IntonationIntonation is about how we say things,rather than what we say. Withoutintonation, its impossible to understandthe expressions and thoughts that go withwords.Listen to somebody speaking withoutpaying attention to the words: the melodyyou hear is the intonation.
WHAT IS INTONATION1. Intonation is a term used to refer to the distinctive use of different patterns of pitch that carry meaningful information. 2. The kinds of pitch modulation which are found in whole utterances. Intonation contours can be used to highlight certain elements in an utterance, to bundle words together into information chunks,& to convey speaker’s attitude to what he/she is saying.(Philip Carr,page#78)
WHAT IS INTONATION• Intonation can be described as the movements or variations in pitch to which we attach familiar labels describing levels (e.g. high / low) and tones (e.g. falling /rising), etc. (Ranalli, 2002)
INTONATIONArticulatory Acoustic phonetics Auditory phoneticsphonetics(production (transmission point of (Perception point of view)point of view) view)Rate of vocal folds Fundamental frequency PitchThe quicker the vocal folds The higher Fo (higher The higher the pitch thevibrate. number of cycles per sensation. second)
Tone & Intonation languages• We can divide language into languages which are tone languages and those which are not, English falls into second category, that is, it is not a tone language.• All the languages in the world use consonants and vowels to build morphemes, which in turn join together to form words.• Thus the English word ‘me’ is made up of a nasal consonant followed by a high vowel.• If we change the consonant to a/b/ we would get a different word, ‘be’, and if we change the vowel to a low vowel, we would also get a different words, ‘ma’.• We may pronounce the word ‘ma’ with various pitch patterns, depending on the occasion. We may pronounce it with high pitch if we are emphatic, we may say it with a rising pitch in a question etc.
Tone languages• But these different pitch patterns do not alter the word in the way that changing a consonant or changing a vowel does.• These different pitch patterns that do not change but merely add to the basic meaning of words are called intonation.• Yet there are some languages in the world that use pitch patterns to build morphemes in the same way consonant and vowels are used. The best known such language is Chinese.
Tone languages• In Chinese, the syllable ‘ma’ when pronounced with a falling pitch patterns means, ‘to scold’.• When pronounced with a rising pattern, the meaning is ‘hemp’, when pronounced with a high level pattern, the meaning is ‘mother’ as in some dialects of English, and lastly, when pronounced with a low dipping pattern, the meaning is ‘horse’.• When pitch patterns are used in this lexical capacity i.e. to build word and morphemes much as consonants and vowels do, they are called tones.• And languages that use tones in this way are called tone languages.
• English is not tone language because different tones make no difference in meanings.• But chinese is a tone language• Urdu is stressed lang• English is not stress language
DEVELOPMENT OF INTONATIONThe study of intonation went through many changes in the twentieth century. British linguistics Daniel Jones & (1926)The most intensive development began during the 1940.In United States the theory that evolved was based on ‘pitch phonemes’ (Pike. 1945).It was developed in 1951 and then by Halliday (1967).
Intonation Halliday divides intonation into “the three T’s”:1. Tonality (the chunking of speech into intonational phrases, or tone-units)2. 2.Tone (mainly, but not only: fall, rise, and fall-rise3. Tonicity (nucleus placement).
IntonationHalliday divides intonation into “the threeT’s”: Tonality (the chunking of speech intointonational phrases, or tone-units),2.Tonicity (nucleus placement), and3.Tone (mainly, but not only: fall, rise, andfall-rise
TONE UNITa group of words forming a distinctive unit in anutterance, containing a nucleus and optionally one ormore other syllables before and after the nucleus. How do we identify tone units • Are there any physical constraints on the extent of tone unit? • How do we identify tone units in connected speech? • What communicative function(s) do tone units realise in speech?
Constraints on Tone Units.• We break up spoken language into tone groups because we need to breathe, and so there is a physical reason.• There is also the need to think; that is, tone groups also have a cognitive basis. While we are speaking one tone group, we are planning the next one, and so the tone group carries only one idea at a time. Thus the pace of the tone groups, and the information they convey, matches the speakers thoughts.
Identification of tone unit boundaries in connected speech• Pause• Pitch• Speed
Phonetic clues• A perceivable pitch change immediately following the final accented syllable• Speed – syllables towards the end of a tone unit tend to be relatively slow while syllables towards the start of a tone unit tend to be relatively quick. combination of pause, pitch change, and a change of pace.
PauseSome scholars e.g. Brazil (1997) argue that the boundaries of a tone unit are marked by a pause.communicative function of a tone unit• Halliday (1967) recognised that• each tone unit realised semantically one information unit – in other words we• use tone units to package our messages into bite sized chunks of information e.g.,• || i THINK || you have made good PROgress // THIS year ||
Link between tone-unit and units of grammar• Halliday also realised that if a tone unit equals an information unit it is likely to• also correspond with a clause. Some statistical evidence for this is found in the• Crystal and Davy (1975) corpus approximately where around 50% of all tone• units corresponded to clauses.• 4. || we’re looking forward to BONfire night || Marked and Unmarked Tonality = a Clause (Unmarked) Tone Unit ≠ a Clause (MarkedAt phrase and clause boundaries: e.g. In France where farms tend to be smaller the subsidies are more im portant
Analysis of Utterances to Understand Tone – UnitOne syllable utteranceYouThis is one tone unit.Note: Underlined syllable carry tone.Three Syllable UtteranceIs it you?This is one tone unit.Note: the underlined syllable have more prominence.
Division of intonational contourH.Palmer (1922) was the first one to divide theintonational contour into three main segments:• head (all the stressed and the unstressed syllablesbefore the nucleus),• nucleus (the most prominent syllable in theutterance) and• tail (the unstressed syllables following the nucleus).
• R. Kingdon (1958) suggests a division of the intonational contour into five parts: prehead (initial unstressed syllables), head (the first stressed syllable), body (all the stressed and the unstressed syllables in the scale preceding the nucleus), nucleus (the most prominently stressed syllable) and tail (the final unstressed syllables following the nucleus). For example:
Tone Unit1 But he is not really interested in it.(1— prehead, 2 — head, 3 — body, 4 — nucleus, 5 — tail).The first three segments (1,2,3) constitute the prenuclearpattern of the intonation contour.The fifth segment (5) is the postnuclear part of it. Thenuclear part (4) is of primary importance. It is compulsory forevery intonation group, while the rest of the segments areoptional.
Division of the contour• J. D.OConnor and G. F.Arnold (1973) stick to R. Kingdons system. However, they suggest a four-part division of the contour: prehead, head, nucleus and tail, uniting head and body into one segment that is head.
(i) Tonic Syllable• Tonic syllable is an obligatory component of tone unit. The centre of the unit, around which everything else is constructed, is the tonic syllable, or nucleus.For example: John, is it you?• In this example, there are two tone units because there are, two tonic syllables in it. First is John, one syllable utterance) second is it you? (Three syllable utterance).• It contains a high degree of prominence which is a property of stressed syllable, so, tonic syllable contains.Tone + Stress:Tonic stress: The stress that tonic syllable is having is called tonic stress.
Location of the tonic syllable• Of great linguistic importance• The most common position – on the last lexical word of the tone-unit• But, for contrastive purposes any word can become the bearer of the tonic syllable• Thus, the placement of the tonic syllable represents the focus of the information
(ii) The Head: The head is all that part of a tone unit that extends from the first stressedsyllable up to the tonic syllable.For example: Give me, those? Head TSIf there is no stressed syllable proceeding the tonic syllable,there cannot be any head.
(iii) The Pre-Head:The unstressed syllable before the head is called pre-head.For example In an hour Pre-head TSPre-head can be found in two situations.When there is no head.As inFor example: In an hour PH TSb) When the head is after the unstressed syllable.For example:In a little less than an, hour PH H TS
(iv) The tailAny syllable that follows the tonic syllable or anysyllable between tonic syllable and of tone unit is calledthe Tail.For example: Look at it TS Tail I might buy it H TS Tail
Exercises• Divide the following utterances into tone units and decide where the tonic or nucleus might fall in each tone unit: 1. The first student to finish can go early 2. Sadly, Maurice has gone away 3. The person who was watching me left a ticket behind 4. Alan couldnt make it so Ken took his place
Answers1. //The first student to finish// can go early//2. //Sadly// Maurice has gone away//3. // The person who was watching me //left a ticket behind//4. //Alan couldnt make it //so Ken took his place//
Grammatical function of Tonality• 22 || my brother who lives in LONdon || got MARried ||• 23 || my BROther || who lives in LONdon || got MARried ||• 24 || the man and the woman dressed in BLACK || STOOD up ||• 25 || the MAN || and the woman dressed in BLACK || STOOD up ||• 26 || they sent JOHN || a DOCtor || to HELP him||• 27 || they sent john a DOCtor || to HELP him ||
Tone – unit and the structure of tone unit:• Tone: Tone is the overall behaviour of pitch.• Pitch: Pitch is frequency of vibration of vocal cords.• Tone unit: For the purpose of analyzing intonation, a unit greater than syllable one syllable. Usually tone – unit is always composed of more than one syllable.
Tone unit boundaries• Neutral division into tone units:• Tone unit boundaries correspond to clause boundaries.• Emphatic:• A tone unit boundary occurs in the middle of a clause (usually at a phrase boundary).• | On the Saturday we went on the London Eye | (tone unit = clause)• | On the Saturday | we went on the London Eye | (marked/emphatic – tone unit boundary between adverbial and subject)
ToneTone is the major pitch movement within the tone unit. Theoverall behavior of pitch is “tone”Choice of pitch movement•The meaning component deriving from tone does not attachto the word level only but to the complete tone unit.•The prominent words are the sub-classes of the tonicsyllabus.•The communication value of prominence and tone choicedepends on interaction between listener and speaker.•When is the meeting?•On Saturday afterNOON•On SATurday afternoon
ToneTone functions(i) First possibility of pitch movement and variation in is on “head” of the tone-unit .(ii) Second possibility the movement and variation of pitch for tonic syllable, in the form of rise and fall.In a little less than an, hour PH H TS Pitch variations in Head “all that part of a tone-unit that extends from the first syllable up to tonic syllabus.” Pitch possibilities in the head: 1.High Head 2.Low head
High Heads The stressed syllable which begins the head is high in pitch ,usually it is higher than the beginning pitch of the tone on the tonic syllable.The ‘bus was late is ‘that the end
Low HeadsIn the low head the stressed syllable which begins the head islow in pitch, it is lower than the beginning pitch of the tone onthe tonic syllableThe ,bus was late is ,that the end
Low HeadUnstressed syllables continue the pitch of the stressedsyllable that precedes them with high and low heads.We ’asked if it had come. We ‚asked if it had come.
Pitch movement in tonic syllableTones are divided into two classes: static tone & kinetic toneStatic tone - a syllable is pronounced on a level ,no pitchvariationKinetic tone-change in pitch on physiological level by tensionof vocal cordsHalliday lists five intonation choices for the falling and rising tone movements.Tone symbol tonic movement terminal pitcht tendency1. ` Falling low2. ‚ Rising high3. ˆ falling-rising high4. ˇ rising-falling low5. - Level low
Transcription of pitch movement• Daniel Jones uses a graphic transcription with a stave of three horizontal lines.• Upper and lower limits of speaker’s Voice range.• Top, middle and bottom• Stressed & unstressed syllable have small and large dots respectively.
1.The Falling tone-(The glide-down)• Polarity (truth value or validity)is known and stated, there is certainty with Yes or No• A fall in the voice from a fairly high pitch to a very low one.• On a single syllable the voice falls within the syllable.
The Falling Tone• On more than one syllable the voice either falls within the stressed syllable or it moves down to the next syllable.• Unstressed syllables at the end are all very low.
The Falling tone-(The glide-down)Pre- head + tonic syllableAny unstressed syllable before the tonic syllable havelow pitch.
The Rising-tone (The glide-up ) Polarity (truth-value) is unknown and information is required. The tone conveys an impression that something more is to follow. Frequently accompany polite and friendly feelings
Rising Tone the Glide-UpThe rise in the glide-up either take place on one syllable, before the rise anystress word is felt to be important but there is no change of pitch
The Rise-Fall Tone (compound tone)• With the rise-fall tone we find a similar situation: if the tonic syllable is followed by a single syllable in the tail, the “rise” part of the tone takes place on the first (tonic) syllable and the “fall” part is on the second.ˆno ˆno one ˆno sir
The Rise-Fall Tone (compound tone)When there are two or more syllables in the tail, thesyllable immediately following the tonic syllable isalways higher and any following syllables are low.ˆAll of them wentThatˆs a nice way to speak
Fall –Rise tones(compound tone)• The pitch movement are distorted by the structure of syllables they occur on. If there is a tail of two or more syllable the normal pitch movement fall on the tonic syllable and to remain low until the last stress syllable I .Might have .thought of .buying it Most of it was for them
The Fall-Rise Tone(compound tone)• The fall is on the first stress syllable, the fall and rise are separated. The rise is on the last stressed syllable .• Glide down and Glide up tone.• Pitch movement is for the pitch to fall on the tonic syllable and remain low until the last syllable in the tail.