Open Source Law DTU
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Open Source Law DTU

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My presentation on open source law 16 December 2009 at Danish Technical University (DTU) at a PhD seminar in the Informatics department

My presentation on open source law 16 December 2009 at Danish Technical University (DTU) at a PhD seminar in the Informatics department

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Open Source Law DTU Open Source Law DTU Presentation Transcript

  • Open Source Jura Advokat Martin von Haller Grønbæk Partner, Bender von Haller Dragsted DTU Informatics, 16-12-2009 onsdag den 16. december 2009 1
  • Martin von Haller Grønbæk – Attorney-at-law, Bender von Haller Dragsted – Co-founder, Open Source Vendors Ass. (OSL) – Editorial board IFOSSLR – Co-founder, Creative Commons DK – Co-founder, Danish Internet Society Chapter 2 onsdag den 16. december 2009 2
  • Martin von Haller Grønbæk – http://www.bvhd.dk – http://openlife.dk – http://www.vonhaller.dk – http://www.linkedin.com/in/vonhaller – http://www.23hq.com/mhg – http://www.slideshare.net/vonhaller – http://www.facebook.com/vonhaller – mhg@bvhd.dk – martin@groenbaek.net – groenbaek@gmail.com 3 onsdag den 16. december 2009 3
  • Martin von Haller Grønbæk –Legal500: “At IT boutique Bender von Haller Dragsted, Martin von Haller Grønbæk is the Danish expert on open source and emerging issues around Web 2.0 and internet law.” 4 onsdag den 16. december 2009 4
  • Agenda – Intro to open source – Open source law survey – Licenses – Patents og trademarks – Businessmodels – Questions 5 onsdag den 16. december 2009 5
  • Agenda –Intro to open source 6 onsdag den 16. december 2009 6
  • Open Sauce onsdag den 16. december 2009 7
  • “Free not as in free beer but as in freedom” onsdag den 16. december 2009 8
  • Four freedoms onsdag den 16. december 2009 9
  • #1 Use the program as you please onsdag den 16. december 2009 10
  • #2 Look into the source code onsdag den 16. december 2009 11
  • #3 Erase, change, add, modify and whatever onsdag den 16. december 2009 12
  • #4 Give, transfer, transfer the code freely onsdag den 16. december 2009 13
  • Communisme ? onsdag den 16. december 2009 14
  • Cancer? onsdag den 16. december 2009 15
  • Cathedral or ? onsdag den 16. december 2009 16
  • Bazaar? onsdag den 16. december 2009 17
  • onsdag den 16. december 2009 18
  • Give due credit! onsdag den 16. december 2009 19
  • Names og persons • Free software • Open source • Linux • Free Libre Open Source Software 20 onsdag den 16. december 2009 20
  • Free vs. Open onsdag den 16. december 2009 21
  • Linus, Tux and Linux onsdag den 16. december 2009 22
  • FLOSS onsdag den 16. december 2009 23
  • Software or network stack onsdag den 16. december 2009 24
  • Open source at all levels • Internet • Operative systems • Databases • Webservers • Middleware • ERP applikations • Desktop applikations • Webapps – Amazon – eBay – Yahoo – Facebook – Google 25 onsdag den 16. december 2009 25
  • Agenda –Open source law survey 26 onsdag den 16. december 2009 26
  • Generel open source jura • Contract or license • Liability – for licensor – for solution provider – for infringement of third party IPR – for defects • Licensecompatability – between different OSS licenses – between “closed source” and OSS licenses • Enforcement – Jurisdiction – Legal standing – Compensation • Interpretation 27 onsdag den 16. december 2009 27
  • onsdag den 16. december 2009 28
  • Copyleft – Copyleft or copyright – All OSS licenses allows modifications – Redistribution or distribution not a requirement – Comply with the copyleft term or discontinue the use of the program – Recall distributed code – Comply with copyleft by making modifications’ source code available – Make only available source code to the have received the code – Not allowed to deny redistribution by agreement 29 onsdag den 16. december 2009 29
  • Derived works – “A work based upon an original work” – Modifications • Improvements • Translations • Error corrections • Amendments – Not collective works – Strong copyleft vs. Weak copyleft – Mozilla Public License v. 2 • File amendments – General Public Licence • Combinations 30 onsdag den 16. december 2009 30
  • GPL onsdag den 16. december 2009 31
  • Combinations – Combinations to files to one application – Compilation of source code to object code • Static links – Dynamic links by combination at run time level – Mechanism of communication – Semantics of the communication – Kommunikationssemantik – Output not covered – (Exc: GPL program copies text into output) – Output of language interpreter – (Exc: “bindings” interpreter to program) – Linus Torvald’s interpretation of GPL re. Linux – Remember starting point: Al combos are allowed 32 onsdag den 16. december 2009 32
  • Distribution – GPL v2: Distribution – GPL v3: Propagation and Conveyance – In soft- and hardware – ASP loophole og network exception – Affero Public License – Contractors on/off-site – Outsourcing – Mergers and Acquisitions – Let recipient download the GPL’ed code 33 onsdag den 16. december 2009 33
  • Escapes – Make deal with licensor – Replace code – Work around – GPL v3, sec. 8 • Termination notice – NDA: Developer can agree not to release changes at all – NDA: Developer can agree only to release changes to customer 34 onsdag den 16. december 2009 34
  • Enforcement – The GPL is enforceable! – Germany 2004: Netfilter/Iptables; 2006: D-Link – US 2007: BusyBox; 2008: Jacobsen vs. Katzer – SCO – Copyright holder – Injunction – GPL-VIOLATIONS.ORG – Free Software Foundation – (BvHD) 35 onsdag den 16. december 2009 35
  • Compensation – Compensation under copyright – No penal damages or stipulated damages – Economic loss suffered by licensor – Rule of thumb: 2 x license fee – Fines – Legal fees 36 onsdag den 16. december 2009 36
  • Agenda –Licenses 37 onsdag den 16. december 2009 37
  • Open source initiative onsdag den 16. december 2009 38
  • Bruce Perens onsdag den 16. december 2009 39
  • Open source principperne – Free redistribution – Source code – Derived work – Integrity of The Author's Source Code – 5-10: Non-discrimination 40 onsdag den 16. december 2009 40
  • Comply or call or don’t call it open source! onsdag den 16. december 2009 41
  • Open source licenses – Academic or permissive licenses – Apache License v2 – MIT License – New BSD license – Copyleft, reciprocal or hereditary licences – Weak copyleft – Artistic license v1 – Eclipse Public License – Mozilla Public License v.1.1 – Strong copyleft – GNU GPL v1-3 – GNU LGPL v1-3 42 onsdag den 16. december 2009 42
  • Agenda –Patents and trademarks 43 onsdag den 16. december 2009 43
  • Open source and patents onsdag den 16. december 2009 44
  • Software patenter – “A set of exclusive rights granted by a state to an inventor or his assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an invention” – FSF: “a patent on any performance of a computer realised by means of a computer program" 45 onsdag den 16. december 2009 45
  • Patenter – Open source licenses deals with copyright – Patents are not covered by the license – Open source licenses enables upstream and downstream use otherwise prohibited by patents – AntiTivoization • Restrictions on hardware • GPL v3: Only hardware for consumers 46 onsdag den 16. december 2009 46
  • Patent trolls onsdag den 16. december 2009 47
  • Open source and trademarks onsdag den 16. december 2009 48
  • Varemærker – Once again: Licenses deals with copyright – No trademarks covered by the licenses – Trademarks are the commercial equivalent to author’s integrity – Many open source business models are closely tied to trademarks – Badgeware • Umbraco • SocialText 49 onsdag den 16. december 2009 49
  • Agenda –Business model 50 onsdag den 16. december 2009 50
  • LEGO Mindstorms onsdag den 16. december 2009 51
  • Intro 1 May 2006. LEGO press release Hackers, Get Ready! LEGO Group Announces Open Source Firmware, Developer Kits for LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT Consumer-directed robotics experience creation to enter “NXT” phase with open firmware, Software, Hardware and Bluetooth Developer Kits to launch in August 52 onsdag den 16. december 2009 52
  • Background – Mindstorms robots launched in 1998 – The best-selling LEGO product ever – Huge Mindstorm community – LEGO was and is not a software company – Only minor upgrades to the firmware – Several parallel Mindstorms OS’s 53 onsdag den 16. december 2009 53
  • Challenges – LEGO was not comfortable with “openess” – LEGO has been and is extremely reliant on strong IPRs – You don't give away IPRs for free” – Turbulent period for LEGO in general – Third party software included 54 onsdag den 16. december 2009 54
  • Solution – Embrace User driven innovation – Open source as the enabler – Third party permission for redistribution under an OS license – Choice of license – ”Genuine” open source licence – Permissive (Academic) or Copyleft (reciprocal license) 55 onsdag den 16. december 2009 55
  • OSS licence choice – Mozilla Public license v. 1.1 – Weak copyleft – Modification is limited altering the files – “I did not understand GPL v.2” – LEGO was only concerned with modifications of the actual files 56 onsdag den 16. december 2009 56
  • “Beautiful solution” – Huge press coverage and goodwill – Large number of downloads of code – Much more “intelligence” in the bricks – Convincing strategy towards competitors – Option to “close” the code again – Many more bricks sold! 57 onsdag den 16. december 2009 57
  • Dual licensing onsdag den 16. december 2009 58
  • Dual licensing – The software company perspective – The same code is licensed under two different licences: – MySQL Community Server: GPL v.2 with FOSS exception – MySQL Enterprise: Commercial license 59 onsdag den 16. december 2009 59
  • Ophavsmandens eneret – The owner can decide to release under any and as many terms she likes – Dual licensing is only possible for owner's own modfications – Or assigned modifications – Control is necessary to mitigate liability – ”Closing in” the code again 60 onsdag den 16. december 2009 60
  • Ophavsret og kontrol – MySQL has exclusive copyright to the code – MySQL controls and certifies the code – The GPL does not give any rights to use MySQLs trademarks 61 onsdag den 16. december 2009 61
  • Hvorfor betale? – Certification of the code – Warranties – Maintenance and support – Copyleft exemption 62 onsdag den 16. december 2009 62
  • Stadig ikke overbevist? –MySQL AB was in 2008 bought by Sun Microsystem, Inc. for approximately USD $1 billion in total consideration 63 onsdag den 16. december 2009 63
  • Agenda –Questions 64 onsdag den 16. december 2009 64
  • onsdag den 16. december 2009 65
  • Tak for opmærksomheden! Also available at http://www.slideshare.net/vonhaller/ onsdag den 16. december 2009 66