CAMERAS<br />HOW TO USE A DIGITAL AND SLR CAMERA <br />AND THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THEM<br />Konica Minolta Dynax-Maxxum 5D Digital SLR Camera<br />Nikon Coolpix digital camera <br />
INTRODUCTION<br />THERE ARE LOTS DIFFERENT STYLES OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND TYPES OF PICTURES YOU CAN TAKE. <br />Fashion<br />photography<br />Landscape photography<br />Photo Journalism<br />paparazzi<br />Art created photography<br />Wedding photography<br />Still life photography<br />Travel photography<br />portraiture<br />
So what are cameras?<br />A camera is a device that records/stores images. These images may be still photographs or moving images such as videos or movies. <br /> cameras generally consist of an enclosed hollow shape with an opening at one end for light to enter, and a recording or viewing surface for capturing the light at the other end. A majority of cameras have a lens positioned in front of the camera's opening to gather the incoming light and focus all or part of the image on the recording surface. still cameras take one photo each time the shutter button is pressed.<br />Camera’s can act as time capsules that record the information and personal response of options and themes that take place in life. A lot of photographers choose to use cameras to explore their experiences. <br />
EXPOSURE<br />Exposure means how much light the film or sensor is exposed to when the lense is open. If the exposure it too high the image will ‘wash out’ or if it is too low the image will be dark. In modern cameras this is usually default and produces really good pictures in the right environments. When no artificial light is used, in weather and landscape photography for example, the exposure is determined by aperture, shutter speed and ISO and each affect each other. <br />
ISO<br />ISO is the element you can adjust in the film. It stands for International Standardisation Organisation and their film ratings are used to indicate the relative amount of light needed to give proper exposure and determines how quickly a film or sensor will respond to a certain amount of light. The most common films are at ISO 100 or 200. ISO 100 is normal films but ISO 200 will give the same exposure with half the light which enables you to shoot in lower light or with a smaller aperture or shutter speed. The lower the ISO the less sensitive. The most range is from 50 to 3200 but it depends on the model or film. The ISO speeds most common are:<br />ISO 100 or 200- use in high light outside with sunny conditions<br />ISO 400 to 800- use in medium light or a cloudy day to evening<br />ISO 1600- use in low light or night time<br />
DEPTH OF FIELD<br />Depth of field is the how much of the objects in the image are in focus. Lenses only focus on one particular distance but changing the depth of field allows the photographer to emphasise certain elements and isolate them in portraits for example and make everything in the foreground and distance sharp in landscape photography. You can alter the depth of field through; <br />The aperture, the smaller the aperture the greater the depth of field, <br />The focus point, the further you focus into the distance the greater the depth of field in relation to close ups, <br />The lense, the shorter the focal length of the lense the larger the depth of field. Also the wider the lense the greater the field of view but the closer you need to be to the subject. The wider lense is less magnified than the smaller one but the background appears sharper.<br />The type of camera also effects the depth of field. If the sensor is small the depth of field will be greater than larger sensors which are shallower but larger sensors offer the photographer greater control. Aperture size and shutter speed affect an images sharpness and definition. With a small aperture the effects of diffraction ( see aperture an f-stop for definition) outweigh the larger depth of field causing a reduction and this small aperture increases the shutter speed which has a negative effect unless you are using a tripod which limits this but is not always practical.<br />There is also depth of focus which should not be confused with depth of field as they are two separate things. Depth of focus is how far the sensor can be moved away from the point of focus and still produce a sharp image.<br />
SHUTTER SPEED<br />The shutter speed is how quickly the shutter opens and closes and it determines the amount of time the light has to reach the film or sensor. The shutter speed options depend on the type of camera and can be fractions of a second or seconds. If too much light enters when the shutter is open for too long your image will become over exposed and pale or white.<br />with day time photography shutter speeds are<br />usually high. Shutter speed on manual older <br />cameras were adjusted using dials on the top or <br />front but now are adjusted electronically and now<br /> have longer shutter speed options. The faster the <br />shutter speed the less motion so the clearer <br />more focused the picture. <br />high= clear and sharp<br />mid= middle<br />Low=blurry<br />Altering the shutter speed will also directly alter the<br />Aperture settings on digital and SLR cameras<br />
APERTURE AND F-STOP<br />Aperture is controlled by the lens and is the amount of light that it lets through the shutter. It also effects the focus and depth of the picture. At smaller apertures(high f-stops) the lense acts as a pin-hole and everything will appear sharp whereas with larger apertures everything except objects quite close to the lense will be un-sharp. So although you usually want as large a aperture as possible it depends on the type of photography. Diffraction is noticeable at smaller apertures also. Diffraction is caused by the wave nature of light and how its behaviour changes when it passes through an aperture or against the subject and can affect the sharpness and definition of the image. Each F-stop setting is half the size of the setting before it and double the size of the one after it. The higher the f number the smaller the aperture setting. Wider aperture setting are commonly used for close up and portrait shots. <br />
THE EFFECTS OF CHANGING THESE EXPOSURE SETTINGS<br />As mentioned before exposure can be controlled by changing the shutter speed, aperture and ISO and they all affect each other and do not always have positive effects on the quality of the image.<br />Large apertures cause visible lens errors to the photo such as aberration (deviation from what is expected) and un-sharpness. A tip is to use 2 or 3 stops smaller than wide if you have enough light to reduce this.<br />Small apertures also cause un-sharpness due to diffraction of light so should be avoided if possible.<br />(remember aperture determines depth of focus which is not such an issue in weather photography for example but it is in macro photography)<br />Long exposure times (low shutter speeds) need tripods and will blur moving subjects however short exposure times are not always possible due to low light.<br /> low ISO numbers require longer exposure which is not always possible and high ISO numbers suffer from coarse film grain in film and thermal noise with digital sensors.<br />When choosing setting it depends on what you are photographing, in what style and how much light you have. In some styles or lighting one aspect mat be more important than another and as a photographer it takes practice to know what settings are needed, although several combinations will produce the same effects.<br />
VEIWFINDERS,SHUTTER FLASH AND LIGHT SENSORS <br />Viewfinders- a viewfinder is the ‘window’ you look through to compose a scene. There are four types of common viewfinders.<br />Optical viewfinders, they are small, hard to use and often inaccurate as they <br />are placed on top of the lense and what you see through it isn’t necessarily<br /> what is projected onto the sensor.<br />LCD screens, show the image the sensor pics up in real time. It shortens battery life and it may be difficult to frame accurately in bright sunlight. (SLR cameras only show the image <br />after it is taken)<br />Optical viewfinders, show what will be projected onto the sensor using mirrors. Saves battery life and allows you to look directly through the lense so more accuracy.<br />Electronic viewfinders, act like LCD screens and show what is being projected<br /> in real time which allows you to frame more accurately especially in bright sunlight. <br />Shutter flash- when the shutter release button is pressed all the way down to take a photo the camera triggers the flash which illuminates the scene. This can be controlled by the different settings. On manual mode (M) the flash operates at full capacity and it is up to the photographer to adjust all the exposure settings according to this, in automatic mode (A)a flash sensor on the camera measures the amount of light and sets the flash intensity according to this and in TTL mode (through-the-lens) the flash sensor is inside the camera body and can tell the flash what aperture and ISO is being used and adjust accordingly though this is not available on all camera models.<br />Light sensors- we already briefly covered this in shutter flash but light sensors monitor the amount of light around and being produced and also verify colour information. Light sensors can be inside and outside of the camera.<br />
SLR: Single Lens Reflex camera<br />A single-lens reflex (SLR) camera is a camera that typically uses a semi <br />automatic moving mirror system that permits the photographer to see exactly <br />what will be captured by the film or digital imaging system (after a very small <br />delay).<br />They are the most expensive of all digital cameras because they can take higher quality images and have various adjustable settings and add-ons. <br />They give you more creative control over your picture and allow you to use interchangeable lenses, control over shutter speeds and aperture and a choice between manual and auto focus. <br />
FUNCTIONS OF A SLR CAMERA<br />This is where all the relevant information is displayed. Such as time settings, date, sound, light, ISO etc.<br />PORTRAIT<br />This mode will blur the background to make the subject stand out. The camera’s built-in flash will automatically ‘pop-up’ and fire if required.<br />LANDSCAPE <br />Will give front to back sharpness by maximizing Depth of Field. Mounting the camera on a tripod will give the best results.<br />CLOSE UP <br />This will allow a close focusing distance for subjects such as insects, flowers, etc. As with Portrait, the flash will fire automatically if needed.<br />SPORTS<br />Use this mode to freeze the movement of fast moving sport and action subjects.<br />PROGRAM AE (P)<br /> Like the Full Auto mode, this is for general purpose photography but it allows you to choose the Shutter Speed and Aperture whilst the exposure remains the same.<br />SHUTTER SPEED PRIORITY AE (or Time Value)<br /> This allows you to set fast or slow Shutter Speeds to freeze or blur movement. Perfect for sport and action photography.<br /> <br />APERTURE PRIORITY AE (or Aperture Value)<br /> Allows you to set a larger or smaller Aperture to blur the background or increase Depth of Field . Ideal for portraits and landscapes.<br /> <br /> <br />
FUNCTIONS OF A SLR CAMERA<br />MANUAL EXPOSURE (M)<br /> In this mode you can set both the Shutter Speed and the Aperture for total control although the camera will warn you if the Exposure setting is incorrect.<br /> <br />DEPTH OF FIELD AE (DEP)<br /> Focusing on both the foreground and background subject ensures front to back sharpness in your picture. A tripod is always recommended when using this mode.<br /> <br />AE LOCK (Partial Metering)<br /> You can lock the Exposure, recompose and refocus the picture, without altering the Auto Exposure (AE) setting.<br /> <br />EXPOSURE COMPENSATION<br /> You can override the exposure set by the camera at the press of a button. This can be applied to darken or lighten a picture as you choose.<br /> <br />MULTIPLE EXPOSURES<br /> Several images on a single frame can be achieved by not advancing the film.<br /> <br />BULB EXPOSURE<br /> Primarily for capturing night scenes, this mode exposes the film for as long as the Shutter button is held down, usually in excess of 30 secs. To avoid camera shake, a tripod and remote release are essential.<br /> <br />AUTO EXPOSURE BRACKETING (AEB)<br /> In ‘contrasty’ situations you may be unsure of what the correct exposure ought to be . The AEB function will set a correct, under and over Exposure in chosen stop increments.<br /> <br />
HOW TO USE A SLR CAMERA<br />Turn the camera on using the ‘on- off’ switch. The<br />Screen should light up.<br />2.Set your exposure settings. Digital SLR cameras have a<br />Variety of exposure settings that allow you to take <br />photographs in many different environments and <br />settings. The exposure modes include an auto-multi<br /> program ("P"), shutter priority ("S") and aperture <br />priority auto ("A") and manual ("M"). If you are not sure <br />on what setting the camera should be on to produce a <br />suitable photo the camera can be put on auto mode <br />which makes the camera automatically provide the best aperture for picture.<br />3. Tap the shutter button to focus your camera. Digital SLR set to<br />"Aperture Priority," you will also have the ability to use the auto-focus.<br /> To focus on your subject, aim your camera at your subject and press <br />the shutter button half way. If you are looking through the lens when <br />you tap the shutter button you will notice as the camera adjusts its focus to your subject.<br />4.Take a picture. Once your camera is in focus, fully press in the shutter button. You will hear a click and see the viewfinder of your camera go black for a fraction of a second. Immediately on the back display of your camera, you should see the picture you have just taken. You can then decide to keep or delete the photo.<br />(from Ehow)<br />
VIDEOS ON HOW TO USE A SLR CAMERA<br />How to use a SLR camera- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OA0MM30i244&feature=email<br />Getting ready to use your SLR camera- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mP-mSJPYviM&feature=email<br />An overview of SLR cameras- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ebG855de42k&feature=BFp&list=WLF9CBC7794E2DB972&index=2<br />How to use wide-angle lenses on your digital SLR- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gtso_zBDmns&feature=BFa&list=WLF9CBC7794E2DB972&index=3<br />How to use zoom and telephoto lenses on your digital SLR- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-O4yNVV3wBQ&feature=BFa&list=WLF9CBC7794E2DB972&index=4<br />Understanding your digital SLR's mode dial- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r_EQHuk0634&feature=BFa&list=WLF9CBC7794E2DB972&index=5<br />Using your digital SLR's shutter priority mode- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9HeEIWYXgB8&feature=BFa&list=WLF9CBC7794E2DB972&index=6<br />An overview of digital SLR lenses- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_8jdmyF6BSo&feature=BFa&list=WLF9CBC7794E2DB972&index=7<br />Using your digital SLR's aperture priority mode- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O2i2DqsTVl0&feature=BFa&list=WLF9CBC7794E2DB972&index=8<br />How to take close-up shots with your digital SLR- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bgs8ajLm6xs&feature=BFa&list=WLF9CBC7794E2DB972&index=9<br />Macro Photography Tutorial- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GjEFVxMi6HY&feature=related<br />
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES<br />OF USING A SLR CAMERA<br />ADVANTAGES:<br /><ul><li> SLR camera’s are good for taking pictures from a long distance
susceptible to dust contamination and damage</li></li></ul><li>Digital camera<br />A digital camera is a camera that takes video or still photographs, or both, digitally by recording images via an electronic image sensor.<br />Digital cameras come in a range or sizes and capabilities and have varying resolutions. Most digital cameras are also small which makes them easy to carry around.<br />Digital cameras are simple and easy to use which is always good.<br />
CONTROLS OF A DIGITAL CAMERA<br /><ul><li>Shutter button: push all the way down to take the picture
control buttons: adjust various camera settings
shooting mode dial: change among different scene modes, adjust exposure choices etc
microphone: to capture audio for movie clips and voice annotations
focus- assist light: helps the camera focus in dim lighting conditions
electronic flash: provides additional light to your scene
optical viewfinder: to frame and compose your picture
zoon lens and control: magnifies or reduces size of the image.
tripod socket: allows you to attach the camera to a firm support
docking port: can be used to transfer photos, recharge batteries, make prints and other functions
battery compartment: contains the cells that power the camera
file-save LED: this lights up to indicate that an image is being saved to the memory card</li></li></ul><li>FUNCTIONS OF A DIGITAL CAMERA<br />Screen shot of Image Size Menu<br />F-stop and depth of field •macro mode- select the MACRO<br /> MODE function (by pressing the tulip button/area) <br /> Once you have selected it, the tulip image becomes <br /> smaller and appears on one side of the LCD screen<br /><ul><li> custom white balance-Take or measure the light inside our system by using the custom white balance feature on your camera. Please do these adjustments with the shutter speed set at 1/400 (for fluorescent) or 1/100 (for halogen) and the ISO at 80.
Resolution- Screen shot of Image Resolution Menu</li></li></ul><li>HOW TO USE A DIGITAL CAMERA<br />Turn on the digital camera. Press the on/off button. The display screen will light up which this mean the camera is on. <br /> On the display screen you will see the picture. Keeping your hand steady the camera will focus on your subject. <br /> When you are ready you can take the picture of your subject by Pressing the shutter button. Immediately on the back display of your camera, you should see the picture you have just taken. You can then decide to keep or delete the photo.<br /> For video change mode and press record.<br /> press playback button to view video <br />To change to night mode, auto, black and white etc press the menu button and select the appropriate option<br />
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES <br />OF USING A DIGITAL CAMERA<br />ADVANTAGES:<br /><ul><li> Displays images on a screen after it has been recorded
Store thousand of images on a small memory card.
easy to loose as so small in some cases</li></li></ul><li>CAMERA TECHNIQUES<br />Really good website for camera techniques: how to take photos at night, how to get more focus, how to blur portrait backgrounds etc.... <br />http://www.dslrtips.com/workshops/DSLR_workshops_tutorials_tips.shtml<br />
CAMERA TECHNIQUES<br />I found a really good website where you can get loads of useful information on cameras.<br />Visit this website for techniques and tips tutorials on cameras. Learn, PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES & STYLES, COLOR MANAGEMENT & PRINTING, PHOTO EDITING & POST-PROCESSING, CAMERA EQUIPMENT and CONCEPTS & TERMINOLOGY<br />http://www.cambridgeincolour.com/tutorials.htm<br />
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