Supporting Active Learning and
            Education by Artificial Intelligence
                      and Web 2.0
        ...
Kerstin Borau/
                          Carsten Ullrich
Kerstin Borau
   Master degree in Applied English Linguistic
   C...
Overview
   Learning Theories
   Learning Theories and Language Learning
   Tools for Active Learning
   Artificial Intell...
Learning Theories




22.11.2007          Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
Timeline of Learning Theories




             By Serhat Kurt
22.11.2007                    Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullric...
Behaviorism (1910)
    How do you react?
    Stimulus-Response coupling
    Psychology should deal with
    objective, obs...
Behaviorism: Programmed
                 Instruction (1950)
       Principles:
             Positively reinforced behavior...
Programmed Instruction:
                            Example
      The important parts of a flashlight are the battery
    ...
Test
   The scientistyou like to learn this way?the fathers
                 _______ is one of
          Would
   of Behav...
Behaviorism: Summary
   No explicit treatment of/ interest in mental
   processes
   Learner merely responds to the
   quo...
Learning Theory:
                 Cognitivism
   What happens in your head?
   Mental processes are primary object of stud...
Learning Theories:
                      Constructivism
   Behaviorism/Cognitivism
        get something in the head of th...
Learning Theories: Summary
      Behaviorism
             How do you react?
      Cognitivism
             What happens in...
Behaviorism and
              language learning
   Audio-lingual method and audiovisual
   method
   focuses on spoken lan...
Behaviorism and
             language learning
Sample Dialoges:
 谢谢你!
 不用谢!

   Vielen Dank!
   Keine Ursache!



22.11.20...
Behaviorism and
             language learning
Advantages:
• Enables speaking without learning
  complicated grammar
Disad...
Constructivism and
             language learning
  focus: Everything that interests the
•
  learners, e.g., own projects
...
Constructivism and
             language learning
  Advantages:
•
  Prepares learners for “real” interaction
• Disadvantag...
Constructivism and
               language learning
    How did he learn to play basketball?
•




22.11.2007           Ke...
不闻不若闻之,闻之不若见之,见之不若知
  之,知之不若行之。
                      荀子
quot;Tell me, and I'll forget. Show me, and I may
  remember. Inv...
Communicative
                 competence
    Linguistic aspects
•   Phonology and orthography
    (pronunciation & spelli...
Communicative competence
    Pragmatic aspects
•   Functions (communication purposes )
•   Variations (different styles/ap...
Communicative competence
    How to acquire communicative competence?
o   Lots of exposure to language you can
    underst...
Communicative competence
   How to acquire communicative competence?
o Base structured work on events you
   participate i...
Communicative competence
   How to acquire communicative competence?
o Use your social skills to make
  relationships.
o S...
Tools for Learning: Twitter
               Twitter:
a constructivist approach to acquire
    communicative competence




...
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
Web 2.0
   Twitter: example of Web 2.0 application
   Web 2.0 applications
        take full advantage of the network natu...
Web 1.0 / Web 2.0




22.11.2007      Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
Web 2.0: Some Examples




22.11.2007         Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
22.11.2007            Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
    Photo by vincos
Web 2.0 & Learning
   Web 1.0 Learning:
        Learning Management Systems
        Administered learning
        Teacher/...
Personal Learning
                 Environment
   Use Web 2.0 applications to create your
   own learning environment for ...
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
PLE: Too Much Work?
   10 minutes ok
   But let’s do it in 10 seconds

                                   Done




22.11.2...
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
PLE: Additional Support
   PLE may be confusing for new learners
        how to master the tools
        when to use which...
Learning Supported by
              Artificial Intelligence




22.11.2007              Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – ...
Traditional
Adapt learning
                                        books/courses:
materials (course)
                     ...
Artificial Intelligence
   Extract human expert
   knowledge
   Formalize it
   Apply it




22.11.2007         Kerstin Bo...
AI Supported Learning
   What does the computer need to know?

                      Domain/Content Model




            ...
Course Generation: Motivation
   Eva wants to learn about calculus:
   “derivative”
   Web-search: Google




22.11.2007  ...
Motivation: Results of
                 Web-Search
                              too many results
                        ...
Motivation: Course
                Generation (CG)
“derivation”




                                                      ...
Motivation: Course
                  Generation
“derivation”



                  Course Generator
                       ...
Resources from Several
                   Repositories
“derivation”



                    Course Generator
              ...
Integration of Learning-
                   Supporting Tools
“derivation”



                    Course Generator
        ...
CG as a Service
“derivation”



                 Course Generator
                                                        ...
Modeling of Pedagogical
                Knowledge / Adaptivity
“derivation”



                       Course Generator
   ...
Course Generation:
             Pedagogical Knowledge




22.11.2007        Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
Course Generation:
                  Framework
AI: planning, multi agent systems, expert
systems
(HTN) planning:
   Goal d...
Basics of Hierarchical Task
                      Network Planning
        How it plans:
             • methods decompose ...
Basic Knowledge

Inserting references to
    educational resources
    tools
Generating structure

Accessing information a...
Example / Exercise Selection
   About 60 methods
   Take into account
        competency level
        educational level
 ...
Exercise Selection
Selecting an exercise, high motivation
(learnerProperty hasMotivation ?c ?m)
(>= ?m 4)
(learnerProperty...
Exercise Selection
(:method (trainWithSingleExercise! ?c)
 ((learnerProperty hasMotivation ?c ?m)
  (>= ?m 4)
  (learnerPr...
Formalized CG
                   Knowledge: Scenarios
       Moderate constructivist scenarios:
             Discover
    ...
Scenario “Discover”
                (discover deriv)


                   Introduce       (:method (discover ?f)
         ...
Scenario “Discover”
                  (introduceWithPrereqSection! deriv)

                       Motivate
Introduce
     ...
Scenario Discover
                                  (:method (motivate! ?c)
                    Motivate
                 ...
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
22.11.2007   Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
Course Generation: Results
 Average time for course generation
  (filled cache, no LM, complete expansion):




 1/37/6   ...
Course Generation: Results




     1/37/6   4/105/19   8/262/36            12/254/52                        20/365/83



...
AI-Supported Learning:
                       Summary
   Artificial Intelligence
        to select learning objects
      ...
Summary
   Learning Theories
   Learning Theories and Language Learning
   Tools for Personalized Learning
   How AI suppo...
How to Continue
   Contact us for any question:
        ullrich_c@sjtu.edu.cn
        kerstin_borau@web.de
   Use the pers...
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Supporting Active Learning and Education by Artificial Intelligence and Web 2.0

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At lecture for fresh(wo)men on learning theories, learning theories and language learning, using Twitter for language learning, building a personal learning environment in 10 minutes, building a personal learning environment in 10 seconds, Artificial Intelligence for learning support.

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Supporting Active Learning and Education by Artificial Intelligence and Web 2.0

  1. 1. Supporting Active Learning and Education by Artificial Intelligence and Web 2.0 Kerstin Borau Carsten Ullrich Photo by Lutz-R. Frank
  2. 2. Kerstin Borau/ Carsten Ullrich Kerstin Borau Master degree in Applied English Linguistic Certified foreign language teacher. English/German teacher at SJTU Network Education College Research interests: Computer Assisted Foreign Language Learning, new technologies and approaches in Language Learning Carsten Ullrich PhD in Computer Science at Saarland University 2004-2007 researcher at the DFKI (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence), one of the largest AI research institutes worldwide Now researcher at E-Learning Lab of SJTU About 50 publications in the area of Artificial Intelligence and Education Research interests: Artificial Intelligence, technology- enhanced learning, Semantic Web, Web 2.0 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  3. 3. Overview Learning Theories Learning Theories and Language Learning Tools for Active Learning Artificial Intelligence for Learner Support 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  4. 4. Learning Theories 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  5. 5. Timeline of Learning Theories By Serhat Kurt 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  6. 6. Behaviorism (1910) How do you react? Stimulus-Response coupling Psychology should deal with objective, observable subject matter behavior Skinner (1904-1990) The Technology of Learning (1968) 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  7. 7. Behaviorism: Programmed Instruction (1950) Principles: Positively reinforced behavior will reoccur “Praise is good for learning!” Break down complex skills in small bits Teach each bit separately Knowledge is given and absolute 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  8. 8. Programmed Instruction: Example The important parts of a flashlight are the battery and the bulb. When we quot;turn onquot; a flashlight, we close a switch which connects the battery with the _______ . bulb When we turn on a flashlight, an electric current flows through the fine wire in the _______ and causes it to grow hot. bulb When the hot wire glows brightly, we say that it gives off or sends out heat and ________ . light 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  9. 9. Test The scientistyou like to learn this way?the fathers _______ is one of Would of Behaviorism. For what subject matters is this appropriate? Skinner The educational technology ________ is based on Behaviorism. Programmed Instruction It is based on ______ correct answers and ____ incorrect answers. Rewarding, punishing 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  10. 10. Behaviorism: Summary No explicit treatment of/ interest in mental processes Learner merely responds to the quot;demandsquot; of the environment Knowledge is viewed as given and absolute 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  11. 11. Learning Theory: Cognitivism What happens in your head? Mental processes are primary object of study Goal: discover and model the mental processes Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Teaching should respect the mental processes 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  12. 12. Learning Theories: Constructivism Behaviorism/Cognitivism get something in the head of the learners Constructivists create opportunities to discover! knowledge: result of individual learning; cannot be transmitted, must be (re)constructed exploration/discovery/group-learning Learner is in control / Teacher is moderator Learning in context and collaboration Solve realistic and meaningful problems 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  13. 13. Learning Theories: Summary Behaviorism How do you react? Cognitivism What happens in your head? Constructivism Create opportunities to learn & discover! 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  14. 14. Behaviorism and language learning Audio-lingual method and audiovisual method focuses on spoken language for everyday communication content: everyday dialogues level: simple exercises: pattern drill 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  15. 15. Behaviorism and language learning Sample Dialoges: 谢谢你! 不用谢! Vielen Dank! Keine Ursache! 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  16. 16. Behaviorism and language learning Advantages: • Enables speaking without learning complicated grammar Disadvantages: • Pattern drills are boring • Restricted language use 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  17. 17. Constructivism and language learning focus: Everything that interests the • learners, e.g., own projects • content: Everything that interests the learners • level: broad level, determined by the topics and the level of the learners 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  18. 18. Constructivism and language learning Advantages: • Prepares learners for “real” interaction • Disadvantages: None 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  19. 19. Constructivism and language learning How did he learn to play basketball? • 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  20. 20. 不闻不若闻之,闻之不若见之,见之不若知 之,知之不若行之。 荀子 quot;Tell me, and I'll forget. Show me, and I may remember. Involve me, and I'll understand“ Xun Zi 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  21. 21. Communicative competence Linguistic aspects • Phonology and orthography (pronunciation & spelling) • Grammar (syntax) • Vocabulary (words) • Discourse (comprehending texts) 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  22. 22. Communicative competence Pragmatic aspects • Functions (communication purposes ) • Variations (different styles/appropriate social meaning ) • Interactional skills (knowing and using the mostly-unwritten rules for interaction in various communication situations ) • Cultural framework (to understand behavior from the standpoint of the members of a culture) 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  23. 23. Communicative competence How to acquire communicative competence? o Lots of exposure to language you can understand o A chance to negotiate meaning with speakers of the language o A chance to observe and participate in a variety of real communication situations o A chance to get to know what people who speak the language think and believe 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  24. 24. Communicative competence How to acquire communicative competence? o Base structured work on events you participate in such as a shared meal, or working with somebody in the field. o Build basic vocabulary using action-based approaches and games. 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  25. 25. Communicative competence How to acquire communicative competence? o Use your social skills to make relationships. o Spend lots of time doing things with people. o Find creative ways to practice using the language. o Use a lot of communicative activities. 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  26. 26. Tools for Learning: Twitter Twitter: a constructivist approach to acquire communicative competence 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  27. 27. 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  28. 28. Web 2.0 Twitter: example of Web 2.0 application Web 2.0 applications take full advantage of the network nature of the Web encourage participation inherently social and open Example: Amazon 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  29. 29. Web 1.0 / Web 2.0 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  30. 30. Web 2.0: Some Examples 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  31. 31. 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning Photo by vincos
  32. 32. Web 2.0 & Learning Web 1.0 Learning: Learning Management Systems Administered learning Teacher/Institution centered Web 2.0 Learning: Student centered Student contribute/communicate Teacher moderates/creates learning opportunities 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  33. 33. Personal Learning Environment Use Web 2.0 applications to create your own learning environment for language learning In 10 minutes! Done 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
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  50. 50. PLE: Too Much Work? 10 minutes ok But let’s do it in 10 seconds Done 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
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  54. 54. PLE: Additional Support PLE may be confusing for new learners how to master the tools when to use which tool what tools are available That is where the teacher comes in has knowledge of tools and how to use them Artificial Intelligence implement this knowledge in the computer 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  55. 55. Learning Supported by Artificial Intelligence 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  56. 56. Traditional Adapt learning books/courses: materials (course) one size fits all with respect to non-adaptive individual variables (learning goals, ignores your knowledge, knowledge & goals emotions, …) context (location, device, …) 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  57. 57. Artificial Intelligence Extract human expert knowledge Formalize it Apply it 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  58. 58. AI Supported Learning What does the computer need to know? Domain/Content Model Teaching/Pedagogical User Model Model 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  59. 59. Course Generation: Motivation Eva wants to learn about calculus: “derivative” Web-search: Google 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  60. 60. Motivation: Results of Web-Search too many results all kinds of resources not adapted to individual capabilities and goals 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  61. 61. Motivation: Course Generation (CG) “derivation” Repository 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  62. 62. Motivation: Course Generation “derivation” Course Generator Repository 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  63. 63. Resources from Several Repositories “derivation” Course Generator Repositories 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  64. 64. Integration of Learning- Supporting Tools “derivation” Course Generator Repositories Tool Tool Tools 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  65. 65. CG as a Service “derivation” Course Generator Repositories Tool Tool Tools 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  66. 66. Modeling of Pedagogical Knowledge / Adaptivity “derivation” Course Generator Repositories •Discover “derivation” •Train Competencies “derivation” •Exam Simulation “derivation” •Illustrate “derivation” •Motivate “derivation” Tool Tool Tools 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  67. 67. Course Generation: Pedagogical Knowledge 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  68. 68. Course Generation: Framework AI: planning, multi agent systems, expert systems (HTN) planning: Goal directed Hierarchical approach easily understandable Efficient 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  69. 69. Basics of Hierarchical Task Network Planning How it plans: • methods decompose tasks • down to primitive tasks performed by operators 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  70. 70. Basic Knowledge Inserting references to educational resources tools Generating structure Accessing information about educational resources the learner About 70 rules 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  71. 71. Example / Exercise Selection About 60 methods Take into account competency level educational level fields of interest novelty motivation & anxiety 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  72. 72. Exercise Selection Selecting an exercise, high motivation (learnerProperty hasMotivation ?c ?m) (>= ?m 4) (learnerProperty hasField ?field) (learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el) (learnerProperty hasCompetencyLevel ?c ?cl) (equivalent (call + 1 ?cl) ?ex_cl) Selecting an exercise, adequate competence level (learnerProperty hasField ?field) (learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el) (learnerProperty hasCompetencyLevel ?c ?cl) (equivalent ?cl ?ex_cl) 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  73. 73. Exercise Selection (:method (trainWithSingleExercise! ?c) ((learnerProperty hasMotivation ?c ?m) (>= ?m 4) (learnerProperty hasField ?field) (learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el) (learnerProperty hasCompetencyLevel ?c ?cl) (equivalent (call + 1 ?cl) ?ex_cl) (assign ?unsortedExercises (call GetResources ((class Exercise) (relation isFor ?c) (property hasLearningContext ?el) (property hasCompetencyLevel ?ex_cl) (property hasField ?field)))) (sortByAlreadySeen ?exercises ?unsortedExercises) (assignIterator ?exercise ?exercises)) ((insertWithVariantsIfReady! ?exercise ?c))) 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  74. 74. Formalized CG Knowledge: Scenarios Moderate constructivist scenarios: Discover Rehearse Connect Train Intensively Train Competencies Exam Simulation Based on guidelines of instructional design Guided Tour ≈ 300 methods and operators 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  75. 75. Scenario “Discover” (discover deriv) Introduce (:method (discover ?f) () ((!startSection Discover ?f) (descriptionScenarioSection ?f) (learnFundamentalsDiscover ?f) Develop (reflect ?f) (!endSection))) Prove (:method (learnFundamentalDiscover ?c) () ((!startSection Title (?c)) (introduceWithPrereqSection ?c) (developFundamental ?c) Practice (proveSection ?c) (practiceSection ?c) (showConnectionsSection ?c) (!endSection))) Connect 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  76. 76. Scenario “Discover” (introduceWithPrereqSection! deriv) Motivate Introduce (:method (introduceWithPrereqSection! ?c) () Develop ((introduceWithSection! ?c) Problem (learnPrerequisitesFundamentalsShort ?c))) Prove (:method (introduceWithSection! ?c) Practice () Illustrate ((!startSection Introduction (?c)) Connect (text Introduction (?c)) (motivate! ?c) (problem ?c) Prerequisites (insertIntroductionExample ?c) (!endSection))) 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  77. 77. Scenario Discover (:method (motivate! ?c) Motivate ((learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el) Introduce (learnerProperty hasAnxiety ?c ?an) Problem Develop (?an <= 2) Illustrate (GetElement Practice ((class Exercise) Prerequisites Connect (class Introduction) (relation isFor ?c) Reflect (property hasLearningContext ?el) (property hasDifficulty very_easy)))) ((insertAuxOnceIfReady! ?element))) 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  78. 78. 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  79. 79. 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  80. 80. Course Generation: Results Average time for course generation (filled cache, no LM, complete expansion): 1/37/6 4/105/19 8/262/36 12/254/52 20/365/83 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  81. 81. Course Generation: Results 1/37/6 4/105/19 8/262/36 12/254/52 20/365/83 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  82. 82. AI-Supported Learning: Summary Artificial Intelligence to select learning objects to select tools Does not replace teacher but helps him/her Current research question: How to use AI for Web 2.0 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  83. 83. Summary Learning Theories Learning Theories and Language Learning Tools for Personalized Learning How AI supports your Learning 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning
  84. 84. How to Continue Contact us for any question: ullrich_c@sjtu.edu.cn kerstin_borau@web.de Use the personal learning environment we created during the lecture: http://www.google.com/ig/sharetab?hl=en&source=stb&stid=112236995 533256220287916fa6930de17d7449a322608f0e32e3 Even better: visit iGoogle and build your personal learning environment http://www.google.com/ig?hl=en Read and comment the slides: http://www.slideshare.net/ullrich/ Create an account on Twitter http://twitter.com our Twitter names: kerstinlaoshi & ullrich 22.11.2007 Kerstin Borau / Carsten Ullrich – Active Learning

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