Changing Your Mindset: Getting Started With Test-Driven Development

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Patrick Reagan introduces the concept of Test-Driven development with code examples and gives some lessons learned from experience in the field.

Patrick Reagan introduces the concept of Test-Driven development with code examples and gives some lessons learned from experience in the field.

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  • In order to keep the code to a minimum, I just discussed how I moved the File.read call (from slide 13) into a google_content() method. This was my implementation (I had saved the output to a file on disk):

    def google_content
    File.read(File.join(File.dirname(__FILE__), 'data/google_search.html'))
    end

    I like the refactoring in your example - here's a change that would combine the original concept with your changes (using Mocha to mock):

    def google_response
    content = File.read(File.join(File.dirname(__FILE__), 'data/google_search.html'))
    response = Net::HTTPSuccess.new('1.2', '200', 'OK')
    response.expects(:body).returns(content)
    response
    end

    I changed the name to reflect the changed behavior - the only improvement I can see would be to mimic different responses (e.g. server error, etc...) either as part of this method or other methods.

    Thanks for the feedback.<br /><br/>
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  • 1. Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development Patrick Reagan Director, Application Development patrick@viget.com
  • 2. Overview  Testing Process  Test::Unit Introduction  Code Example: GoogleRank  Testing Pitfalls  Coverage Analysis  Next Steps Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 3. Test-Driven Development is the process of testing the behavior of non-existent objects Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 4. Testing Cycle Write Failing Test Write Refactor Code Verify Success Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 5. Why Test First?  No untested code is written  Start with higher code coverage  Rapid feedback  Build your regressions as you go Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 6. Anatomy of a (Test::Unit) Test Case Test case Test setup (run every test) Test Assertion Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 7. Naming Conventions Method to test Parameters / Input Expected behavior (should ...) Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 8. Basic Assertions  assert  assert_equal / assert_not_equal  assert_nil / assert_not_nil  assert_match / assert_no_match  assert_raise / assert_nothing_raised Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 9. Code Example Class that retrieves Google results Retrieves only the top 10 URLs  URL encodes provided search terms  Makes an HTTP connection to Google  Raises an exception when unavailable  Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 10. Start Small test_google_rank_should_exist(GoogleRankTest): Exception raised: Class: <NameError> Message: <quot;uninitialized constant GoogleRankTest::GoogleRankquot;> 1 tests, 0 assertions, 1 failures, 0 errors 1 tests, 0 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 11. Simplest Thing That Works Class method test_parse_with_empty_document_should_return_empty_array(GoogleRankTest): NoMethodError: undefined method `parse' for GoogleRank:Class 1 tests, 0 assertions, 0 failures, 1 errors Instance method test_parse_with_empty_document_should_return_empty_array(GoogleRankTest): NoMethodError: undefined method `parse' for GoogleRank:Class 1 tests, 0 assertions, 0 failures, 1 errors Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 12. Simplest Thing That Actually Works 2 tests, 1 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 13. Use a Canned Data Set Sample markup from Google search test_parse_with_sample_document_should_return_list_of_urls <[quot;http://blog.viget.com/quot;, ..... > expected but was <[]>. 1 tests, 1 assertions, 1 failures, 0 errors Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 14. Use a Canned Data Set 1 tests, 1 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 15. Running Regressions test_parse_with_empty_document_should_return_empty_array(GoogleRankTest): NoMethodError: undefined method `[]' for nil:NilClass 3 tests, 1 assertions, 0 failures, 1 errors results.nil? == true Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 16. Fix Regressions 3 tests, 2 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 17. Code Example Class that retrieves Google results Retrieves only the top 10 URLs  URL encodes provided search terms  Makes an HTTP connection to Google  Raises an exception when unavailable  Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 18. Retrieve Internal State Inspect instance variable NameError: uninitialized constant GoogleRankTest::ERB Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 19. Retrieve Internal State test_new_should_encode_supplied_keywords(GoogleRankTest): ArgumentError: wrong number of arguments (1 for 0) 1 tests, 0 assertions, 0 failures, 1 errors Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 20. Retrieve Internal State 1 tests, 1 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors 4 tests, 3 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 21. Refactor Test Duplication 4 tests, 3 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 22. Testing Encoding test_new_should_assign_url_with_base_and_encoded_keywords(GoogleRankTest): NameError: uninitialized constant GoogleRank::BASE_URL 1 tests, 0 assertions, 0 failures, 1 errors Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 23. Testing Encoding 1 tests, 1 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors 5 tests, 4 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 24. Code Example Class that retrieves Google results Retrieves only the top 10 URLs  URL encodes provided search terms  Makes an HTTP connection to Google  Raises an exception when unavailable  Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 25. “Mock objects are simulated objects that mimic the behavior of real objects in controlled ways” - Wikipedia Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 26. Mocks and Stubs  Remove external dependencies  Create known state  Focus tests on specific code paths Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 27. Mocha to Stub Net::HTTP Implementation will use Net::HTTP#get test_retrieve_content_should_set_content(GoogleRankTest): NoMethodError: undefined method `retrieve_content' for #<GoogleRank:0x104053c> 1 tests, 0 assertions, 0 failures, 1 errors Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 28. Mocha to Stub Net::HTTP 6 tests, 5 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 29. No Network? Oops! $ irb --prompt simple >> gr = GoogleRank.new('rails') => #<GoogleRank:0x54c89c @encoded_keywords=quot;railsquot;, @url=quot;http://www.google.com/search?q=railsquot;> >> gr.retrieve_content SocketError: getaddrinfo: No address associated with nodename Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 30. Replicate Real-Word Conditions Expected failure test_retrieve_content_when_connection_fails_should_set_content_to_nil(GoogleRankTest): SocketError: SocketError 1 tests, 0 assertions, 0 failures, 1 errors Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 31. Dealing With Failure 7 tests, 6 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 32. Code Example Class that retrieves Google results Retrieves only the top 10 URLs  URL encodes provided search terms  Makes an HTTP connection to Google  Raises an exception when unavailable  Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 33. Dealing With Even More Failure test_retrieve_content_when_connection_fails_should_raise_exception_and_set_content_to_nil(GoogleRankTest) <GoogleRank::ConnectionError> exception expected but none was thrown. test_retrieve_content_with_failure_should_raise_exception(GoogleRankTest) <GoogleRank::ConnectionError> exception expected but was Class: <NoMethodError> Message: <quot;undefined method `closed?' for nil:NilClassquot;> 7 tests, 6 assertions, 2 failures, 0 errors Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 34. Handling Unsuccessful Requests 8 tests, 8 assertions, 0 failures, 0 errors Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 35. Testing Pitfalls Things to avoid Over-mocking  Invalid mocks  Testing library code  “Assertion-heavy” tests  Non-descriptive test names  Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 36. Testing Pitfalls Should test parsing HTTPResponse#content does not exist Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 37. Testing Pitfalls Use secondary test to verify Expected behavior? Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 38. Coverage Analysis  Shows ‘tested’ code  Indication of when to stop  Can present a false impression Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 39. Coverage With RCov Exception-prone Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 40. Next Steps?  Rake - Rake::TestTask  Mock expectations as tests  Testing Macros Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 41. Rake::TestTask Example $ rake -T rake test:all # Run tests for all Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 42. Expectations as Tests attr_accessor :content called once Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 43. Testing Macros Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 44. Resources Test::Unit http://ruby-doc.org/stdlib  Mocha http://mocha.rubyforge.org  RCov http://eigenclass.org/hiki/rcov  Rake http://rake.rubyforge.org  How to Test Validations (Expectations as Tests) http://relevancellc.com/2007/7/16/how-to-test-validations-part-4  Testing Macros http://www.extendviget.com  Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007
  • 45. Slides http://www.slideshare.net/viget Blog http://blog.viget.com http://www.sneaq.net Contact patrick@viget.com Changing Your Mindset Getting Started With Test-Driven Development September 7th, 2007