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Open Source Jura

                      Advokat Martin von Haller Grønbæk
                      Partner, Bender von Haller...
Martin von Haller Grønbæk

         –   Attorney-at-law, Bender von Haller Dragsted
         –   Co-founder, Open Source V...
Martin von Haller Grønbæk

         –   http://www.bvhd.dk
         –   http://openlife.dk
         –   http://www.vonhall...
Martin von Haller Grønbæk


         –Legal500: “At IT boutique
          Bender von Haller Dragsted,
          Martin von...
Agenda

         –   Intro to open source
         –   Open source law survey
         –   Licenses
         –   Patents o...
Agenda




         –Intro to open source




                                 6
onsdag den 16. december 2009         6
Open
                               Sauce




onsdag den 16. december 2009           7
“Free not as in free
                         beer but as in
                           freedom”
onsdag den 16. december 2...
Four freedoms


onsdag den 16. december 2009        9
#1 Use the
                               program as you
                                   please



onsdag den 16. decem...
#2 Look into the source
                           code



onsdag den 16. december 2009                11
#3 Erase, change, add,
                     modify and whatever



onsdag den 16. december 2009                  12
#4 Give, transfer,
                  transfer the code freely



onsdag den 16. december 2009                 13
Communisme ?




onsdag den 16. december 2009   14
Cancer?
onsdag den 16. december 2009             15
Cathedral
                                 or ?
onsdag den 16. december 2009               16
Bazaar?
onsdag den 16. december 2009             17
onsdag den 16. december 2009   18
Give due credit!
onsdag den 16. december 2009                      19
Names og persons
   •    Free software
   •    Open source
   •    Linux
   •    Free Libre Open Source Software




     ...
Free vs. Open
onsdag den 16. december 2009                   21
Linus, Tux and Linux
onsdag den 16. december 2009                   22
FLOSS




onsdag den 16. december 2009           23
Software
                                   or
                               network
                                 sta...
Open source at all levels
   •    Internet
   •    Operative systems
   •    Databases
   •    Webservers
   •    Middlewa...
Agenda




         –Open source law survey




                                   26
onsdag den 16. december 2009        ...
Generel open source jura
   •    Contract or license
   •    Liability
         – for licensor
         – for solution pro...
onsdag den 16. december 2009   28
Copyleft
         –   Copyleft or copyright
         –   All OSS licenses allows modifications
         –   Redistribution...
Derived works
         – “A work based upon an original work”
         – Modifications
            • Improvements

       ...
GPL


onsdag den 16. december 2009         31
Combinations
         – Combinations to files to one application
         – Compilation of source code to object code
    ...
Distribution
            –   GPL v2: Distribution
            –   GPL v3: Propagation and Conveyance
            –   In so...
Escapes
        – Make deal with licensor
        – Replace code
        – Work around
        – GPL v3, sec. 8
          ...
Enforcement
         – The GPL is enforceable!
               –   Germany 2004: Netfilter/Iptables; 2006: D-Link
         ...
Compensation
         –   Compensation under copyright
         –   No penal damages or stipulated damages
         –   Ec...
Agenda




         –Licenses




                               37
onsdag den 16. december 2009    37
Open source
                                initiative




onsdag den 16. december 2009                 38
Bruce Perens




onsdag den 16. december 2009              39
Open source principperne
         –   Free redistribution
         –   Source code
         –   Derived work
         –   ...
Comply or call
                               or don’t call it
                               open source!




onsdag den ...
Open source licenses
         – Academic or permissive licenses
            – Apache License v2


               –   MIT L...
Agenda




         –Patents and trademarks




                                   43
onsdag den 16. december 2009        ...
Open source
                               and patents



onsdag den 16. december 2009                 44
Software patenter


         – “A set of exclusive rights granted by a state to
           an inventor or his assignee for...
Patenter

         – Open source licenses deals with copyright
         – Patents are not covered by the license
         ...
Patent trolls
onsdag den 16. december 2009                   47
Open source
                                   and
                               trademarks
onsdag den 16. december 2009 ...
Varemærker

         – Once again: Licenses deals with copyright
         – No trademarks covered by the licenses
        ...
Agenda




         –Business model




                               50
onsdag den 16. december 2009    50
LEGO
                               Mindstorms
onsdag den 16. december 2009                51
Intro

   1 May 2006. LEGO press release

   Hackers, Get Ready! LEGO Group Announces Open Source
   Firmware, Developer K...
Background

   – Mindstorms robots launched in 1998
   –   The best-selling LEGO product ever
   –   Huge Mindstorm commun...
Challenges

   – LEGO was not comfortable with “openess”
   – LEGO has been and is extremely reliant on strong
     IPRs
 ...
Solution

   – Embrace User driven innovation
   – Open source as the enabler
   – Third party permission for redistributi...
OSS licence choice

   –   Mozilla Public license v. 1.1
   –   Weak copyleft
   –   Modification is limited altering the ...
“Beautiful solution”

   –   Huge press coverage and goodwill
   –   Large number of downloads of code
   –   Much more “i...
Dual
                               licensing




onsdag den 16. december 2009               58
Dual licensing

   – The software company perspective
   – The same code is licensed under two different
     licences:
  ...
Ophavsmandens eneret

   – The owner can decide to release under any and
     as many terms she likes
   – Dual licensing ...
Ophavsret og kontrol

   – MySQL has exclusive copyright to the code
   – MySQL controls and certifies the code
   – The G...
Hvorfor betale?

   –   Certification of the code
   –   Warranties
   –   Maintenance and support
   –   Copyleft exempti...
Stadig ikke overbevist?


   –MySQL AB was in 2008
    bought by Sun
    Microsystem, Inc. for
    approximately USD $1
  ...
Agenda




         –Questions




                               64
onsdag den 16. december 2009    64
onsdag den 16. december 2009   65
Tak for opmærksomheden!
                                     Also available at
                               http://www.s...
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Open Source Law DTU

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My presentation on open source law 16 December 2009 at Danish Technical University (DTU) at a PhD seminar in the Informatics department

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Transcript of "Open Source Law DTU"

  1. 1. Open Source Jura Advokat Martin von Haller Grønbæk Partner, Bender von Haller Dragsted DTU Informatics, 16-12-2009 onsdag den 16. december 2009 1
  2. 2. Martin von Haller Grønbæk – Attorney-at-law, Bender von Haller Dragsted – Co-founder, Open Source Vendors Ass. (OSL) – Editorial board IFOSSLR – Co-founder, Creative Commons DK – Co-founder, Danish Internet Society Chapter 2 onsdag den 16. december 2009 2
  3. 3. Martin von Haller Grønbæk – http://www.bvhd.dk – http://openlife.dk – http://www.vonhaller.dk – http://www.linkedin.com/in/vonhaller – http://www.23hq.com/mhg – http://www.slideshare.net/vonhaller – http://www.facebook.com/vonhaller – mhg@bvhd.dk – martin@groenbaek.net – groenbaek@gmail.com 3 onsdag den 16. december 2009 3
  4. 4. Martin von Haller Grønbæk –Legal500: “At IT boutique Bender von Haller Dragsted, Martin von Haller Grønbæk is the Danish expert on open source and emerging issues around Web 2.0 and internet law.” 4 onsdag den 16. december 2009 4
  5. 5. Agenda – Intro to open source – Open source law survey – Licenses – Patents og trademarks – Businessmodels – Questions 5 onsdag den 16. december 2009 5
  6. 6. Agenda –Intro to open source 6 onsdag den 16. december 2009 6
  7. 7. Open Sauce onsdag den 16. december 2009 7
  8. 8. “Free not as in free beer but as in freedom” onsdag den 16. december 2009 8
  9. 9. Four freedoms onsdag den 16. december 2009 9
  10. 10. #1 Use the program as you please onsdag den 16. december 2009 10
  11. 11. #2 Look into the source code onsdag den 16. december 2009 11
  12. 12. #3 Erase, change, add, modify and whatever onsdag den 16. december 2009 12
  13. 13. #4 Give, transfer, transfer the code freely onsdag den 16. december 2009 13
  14. 14. Communisme ? onsdag den 16. december 2009 14
  15. 15. Cancer? onsdag den 16. december 2009 15
  16. 16. Cathedral or ? onsdag den 16. december 2009 16
  17. 17. Bazaar? onsdag den 16. december 2009 17
  18. 18. onsdag den 16. december 2009 18
  19. 19. Give due credit! onsdag den 16. december 2009 19
  20. 20. Names og persons • Free software • Open source • Linux • Free Libre Open Source Software 20 onsdag den 16. december 2009 20
  21. 21. Free vs. Open onsdag den 16. december 2009 21
  22. 22. Linus, Tux and Linux onsdag den 16. december 2009 22
  23. 23. FLOSS onsdag den 16. december 2009 23
  24. 24. Software or network stack onsdag den 16. december 2009 24
  25. 25. Open source at all levels • Internet • Operative systems • Databases • Webservers • Middleware • ERP applikations • Desktop applikations • Webapps – Amazon – eBay – Yahoo – Facebook – Google 25 onsdag den 16. december 2009 25
  26. 26. Agenda –Open source law survey 26 onsdag den 16. december 2009 26
  27. 27. Generel open source jura • Contract or license • Liability – for licensor – for solution provider – for infringement of third party IPR – for defects • Licensecompatability – between different OSS licenses – between “closed source” and OSS licenses • Enforcement – Jurisdiction – Legal standing – Compensation • Interpretation 27 onsdag den 16. december 2009 27
  28. 28. onsdag den 16. december 2009 28
  29. 29. Copyleft – Copyleft or copyright – All OSS licenses allows modifications – Redistribution or distribution not a requirement – Comply with the copyleft term or discontinue the use of the program – Recall distributed code – Comply with copyleft by making modifications’ source code available – Make only available source code to the have received the code – Not allowed to deny redistribution by agreement 29 onsdag den 16. december 2009 29
  30. 30. Derived works – “A work based upon an original work” – Modifications • Improvements • Translations • Error corrections • Amendments – Not collective works – Strong copyleft vs. Weak copyleft – Mozilla Public License v. 2 • File amendments – General Public Licence • Combinations 30 onsdag den 16. december 2009 30
  31. 31. GPL onsdag den 16. december 2009 31
  32. 32. Combinations – Combinations to files to one application – Compilation of source code to object code • Static links – Dynamic links by combination at run time level – Mechanism of communication – Semantics of the communication – Kommunikationssemantik – Output not covered – (Exc: GPL program copies text into output) – Output of language interpreter – (Exc: “bindings” interpreter to program) – Linus Torvald’s interpretation of GPL re. Linux – Remember starting point: Al combos are allowed 32 onsdag den 16. december 2009 32
  33. 33. Distribution – GPL v2: Distribution – GPL v3: Propagation and Conveyance – In soft- and hardware – ASP loophole og network exception – Affero Public License – Contractors on/off-site – Outsourcing – Mergers and Acquisitions – Let recipient download the GPL’ed code 33 onsdag den 16. december 2009 33
  34. 34. Escapes – Make deal with licensor – Replace code – Work around – GPL v3, sec. 8 • Termination notice – NDA: Developer can agree not to release changes at all – NDA: Developer can agree only to release changes to customer 34 onsdag den 16. december 2009 34
  35. 35. Enforcement – The GPL is enforceable! – Germany 2004: Netfilter/Iptables; 2006: D-Link – US 2007: BusyBox; 2008: Jacobsen vs. Katzer – SCO – Copyright holder – Injunction – GPL-VIOLATIONS.ORG – Free Software Foundation – (BvHD) 35 onsdag den 16. december 2009 35
  36. 36. Compensation – Compensation under copyright – No penal damages or stipulated damages – Economic loss suffered by licensor – Rule of thumb: 2 x license fee – Fines – Legal fees 36 onsdag den 16. december 2009 36
  37. 37. Agenda –Licenses 37 onsdag den 16. december 2009 37
  38. 38. Open source initiative onsdag den 16. december 2009 38
  39. 39. Bruce Perens onsdag den 16. december 2009 39
  40. 40. Open source principperne – Free redistribution – Source code – Derived work – Integrity of The Author's Source Code – 5-10: Non-discrimination 40 onsdag den 16. december 2009 40
  41. 41. Comply or call or don’t call it open source! onsdag den 16. december 2009 41
  42. 42. Open source licenses – Academic or permissive licenses – Apache License v2 – MIT License – New BSD license – Copyleft, reciprocal or hereditary licences – Weak copyleft – Artistic license v1 – Eclipse Public License – Mozilla Public License v.1.1 – Strong copyleft – GNU GPL v1-3 – GNU LGPL v1-3 42 onsdag den 16. december 2009 42
  43. 43. Agenda –Patents and trademarks 43 onsdag den 16. december 2009 43
  44. 44. Open source and patents onsdag den 16. december 2009 44
  45. 45. Software patenter – “A set of exclusive rights granted by a state to an inventor or his assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an invention” – FSF: “a patent on any performance of a computer realised by means of a computer program" 45 onsdag den 16. december 2009 45
  46. 46. Patenter – Open source licenses deals with copyright – Patents are not covered by the license – Open source licenses enables upstream and downstream use otherwise prohibited by patents – AntiTivoization • Restrictions on hardware • GPL v3: Only hardware for consumers 46 onsdag den 16. december 2009 46
  47. 47. Patent trolls onsdag den 16. december 2009 47
  48. 48. Open source and trademarks onsdag den 16. december 2009 48
  49. 49. Varemærker – Once again: Licenses deals with copyright – No trademarks covered by the licenses – Trademarks are the commercial equivalent to author’s integrity – Many open source business models are closely tied to trademarks – Badgeware • Umbraco • SocialText 49 onsdag den 16. december 2009 49
  50. 50. Agenda –Business model 50 onsdag den 16. december 2009 50
  51. 51. LEGO Mindstorms onsdag den 16. december 2009 51
  52. 52. Intro 1 May 2006. LEGO press release Hackers, Get Ready! LEGO Group Announces Open Source Firmware, Developer Kits for LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT Consumer-directed robotics experience creation to enter “NXT” phase with open firmware, Software, Hardware and Bluetooth Developer Kits to launch in August 52 onsdag den 16. december 2009 52
  53. 53. Background – Mindstorms robots launched in 1998 – The best-selling LEGO product ever – Huge Mindstorm community – LEGO was and is not a software company – Only minor upgrades to the firmware – Several parallel Mindstorms OS’s 53 onsdag den 16. december 2009 53
  54. 54. Challenges – LEGO was not comfortable with “openess” – LEGO has been and is extremely reliant on strong IPRs – You don't give away IPRs for free” – Turbulent period for LEGO in general – Third party software included 54 onsdag den 16. december 2009 54
  55. 55. Solution – Embrace User driven innovation – Open source as the enabler – Third party permission for redistribution under an OS license – Choice of license – ”Genuine” open source licence – Permissive (Academic) or Copyleft (reciprocal license) 55 onsdag den 16. december 2009 55
  56. 56. OSS licence choice – Mozilla Public license v. 1.1 – Weak copyleft – Modification is limited altering the files – “I did not understand GPL v.2” – LEGO was only concerned with modifications of the actual files 56 onsdag den 16. december 2009 56
  57. 57. “Beautiful solution” – Huge press coverage and goodwill – Large number of downloads of code – Much more “intelligence” in the bricks – Convincing strategy towards competitors – Option to “close” the code again – Many more bricks sold! 57 onsdag den 16. december 2009 57
  58. 58. Dual licensing onsdag den 16. december 2009 58
  59. 59. Dual licensing – The software company perspective – The same code is licensed under two different licences: – MySQL Community Server: GPL v.2 with FOSS exception – MySQL Enterprise: Commercial license 59 onsdag den 16. december 2009 59
  60. 60. Ophavsmandens eneret – The owner can decide to release under any and as many terms she likes – Dual licensing is only possible for owner's own modfications – Or assigned modifications – Control is necessary to mitigate liability – ”Closing in” the code again 60 onsdag den 16. december 2009 60
  61. 61. Ophavsret og kontrol – MySQL has exclusive copyright to the code – MySQL controls and certifies the code – The GPL does not give any rights to use MySQLs trademarks 61 onsdag den 16. december 2009 61
  62. 62. Hvorfor betale? – Certification of the code – Warranties – Maintenance and support – Copyleft exemption 62 onsdag den 16. december 2009 62
  63. 63. Stadig ikke overbevist? –MySQL AB was in 2008 bought by Sun Microsystem, Inc. for approximately USD $1 billion in total consideration 63 onsdag den 16. december 2009 63
  64. 64. Agenda –Questions 64 onsdag den 16. december 2009 64
  65. 65. onsdag den 16. december 2009 65
  66. 66. Tak for opmærksomheden! Also available at http://www.slideshare.net/vonhaller/ onsdag den 16. december 2009 66
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