Introduction To WCAG 2.0


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The W3C published the WCAG 2.0 specification in December 2008, but what does this mean for local governments and how do they work?

This presentation provides a brief introduction to web accessibility and current the structure of the WCAG 2.0 specification. What is new in WCAG 2.0 and how it aims to support a variety of technologies.

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  • Local Government Web Network. Sydney 20 August 2009. 40 min presentation
  • START 1:15pm Source: At the establishment of WAI – shortly after the establishment of W3C On the 10th anniversary of W3C (in the Age) Coles - Value of the web the millions of people you can reach. Disabled people even playing field (digital stories, CoL)
  • Source:
  • dad hearing aid ABS has a tight definition of disability e.g. colour blind not included Mature Age – those aged 45 years and over Older People – those aged 60 years and over Disability was defined as any limitation, restriction or impairment, which has lasted, or is likely to last, for at least six months and restricts everyday activities. Examples range from hearing loss which requires the use of a hearing aid, to difficulty dressing due to arthritis, to advanced dementia requiring constant help and supervision. SOURCE: Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: User Guide 2003 (Publication ID: 4431.0.55.001)
  • Low vision - elderly Colour - men 8% important on web Deaf AUSLAN first language Hard of hearing - elderly Learning - dyslexia, processing content Literacy - 30's depression low school attendance
  • These are not really priority levels Level A and AA are both required for useful accessibility, the difference between them is technical: At Level A the issue cannot be overcome At Level AA user agents may be able to compensate for the issue Level AAA are helpful in particular circumstances but not required in every instance
  • Overview of conformance. Follow the points on the slide. 1. i.e. Long form 2. i.e. Online shopping 3. i.e. inaccessible PDF with HTML alternative 4. i.e. Reading level, AA is a good benchmark to set for conformance for a high level of accessibility 5. i.e. Blogs/ads
  • Introduction To WCAG 2.0

    1. 1. Neil King Local Government: 2009 Local Government Web Network. Sydney 20 August 2009. 40 min presentation Introduction to WCAG 2.0 Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>To outline: </li></ul><ul><li>What is web accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>What is WCAG </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of WCAG 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>What's new in WCAG 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges for Local Government </li></ul>Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    3. 3. What is web accessibility
    4. 4. Web Accessibility <ul><li>“ The power of the web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ One web for anyone, everywhere, on anything” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tim Berners-Lee, W3C Director and inventor of the World Wide Web, October 1997 and October 2004 </li></ul></ul>© Vision Australia 2009
    5. 5. Internet Usage in Australia <ul><li>Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Australian Social Trends 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Household Internet access quadrupled over the eight years up to 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 16% in 1998 to 64% in 2006–07 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase of 40% in people aged 65-74 years using the Internet at home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From 20% of the population (2004-05) to 28% (2006-07) </li></ul></ul>© Vision Australia 2009
    6. 6. Disability in Australia <ul><li>4 million people in Australia have a disability (ABS, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 50% of people in Australia have below average literacy (ABS, 2006-2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary disabilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of the aging population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eyesight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul></ul></ul>© Vision Australia 2009
    7. 7. What is Disability? <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blindness, low vision, colour-blindness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deafness (varying degrees) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t use a mouse, slow response time, limited fine motor control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learning disabilities, distractibility, memorability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seizure Disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>photosensitive epileptic seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Literacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>difficulty with language (particularly text) </li></ul></ul>© Vision Australia 2009
    8. 8. Accessibility Helps Everyone <ul><li>Situations where people can’t use a mouse </li></ul><ul><li>Elderly and novice users – easier to use </li></ul><ul><li>Work with the widest range of browsers and other current Internet technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Should migrate to future technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Increased usability for everyone </li></ul>Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    9. 9. What is WCAG
    10. 10. Web Content Accessibility Guidelines <ul><li>What is WCAG? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internationally recognised benchmark for accessibility of web content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) – part of the W3C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who is WCAG for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web developers and designers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoring tool and evaluation tool developers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others who need a technical standard </li></ul></ul>Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    11. 11. WCAG 2.0 Development Process <ul><li>WCAG 1.0 released May 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Work on WCAG 2.0 started in 2000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nine working drafts of WCAG 2.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WCAG 2.0 published as Final W3C Recommendation on 11 th December 2008 </li></ul>Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    12. 12. WCAG in Australia <ul><li>Human Rights Commission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Referenced benchmark is still Level AA of WCAG 1.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaging in consultation to update DDA Advisory Note to reference WCAG 2.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Ref: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Australian Government Information Management Office </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Referenced benchmark is still Level A of WCAG 1.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working with Government and HRC to update Web Publishing Guidelines to reference WCAG 2.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Ref: </li></ul></ul>Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    13. 13. <ul><li>Other state and local governments to update their own web publishing guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Industry bodies and major organisations update their policies and web publishing guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>WCAG 2.0 will be endorsed , just a question of when and in what way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision Australia is currently recommending that sites benchmark against WCAG 2.0 </li></ul></ul>WCAG in Australia Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    14. 14. Structure of WCAG 2.0
    15. 15. WCAG Overview <ul><li>WCAG 1.0 has: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14 guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>65 checkpoints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three priority levels: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 – the “musts” (A) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 – the “shoulds” (AA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 – the “mays” (AAA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>WCAG 2.0 has: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>61 success criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three conformance levels: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A, AA, AAA </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    16. 16. WCAG 2.0 Structure <ul><li>Design Principles for accessibility – 4 in total </li></ul><ul><li>Each principle has Guidelines – 12 in total </li></ul><ul><li>Each guideline has Success Criteria – 61 in total </li></ul><ul><li>Technology independent </li></ul><ul><li>Each success criteria has Sufficient Techniques and Advisory Techniques associated with it </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology specific techniques </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    17. 17. WCAG 2.0 Example <ul><li>Principle </li></ul><ul><li>1. Perceivable – Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive. </li></ul><ul><li>Guideline </li></ul><ul><li>1.3. Adaptable - Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout ) without losing information or structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Success Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 .1. Info and Relationships - Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text. (Level A) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    18. 18. WCAG 2.0 Example <ul><li>Success Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 .1. Info and Relationships - Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text. (Level A) </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient Techniques: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H42: Using h1-h6 to identify headings (HTML) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H48: Using ol, ul and dl for lists (HTML) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H51: Using table markup to present tabular information (HTML) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advisory Techniques: </li></ul><ul><li> C22: Using CSS to control visual presentation of text (CSS) </li></ul>Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    19. 19. WCAG 2.0 Documents <ul><li> </li></ul>Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    20. 20. What’s new in WCAG 2.0
    21. 21. <ul><li>WCAG 1.0: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checkpoint 2.2: Ensure that foreground and background colour combinations provide sufficient contrast when viewed by someone having colour deficits… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WCAG 2.0: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Success Criteria 1.4.3: Contrast (minimum) – The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1… </li></ul></ul>More Testable Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    22. 22. More Flexible <ul><li>WCAG 1.0: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guideline 7: Ensure user control of time-sensitive content changes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various checkpoints starting with “Until user agents allow users to…” avoid flicker, blinking, movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WCAG 2.0: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows flicker, blinking, movement within defined parameters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Success Criteria 2.3.1: Three Flashes or Below Threshold – Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period… </li></ul></ul>Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    23. 23. More Technologies <ul><li>WCAG 1.0: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guideline 11: Use W3C technologies and guidelines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only applied to W3C technologies such as HTML and CSS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WCAG 2.0: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced concept of accessibility-supported technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applies to all W3C and non-W3C technologies so long as their use is accessible </li></ul></ul>Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    24. 24. More Scripting <ul><li>WCAG 1.0: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checkpoint 6.3: Ensure that all pages are usable when scripts, applets, or other programmatic objects are turned off or not supported. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WCAG 2.0: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scripting is allowed. There is no equivalent for Checkpoint 6.3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In fact, some JavaScript can improve the accessibility of a webpage </li></ul></ul>Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    25. 25. More Multimedia <ul><li>WCAG 1.0: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guideline 1: Provide equivalent alternatives to auditory and visual content. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited information and advice about making audio and video content accessible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WCAG 2.0: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guideline 1.2: Provide alternatives for time-based media. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes specific advice for accessible multimedia in different contexts </li></ul></ul>Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    26. 26. Accessibility Supported <ul><li>Web technologies must meet two requirements to be considered accessibility-supported: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The web technology can be used in such a way that an assistive technology can get the information needed to present the content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User agents and assistive technologies are capable of working with the web technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non accessibility-supported technologies can still be used, as long as the content is usable without them </li></ul></ul>Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    27. 27. <ul><li>Based on single page or range of web-pages </li></ul><ul><li>Conformance not met if a page is a part of a process and all pages in the process do not conform. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-conforming content is allowed if there is a conforming alternative available </li></ul><ul><li>Level AAA is not expected for all content </li></ul><ul><li>Partial conformance allowed – excludes uncontrolled content </li></ul> Conformance Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    28. 28. Challenges for Local Government
    29. 29. <ul><li>Changes to Local Government websites in past 12 months </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video presentations and flash slideshows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 tools and applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common issues on Local Government websites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash buttons and links not announced by screen readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Videos with out captions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missing alt attributes on images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missing heading mark-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colour contrast issues </li></ul></ul>Developments and Issues Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    30. 30. <ul><li>Accessible Twitter: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible Facebook plug-in: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Easy YouTube: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Accessible Web 2.0 Tools Copyright Vision Australia 2009
    31. 31. Neil King Vision Australia 4 Mitchell Street, Enfield NSW 2136 Tel:02 9334 3547 Email: [email_address]