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Learning Theories<br />Constructivism, Progressivism, Experiential Learning,<br />Brain Based Learning, and Contextual Lea...
Contents<br />Introduction<br />Details on Theories<br />Wrap-up<br />- Constructivism<br />- Progressivism<br />- Experie...
5 Theories at a Glance<br />1960<br />1930<br />1980<br />1890<br />2011<br />Progressivism<br />Constructivism<br />Exper...
Details on Theories<br /><ul><li> Progressivism
Constructivism</li></ul>- Experiential Learning<br />- Brain Based Learning<br />- Contextual Learning<br />
Progressivism<br />Emergence<br />- Progressivismis a political attitude favoring or advocating changes or reform through ...
Progressivism<br />Social & Educational Movement<br />- The second goal of this social and educational movement was the es...
Progressivism<br />Progressive Education<br /><ul><li> Education must be based on the principle that humans are social ani...
Progressivism<br />Workforce Education<br />- The public workforce education support began with what is termed the progres...
Progressivism<br />Vocational Education<br />- Jane Addams, progressive reformer, lobbied for vocational education and voc...
Progressivism<br />Influence & Comparison<br />Phillips (1995)<br />- Most types of constructivism are modern forms of pro...
Details on Theories<br /><ul><li> Progressivism
Constructivism</li></ul>- Experiential Learning<br />- Brain Based Learning<br />- Contextual Learning<br />
Constructivism<br />Definitions<br />- Knowing is that the learner dynamically adapts to variable interpretation of experi...
Constructivism<br />History<br />Conventional Inquiry<br />What reality is like? Vs. How reality is known?<br />
Constructivism<br />Key Concepts<br />Five Components of Constructivism (Almala, 2006)<br />- A complex and relevant learn...
Constructivism<br />Key Concepts<br />Other Key Features of Constructivism (Chen, 1995)<br />- Knowledge students bring to...
Constructivism<br />Influence<br />- Initiated learner-centered approach<br />- Exerted strong influence on adult educatio...
Constructivism<br />Comparison<br />Behaviorism(observable changes in behavior)<br />- reinforcement, stimulus-response / ...
Constructivism<br />Related Concepts<br />- Adult learning<br />- Self-directed learning<br />- Interactive e-learning<br ...
Details on Theories<br /><ul><li> Progressivism
Constructivism</li></ul>- Experiential Learning<br />- Brain Based Learning<br />- Contextual Learning<br />
Experiential Learning<br />Definition<br />Learning is directly connected to the way a student processes experiences and l...
Experiential Learning<br />Key Concepts<br />Abstract Conceptualization<br />Experiential Learning cycle<br />- Experienci...
Experiential Learning<br />Who uses it?<br />- Business: employee training<br />- Students: supplement to classroom instru...
Experiential Learning<br />Influence<br />- Help assess student’s learning style<br />- Help match employees with job task...
Experiential Learning<br />Is it effective?<br />“Yes”<br />- Cost & Time effective<br />- Increase of employee’s job sati...
Details on Theories<br /><ul><li> Progressivism
Constructivism</li></ul>- Experiential Learning<br />- Brain Based Learning<br />- Contextual Learning<br />
Brain Based Learning<br />Definition<br /><ul><li> Based on structure and function of the brain.
 Engages simultaneously the intellect, emotions, creativity and physiology
 “Our brain is a vast network where stored information influences what and how we learn” (Gerald Edelman, 2000)</li></li><...
 Neurons communicate with each other  and grow dendrites (fibers) when you listen to, write about or practice something
 The more you practice something the thicker the dendrites become and the faster the signals travel
 Faster, stronger double connections = memory</li></li></ul><li>Brain Based Learning<br />History<br /><ul><li> Paul MacLe...
 Madeline Hunter (late 1960’s)
 1980’s – Decade of the Brain
 Renate Caine & Geoffrey Caine (early 1990’s) –Twelve Brain/Mind Learning Principles </li></li></ul><li>Brain Based Learni...
 Variety of learning opportunities
 High levels of expectations
 Empower students
 Transferring knowledge </li></li></ul><li>Brain Based Learning<br />Brain Friendly Practices<br /><ul><li> Orchestrate ex...
 Artificial time vs. Real time
 Holistic Learners</li></ul>- Assessment beyond paper and pencil<br />
Brain Based Learning<br />Comparison<br /><ul><li> Grew out of neuroscience and constructivism
 Brains are shaped by our experiences
 Learn best in real life activities
 Experiential learning – learning by doing
 Provide contextual learning </li></li></ul><li>Brain Based Learning<br />Neuroscience + Education<br /><ul><li> Engage th...
 Educators are the only profession whose job is to change the human brain every day (Sousa, 2006)</li></li></ul><li>Detail...
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Learning Theories

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Learning Theories

  1. 1. Learning Theories<br />Constructivism, Progressivism, Experiential Learning,<br />Brain Based Learning, and Contextual Learning<br />February 12, 2011<br />GunsungJoung, Rosemary Battista, Stephanie Irvine, Sue McCaughin, & Taesung Kim<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br />Introduction<br />Details on Theories<br />Wrap-up<br />- Constructivism<br />- Progressivism<br />- Experiential Learning<br />- Brain Based Learning<br />- Contextual Learning<br />
  3. 3. 5 Theories at a Glance<br />1960<br />1930<br />1980<br />1890<br />2011<br />Progressivism<br />Constructivism<br />Experiential Learning<br />Brain Based Learning <br />Contextual Learning <br />
  4. 4. Details on Theories<br /><ul><li> Progressivism
  5. 5. Constructivism</li></ul>- Experiential Learning<br />- Brain Based Learning<br />- Contextual Learning<br />
  6. 6. Progressivism<br />Emergence<br />- Progressivismis a political attitude favoring or advocating changes or reform through governmental action in the late 19th century into the 20th century.<br /><ul><li> The Progressive Movement began in cities with settlement workers and reformers who were interested in helping those facing harsh conditions at home and at work.</li></li></ul><li>Progressivism<br />Social & Educational Movement<br />- Relationship between Progressivism and <br />Educational Reform (Spring , 1970) <br />- The first goal of the educators and the social reformers who adopted this vision of the well ordered society was to change the basis of human motivation from desire for economic gain to unselfish interest in working for the good of society.<br />
  7. 7. Progressivism<br />Social & Educational Movement<br />- The second goal of this social and educational movement was the establishment of a highly organized and interdependent social structure. <br />- Both the social educators and their progressive counterparts selected as their model the large industrial organizations that had developed after the Civil War.<br />
  8. 8. Progressivism<br />Progressive Education<br /><ul><li> Education must be based on the principle that humans are social animals who learn best in real-life activities with other people. </li></ul>- The man who probably did the most to point out the value of the educational training when the school functioned as a social community was JohnDewey in his school and society lecture (Cremin,1959).<br />
  9. 9. Progressivism<br />Workforce Education<br />- The public workforce education support began with what is termed the progressive philosophy of the early 1890s.<br />- Progressives argued that government had a responsibility to address social problems including equal access to skilled jobs, and workforce education is one of the major beneficiaries.<br />
  10. 10. Progressivism<br />Vocational Education<br />- Jane Addams, progressive reformer, lobbied for vocational education and vocational guidance in the public schools. Others lobbied for agricultural education. <br />- The goal of vocational guidance was to increase efficiency in the social order by matching individual talent with an appropriate job.<br />
  11. 11. Progressivism<br />Influence & Comparison<br />Phillips (1995)<br />- Most types of constructivism are modern forms of progressivism.<br />Witcher, Sewall, Arnold, & Travers (2001)<br />- Transmissive philosophies and theories include idealism, realism, and essentialism.<br />- Progressive philosophies and theories include naturalism, experimentalism, and constructivism.<br />
  12. 12. Details on Theories<br /><ul><li> Progressivism
  13. 13. Constructivism</li></ul>- Experiential Learning<br />- Brain Based Learning<br />- Contextual Learning<br />
  14. 14. Constructivism<br />Definitions<br />- Knowing is that the learner dynamically adapts to variable interpretation of experience (Glasersfeld, 1990)<br />- Individuals construct knowledge in transaction with the environment and in the process both are changed (Anne, 2000)<br />- Learners have existing beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge that impact their meaning (Almala, 2006)<br />
  15. 15. Constructivism<br />History<br />Conventional Inquiry<br />What reality is like? Vs. How reality is known?<br />
  16. 16. Constructivism<br />Key Concepts<br />Five Components of Constructivism (Almala, 2006)<br />- A complex and relevant learning environment<br />- Social negotiation<br />- Multiple perspective and multiple modes of learning<br />- Ownership in learning<br />- Self-awareness and knowledge construction<br />
  17. 17. Constructivism<br />Key Concepts<br />Other Key Features of Constructivism (Chen, 1995)<br />- Knowledge students bring to learning<br />- Characteristics of the learners themselves<br />Other Key Features of Constructivism (Anne, 2000)<br />- Collaboration between the teacher and the student<br />- Collaboration between the students themselves<br />
  18. 18. Constructivism<br />Influence<br />- Initiated learner-centered approach<br />- Exerted strong influence on adult education<br />- Provided the theoretical background for a quality e-learning environment<br />- Caused Problem-Based Learning instructional model<br />- Changed teacher’s role into facilitator<br />
  19. 19. Constructivism<br />Comparison<br />Behaviorism(observable changes in behavior)<br />- reinforcement, stimulus-response / tutorial, drill & practice<br />Cognitivetheory(making symbolic & mental constructions)<br />- development stage, assimilation & accommodation/ thinking<br />Constructivism(constructing knowledge)<br />- active interpretation, experience, social interaction / facilitating<br />
  20. 20. Constructivism<br />Related Concepts<br />- Adult learning<br />- Self-directed learning<br />- Interactive e-learning<br />- Informal learning<br />- Collaborative learning<br />- Social networking in learning<br />- etc.<br />
  21. 21. Details on Theories<br /><ul><li> Progressivism
  22. 22. Constructivism</li></ul>- Experiential Learning<br />- Brain Based Learning<br />- Contextual Learning<br />
  23. 23. Experiential Learning<br />Definition<br />Learning is directly connected to the way a student processes experiences and later reflects upon those experiences.<br />The concept of reflection is two separate activities: <br />- Perceiving<br />- Processing<br />(Kelly, 1997)<br />
  24. 24. Experiential Learning<br />Key Concepts<br />Abstract Conceptualization<br />Experiential Learning cycle<br />- Experiencing learning, Critical reflection, Planning to solve a problem, Active experimentation, Further critical reflection<br />Learning Style Inventory<br />- Activist, Reflectors, Pragmatists, Theorizers<br />
  25. 25. Experiential Learning<br />Who uses it?<br />- Business: employee training<br />- Students: supplement to classroom instruction<br />- Teachers: enforce concepts<br />- Researchers: close achievement gap<br />- Essentially everyone<br />- Covers numerous occupations<br />
  26. 26. Experiential Learning<br />Influence<br />- Help assess student’s learning style<br />- Help match employees with job tasks<br />- Help CTE students learn through hands-on experiences<br />- Help adopt e-learning technologies in the classroom and workplace<br />
  27. 27. Experiential Learning<br />Is it effective?<br />“Yes”<br />- Cost & Time effective<br />- Increase of employee’s job satisfaction <br />“No”<br />- Must account for student cognitive ability<br />- No increase in computer use over last two decades<br />Depends on instruction design, student ability, & curriculum tasks<br />
  28. 28. Details on Theories<br /><ul><li> Progressivism
  29. 29. Constructivism</li></ul>- Experiential Learning<br />- Brain Based Learning<br />- Contextual Learning<br />
  30. 30. Brain Based Learning<br />Definition<br /><ul><li> Based on structure and function of the brain.
  31. 31. Engages simultaneously the intellect, emotions, creativity and physiology
  32. 32. “Our brain is a vast network where stored information influences what and how we learn” (Gerald Edelman, 2000)</li></li></ul><li>Brain Based Learning<br />Brain Facts<br /><ul><li> Wet, fragile mass, weighs over 3 pounds, is the size of a grapefruit and looks like a walnut
  33. 33. Neurons communicate with each other and grow dendrites (fibers) when you listen to, write about or practice something
  34. 34. The more you practice something the thicker the dendrites become and the faster the signals travel
  35. 35. Faster, stronger double connections = memory</li></li></ul><li>Brain Based Learning<br />History<br /><ul><li> Paul MacLean (1960’s) – Triune brain which linked brain and behavior
  36. 36. Madeline Hunter (late 1960’s)
  37. 37. 1980’s – Decade of the Brain
  38. 38. Renate Caine & Geoffrey Caine (early 1990’s) –Twelve Brain/Mind Learning Principles </li></li></ul><li>Brain Based Learning<br />Brain Friendly Practices<br /><ul><li> Create a classroom where students feel safe
  39. 39. Variety of learning opportunities
  40. 40. High levels of expectations
  41. 41. Empower students
  42. 42. Transferring knowledge </li></li></ul><li>Brain Based Learning<br />Brain Friendly Practices<br /><ul><li> Orchestrate experiences
  43. 43. Artificial time vs. Real time
  44. 44. Holistic Learners</li></ul>- Assessment beyond paper and pencil<br />
  45. 45. Brain Based Learning<br />Comparison<br /><ul><li> Grew out of neuroscience and constructivism
  46. 46. Brains are shaped by our experiences
  47. 47. Learn best in real life activities
  48. 48. Experiential learning – learning by doing
  49. 49. Provide contextual learning </li></li></ul><li>Brain Based Learning<br />Neuroscience + Education<br /><ul><li> Engage the brain: humor, kinesthetic learning, group activities, social interaction, guest speakers, reflection, self assessment
  50. 50. Educators are the only profession whose job is to change the human brain every day (Sousa, 2006)</li></li></ul><li>Details on Theories<br /><ul><li> Progressivism
  51. 51. Constructivism</li></ul>- Experiential Learning<br />- Brain Based Learning<br />- Contextual Learning<br />http://cnx.org/content/m22733/latest/ <br /> (Uploader, S., 2009)<br />
  52. 52. Contextual Learning<br />Definition – One of Many<br />Contextual Learning is learning designed to <br />connect information to a student’s personal frame <br />of reference or their inner world of:<br />- Memory<br />- Experience <br />- Response<br /> (Hull,1993)<br />
  53. 53. Contextual Learning<br />History – Throughout Time<br />A Natural and Predominant Model of Human Learning<br />Tell me, and I will forget. Show me, and I may remember. Involve me, and I will understand (Confucius)<br />Early 1900’s Theories Emerged / Inspired by: <br />- Child Psychology (Jean Piaget)<br />- Social Interaction (Lev Vygotsky)<br />- Constructivism/Active Learning (John Dewey)<br />
  54. 54. Contextual Learning<br />Current Proponents<br />Resurgence of Theories: 1960’s – Present<br />- Situated Learning (Jean Lave)<br />- Technical / Career Oriented Education (Daniel Hull)<br />- Neuroscience / Academic Relevance (Elaine Johnson)<br />- Curriculum Integration (William Daggett)<br />
  55. 55. Contextual Learning<br />Best Practices<br />Kindergarten Through University Level - Strategies<br />- Emphasize problem-solving - Establish a variety of environmental contexts - Encourage self-regulated learners - Teach in diverse life-contexts - Encourage peer teaching- Employ authentic assessment <br /> (U.S. Department of Education and the National School-to-Work Office) <br />
  56. 56. Contextual Learning<br />Implementation<br />- REACT:<br />Relating, Experiencing, Applying, Cooperating, <br />Transferring (CORD, 2010)<br />- RIGOR & RELEVANCE:<br />Acquisition, Application, Adaptation, Assimilation<br />(International Center for Leadership and Education, 2011)<br />
  57. 57. Contextual Learning<br />Influence<br />All Areas of Education – Dependent on Contextual Distance<br />Positive Implications: <br />- Self Efficacy<br />- Varied / Creative Teaching Methodologies<br />- Empowerment for Students & Teachers<br /> (CORD, 2010)<br />
  58. 58. Contextual Learning<br />Comparison<br />Connections: <br />- Constructivism<br />- Experiential<br />- Brain Based Learning<br />- Progressivism<br />Differences:<br />- Holistic Approach / Life Span Perspective (Wolf, 1998)<br />
  59. 59. Contextual Learning<br />Globalization<br />Virtual Extension through Technology<br />- More Dynamic<br />- New Gateways<br />- Unknown Areas<br />- Changing Nature of Context<br />- Challenges as well as Benefits<br />The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly<br />
  60. 60. Wrap-up _ History<br />1960<br />1930<br />1980<br />1890<br />2011<br />Progressivism<br />Constructivism<br />Experiential Learning<br />Brain Based Learning <br />Contextual Learning <br />
  61. 61. Wrap-up _ Key Concepts<br />C3<br />C1<br />C2<br />R1<br />R2<br />Row 1.<br />Row 2.<br />Column 1.<br />Column 2.<br />Column 3.<br />
  62. 62. Wrap-up _ Key Concepts<br />C3<br />C1<br />C2<br />R1<br />R2<br />Row 1.<br />Row 2.<br />Column 1.<br />Column 2.<br />Column 3.<br />
  63. 63. Wrap-up _ Key Concepts<br />C3<br />C1<br />C2<br />R1<br />R2<br />Row 1.<br />Row 2.<br />Column 1.<br />Column 2.<br />Column 3.<br />
  64. 64. Wrap-up _ Key Concepts<br />C3<br />C1<br />C2<br />R1<br />R2<br />Row 1.<br />Row 2.<br />Column 1.<br />Column 2.<br />Column 3.<br />
  65. 65. Wrap-up _ Key Concepts<br />C3<br />C1<br />C2<br />R1<br />R2<br />Row 1.<br />Row 2.<br />Column 1.<br />Column 2.<br />Column 3.<br />
  66. 66. Wrap-up _ Key Concepts<br />C3<br />C1<br />C2<br />R1<br />R2<br />Row 1.<br />Row 2.<br />Column 1.<br />Column 2.<br />Column 3.<br />
  67. 67. Q & A<br />

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