How to reduce cancer risk

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How to reduce cancer risk

  1. 1. HOW TO REDUCE CANCER RISKA presentation for health professionals by:World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF UK)22 Bedford SquareLondon WC1B 3HHTel: 020 7343 4200Website: www.wcrf-uk.org 1
  2. 2. Contentso  Part 1: About World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF UK) and the evidence on lifestyle and cancer risk (slides 3 – 15)o  Part 2: WCRF UK’s Recommendations for Cancer Prevention (slides 16 – 38)o  Part 3: The role of health professionals, current awareness levels and how WCRF UK can help (slides 39 – 48) 2 2
  3. 3. Part 1: WCRF UK and theWCRF global network 3
  4. 4. About WCRF UKo  Our vision World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF UK) helps people make choices that reduce their chances of developing cancero  Our mission To fund research on the relationship of nutrition, physical activity and weight management to cancer risk To interpret the accumulated scientific literature in the field To educate people about choices they can make to reduce their chances of developing cancer 4
  5. 5. Key achievementso  1997 First Expert Report Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspectiveo  2007 Second Expert Report Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspectiveo  2009 Policy Report Policy and Action for Cancer Preventiono  2007 onwards - Continuous Update Project Keeping the evidence current 5
  6. 6. The burden of cancero Cancer is a major cause of death, disability and lost life yearso In 2008/9, estimated NHS expenditure on cancer services was over £5 billiono Cancer is mostly environmentally determined and largely preventable 6
  7. 7. A largely preventable diseaseo  About a third of the most common cancers in the UK could be prevented if everyone ate a healthy diet, was physically active, and maintained a healthy weighto  This equates to around 80,000 cases a yearo  Enough to fill Wembley Stadium! 7
  8. 8. Non-communicable causes of death UK China Men 8
  9. 9. Age-standardised rates of common cancers UK China Men 9
  10. 10. Migration data 10
  11. 11. Food, nutrition, obesity, physical activity,and cellular processes linked to cancer 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. The evidence behind WCRF UK’s message o  2007 Second Expert Report o  Six years to produce o  Involved over 200 scientists o  Independent observers, including the FAO, WHO and UNICEF o  Examined all the available evidence from around the world 13
  14. 14. The evidence behind WCRF UK’s message o  Initial sweep found half a million studies o  Screened down to 7,000 that were relevant and robust o  Findings reviewed by an independent Expert Panel of 21 of the world’s top researchers o  Only the strongest evidence was used as the basis for WCRF UK’s Recommendations for Cancer Prevention 14
  15. 15. Keeping the evidence current 15
  16. 16. Part 2: WCRF UK’s Recommendations for Cancer Prevention1.  Be as lean as possible without becoming underweight2.  Be physically active for at least 30 minutes every day3.  Avoid sugary drinks. Limit consumption of energy-dense foods (particularly processed foods high in added sugar, or low in fibre, or high in fat)4.  Eat more of a variety of vegetables, fruits, wholegrains, and pulses5.  Limit consumption of red meats and avoid processed meats 16
  17. 17. 6. If consumed at all, limit alcoholic drinks to 2 for men and 1 for women a day7. Limit consumption of salty foods and foods processed with salt (sodium)8.  Don’t use supplements to protect against cancer Special population Recommendations:9. It is best for mothers to breastfeed exclusively for up to 6 months and then add other liquids and foods10. After treatment, cancer survivors should follow the Recommendations for Cancer Prevention And, always remember – do not smoke or chew tobacco 17
  18. 18. Recommendation 1: Be as lean as possible without becoming underweighto  A key way to reduce cancer risk – excess body fat increases risk of bowel, oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, endometrium (womb) and breast cancer (in post menopausal women)o  Diet based on plant foods and being physically active 18
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  20. 20. Recommendation 2: Be physically active for at least 30 minutes every dayo  Any form of physical activity can help to protect against bowel and breast cancero  And reduce the risk of becoming overweighto  The more, the better! 20
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  22. 22. Recommendation 3: Avoid sugary drinks. Limit consumption of energy-dense foods (particularly processed foods high in added sugar, or low in fibre, or high in fat).o  Sugary drinks and energy-dense foods are linked to weight gaino  Contain more than about 225-275 kcal per 100go  Contain more fat and sugar 22
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  25. 25. Recommendation 4: Eat more of a variety of vegetables, fruits, wholegrains, and pulses such as beans.o  Aim for at least 5 A DAY! Vegetables and fruits help to protect against a range of cancerso  Include wholegrains or pulses with every mealo  These foods tend to be less energy dense – help us avoid weight gaino  Contain plenty of water and fibre – fibre can help prevent bowel cancer 25
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  27. 27. Recommendation 5: Limit consumption of red meats (such as beef, pork and lamb) and avoid processed meatso  Red meat and processed meat are both convincingly linked to bowel cancero  Aim for less than 500g cooked red meat a week – choose smaller, leaner portionso  Avoid processed meat, like bacon and ham, almost always 27
  28. 28. Portion ofred meatProteinalternatives 28
  29. 29. Recommendation 6: If consumed at all, limit alcoholic drinks to 2 for men and 1 for women a dayo  Alcohol raises the risk of five common cancerso  Liver, breast, bowel and mouth and oesophagus 29
  30. 30. What is one drink?A drink is:o  half a pint of normal strength beer, lager or cidero  one 25ml measure of spirits such as vodkao  one small (125ml) glass of wine 30
  31. 31. Drinks and Calories 31
  32. 32. Recommendation 7: Limit consumption of salty foods and foods processed with salt (sodium)o  High-salt diets are linked to stomach cancero  Aim for less than 6g a day – about a level teaspoonfulo  Most of the salt in our diet comes from processed foods such as bread, cereals, ready meals and sweet foods such as biscuits! 32
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  34. 34. Recommendation 8: Dont use supplements to protect against cancero  The best option is a balanced dieto  High dose supplements of some nutrients can affect the risk of different cancerso  Some people can benefit from taking supplements for other reasons – refer patients to their GP 34
  35. 35. Special PopulationRecommendations 35
  36. 36. Recommendation 9: It is best for mothers to breastfeed exclusively for up to 6 months and then add other liquids and food.o  Breastfeeding can protect mothers from breast cancero  Having been breastfed can protect children from becoming overweight and obese 36
  37. 37. Recommendation 10: After treatment, cancer survivors should follow the Recommendations for Cancer Prevention.o  Cancer survivors are people who are living with a diagnosis of cancero  Growing evidence shows physical activity and other measures that help us maintain a healthy weight may help to prevent cancer recurrenceo  Seek advice from an appropriately trained consultant or dietitian 37
  38. 38. And, always remember –do not smoke or chew tobacco 38
  39. 39. Part 3: What can health professionalsdo? WCRF/AICR’s 2009 Policy Report: o  Multinational bodies o  Government o  Industry o  Health professionals o  Schools o  Media o  Workplaces o  Civil society organisations o  Individuals 39
  40. 40. The role of health professionals Health professionals are a trusted source of health information.You:o  Can give advice on wellbeing and prevention, not just diagnosis and management of diseaseo  Meet people when they are open to and in need of health promotion messageso  Take the lead in promoting health to colleagues, other professionals and other actor groupso  Be effective in delivering successful behaviour change initiatives 40
  41. 41. Awareness of risk factorsYouGov Survey Results August 2011 (2029 subjects – general public)“Which, if any, of the following do you think increasesyour risk of getting cancer?” o  86% of people identified smoking o  Only 60% identified a poor diet or being overweight o  Only 50% of respondents identified physical inactivity as a cancer risk factor o  Only 57% identified drinking alcohol 41
  42. 42. Awareness of risk factorsEven fewer – only 39% of respondents – correctlyidentified processed meat as a cancer risk factorBut:o  9% of respondents identified coffee; ando  20% identified sweetenerseven though the evidence does not suggest that eitherof these affects cancer risk 42
  43. 43. How WCRF UK can help:our resources for the general public 43
  44. 44. How WCRF UK can help:our resources for health professionals www.wcrf-uk.org/health-professionals 44
  45. 45. How WCRF UK can help:health professionals web sectiono  The latest informationo  The latest articleso  Details of upcoming conferenceso  Statistics on cancer rates, diet, lifestyle and weighto  Downloadable resources including meal planners, food diaries and factsheetso  Online tools including a BMI and energy density calculatoro  Useful linkso  www.wcrf-uk.org/health-professionals 45
  46. 46. How WCRF UK can help:monthly eNewso  Free monthly eNews for health professionalso  The latest news on cancer preventiono  Hear about new resources, workshops and grants firsto  www.wcrf-uk.org/eNews 46
  47. 47. The Great Grub Club www.greatgrubclub.com 47
  48. 48. Thank you for listening tothis presentationo  To give WCRF UK feedback on this presentation, their health professionals’ web section, their monthly eNews or any of the WCRF UK resources, email informed@wcrf.orgReview date: December 2013 48

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