertebrata – 7 selected classes • Agnatha – jawless fish • Chondrichthyes – cartilaginous fish (sharks, skates, and rays) • Osteichthyes – bony fish with paired fins • Amphibia – two pairs of legs; smooth skin (frogs, salamanders, etc.) • Reptilia – two pairs of legs; scaly skin (lizards, snakes, alligators, etc.) • Aves – feathers; paired wings and legs (birds) • Mammalia – hair, mammary glands, two paired appendages
  52. 52. Class Agnatha – brook lamprey • jawless • single median dorsal &vcaudal fins (no paired lateral fins) • 7 pairs of external gill slits Class Chondrichthyes – shark • scales (makes sandpapery skin), • various fins (note especially those in pairs) • claspers on pelvic fins of mature males • cloacal opening Subphylum Vertebrata
  53. 53. Class Osteichthyes – yellow perch • scales • operculum over gills • fins (note pairs) • lateral lines (from operculum to caudal fin) Subphylum Vertebrata
  54. 54. Class Amphibia – leopard frog and salamander • smooth skin (no scales) • 4 legs • tympanum on frog (eardrum) • eyelids Subphylum Vertebrata
  55. 55. Mammalia - Bones
  56. 56. Mammalia – Bone Slide See the ‘targets’? That is a haversian system
  57. 57. Mammalia - cartilage Cartilage slide – looks like spongy tissue, chondrocytes make cartilage, sit in a space called lacunae Biology.clc.uc.edu
  58. 58. Mammalia - muscles muscles know models, see also Figs. 13-4,5,&6 be able to identify muscle tissue by slides also Cardiac, one nucleus per cell, striations, thicker black lines are intercalated discs iws.collin.edu
  59. 59. Mammalia - muscles muscles know models skeletal, multiple nuclei per cell, striations harford.edu
  60. 60. Mammalia - muscles muscles know models smooth, one nucleus per cell, no striations iws.collin.edu
  61. 61. Mammalia - muscles muscles of the body, see exit activity for those you should focus on
  62. 62. Mammalia - skin Skin slide – sweat gland circles like donuts, sebaceous glands circles with dots, know skin layer
  63. 63. PancreasPancreas
  64. 64. Practice: Blood flows to heart from superior and inferior vena cavas into right atrium thru tricuspid into right ventricle then pulmonary artery to lungs returns pulmonary vein to left atrium thru bicuspid into left ventricle then aorta, aortic arch and body Chordae tendinae keep the valves from opening backwards – prevents backsplash
  65. 65. Right side, outer muscle is thinner
  66. 66. • learn the path of filtrate (follow along on Fig. 15-1) • out at the glomerulus (1) • into the surrounding tissues of Bowman’s capsule (2); material now called filtrate • through the proximal convoluted tubule (3), loop of Henle (4 - going into the medulla), and distal convoluted tubule (5); water is pulled out, leaving concentrated urine • urine leaves through the collecting duct (6) Kidney Model
  67. 67. female rat male rat Reproductive system Excretory system
  68. 68. Testes and ovary slides
  69. 69. • Use rat pictures on canvas to study rat parts • Use exit activities, go thru and identify what they tell you to • Answer the questions given in exit activity, • Remember this powerpoint won’t cover every thing that could possibly be on the exam, use your best judgement, & additional study materials, if you think you should know it you probably should Good luck and have a good rest of the summer!

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