6. intonation


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6. intonation

  2. 2. WHAT IS INTONATION, AND WHY TEACH IT The correct use of intonation is necessary to convey your message and to ensure that your speech is appropriate and natural-sounding. The term INTONATION refers to linguistic uses of pitch to convey meaning at the sentence or discourse level• Non-native English speakers tend to transfer the patterns of their mother tongue to English. Intonation is linked to Intonation is linked to Discourse. grammar
  3. 3. refers to the use of melodyIntonation and includes rise and fall of the voice when speaking the quality of a sound governed by the rate of vibrationsPITCH producing it; the degree of highness or lowness of a tone.
  4. 4. To be able to analyze intonation, an utterance can besplit into segments.The one with the largest syllable is referred to as thetone - unit. A TONE UNIT refers to a sequence of accented syllables, one or more of which are prominent.
  5. 5. Tone Unit and Tonic SyllableSometimes tone-units may consist of only onesyllable :Example : Hey !Or it may consist of more syllables like in Hey, you ! Tone units have some signals the pitch a pause at drops at the the end of end of each each thought tone unit. group.
  6. 6. FUNCTIONS OF INTONATION 1. Grammatical 2. Attitudinal 3. Discourse 4. Accentual
  7. 7. Grammar and IntonationIntonation and grammar are directly related.It can convey grammatical It works in the same waymeaning of a sentence. as punctuation marks in writing.Example:Although we were late ,we did not miss the film.It divides subjectand predicate in asentence.Example: Helen / is a school teacher.
  8. 8. GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION OF INTONATIONIt allows hearer to distinguishbetween defining and non-definingrelative clausesExample: My friend ,who is on vacation inEgypt now , has just phoned me . It serves to make distinction between questions and exclamations.We may convert a statement into a question simply bychanging the pitch from falling into rising. Example: Don’t you like it ? Don’t you like it!
  9. 9. THE FALL is used:1. In AFFIRMATIVE sentences Ex. This is a book. Today is Monday.2. In NEGATIVE sentences Ex: I don t like milk. He can ´t play the piano.3.In IMPERATIVE sentences. Ex: Close the window . Bring me that book.4. In SPECIAL ( wh- ) questions Ex: What is your name? Where do you live?5. In the second part of ALTERNATIVE questions Ex: Is this a pen or a pencil?6. In the first part of TAG questions Ex: You are very happy , aren’t you?7. In GREETINGS: Ex: Good morning. How do you do? It is nice to meet you.The rising intonation indicates that the idea is incomplete. To complete themessage, the speaker has to use falling intonation.
  10. 10. Attitudinal functionAttitude can be expressed through prosodic elements: voice loudness the speed quality of speechIntonation helps us express emotions andattitudes as we speak, and this loads spokenlanguage with a special meaning. It is often calledthe attitudinal function of intonation
  11. 11. Intonation may express our attitude toward what issaid:Ex: I got married last month . - Oh, did you?Ex. You drop a cake and say: GREAT !In EFL class teacher should be aware of explainingthe function of “attitude” for the appropriate choice ofcorrect intonation pattern, since the same sentencemay be uttered in different ways.
  12. 12. The relationship between intonation and discourse can beanalyzed from two points of view: How the intonation focuses the listener’s attention on aspects of the message The regulation of conversational behaviorThe discourse function of intonation is used to describe therelationship between linguistic elements and the context inwhich it occurs.
  13. 13. Referring tone and Proclaiming tone A proclaiming tone is an intonation pattern that either rises and then falls, or just falls. A proclaiming tone shows that the speaker is giving new information. A referring tone is an intonation pattern which shows that the speaker is referring to something everybody already knows.Example: In the sentence “That guy we met at the party ismy new teacher”, there is a referring tone on“That guy we met at the party”because it is not new information.
  14. 14. ACCENTUAL function of Intonation ACCENTED SYLLABLEEx: John likes FISH (not chicken!).This is the bus FROM Paris (not TO Paris).She is wearing a RED dress today (not green, or blue).
  15. 15. THANK YOU! IT IS ALL !nnesterenko@utpl.edu.ec