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  •                      Strategic  Models  for  Information  Literacy  Authors:  Sabina  Cisek,  Maria  Próchnicka               This  project  has  been  funded  with  support  from  the  European  Commission    
  •  Empower Autonomous Learning through Information Competencies  Stategic  Models    for  Information  Literacy    Authors:  Sabina  Cisek,  Maria  Próchnicka    Date: January 2011                                    This  project  has  been  funded  with  support  from  the  European  Commission            
  • TABLE OF CONTENTSTABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................. 2INTRODUCTORY REMARKS ......................................................................................... 3SCOPE AND PURPOSE ................................................................................................. 4METHODOLOGY .......................................................................................................... 5THE STRATEGY FOR INFORMATION LITERACY DEVELOPMENT – A POSSIBLEFRAMEWORK WITH SOME TENTATIVE CONTENT ........................................................ 7CONCLUSIONS ......................................................................................................... 13 Page 2 of 15 View slide
  • INTRODUCTORY REMARKSThe present text constitutes Deliverable 4.1 of the Work Package 4 of the EMPATICproject.As this report is one part of the larger work, it should be read together with theprevious EMPATIC’s products, in particular – the Deliverable 1.1, entitled Report oncurrent state and best practices in Information Literacy, where the concept ofInformation Literacy (IL) itself has been discussed and defined. Also, in Deliverable1.1, various aspects, dimensions and levels of IL have been meticulouslycharacterized on the basis of an extensive literature research.In addition, this paper is directly related to the Deliverable 4.2 of the Work Package 4,Illustrative Case Studies, where the selected examples of the IL “good practices” inEurope have been described and analyzed.The EMPATIC project is funded under the EU Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP) andhas a transversal nature. Consequently, the present document exposes theeducational side1 of Information Literacy development and takes into account fourlearning sectors encompassed by LLP, related to the four ongoing sectoralprogrammes, that is school (Comenius), higher education (Erasmus), vocational(Leonardo da Vinci) and adult (Grundtvig).1 This has to be underlined, because there are other aspects of Information Literacy development, such asinformation content, resources or ICT connectivity building. Page 3 of 15 View slide
  • SCOPE AND PURPOSEThe aim of this paper is to create a conceptual, generic and tentative framework for thestrategy/strategic model of Information Literacy development, so that subsequent, more specific ILmodels could be “deduced”. It is intended to set the ground and provide a starting point for furtherdiscussion on the “sectoral” sub-strategies of Information Literacy development.The two fundamental features of the proposed framework are as follows: ─ the model of IL development takes a strategic approach. It is based on the assumption that Information Literacy is critically important for well-being and success of today’s individuals, societies and nations, so has to be a matter of an organized, planned and rational action on the European and national levels; ─ this is not a model of Information Literacy itself, but a strategy for Information Literacy development, mainly, but not only, by teaching/learning, in different contexts and on various levels.Building a strategy for Information Literacy development is an effortful enterprise, for a number ofreasons: ─ first of all, the notion AND practice of Information Literacy themselves – as the desk research has shown (see Deliverable 1.1) – are multi-dimensional, have various aspects and contexts; ─ secondly, there is no established or commonly agreed-on methodology for working out the Information Literacy strategies. Sheila Corrall, a well-known researcher in the field, states: “Further research is needed to review existing strategy models, tools and techniques and assess their suitability for IL strategy development (…)” and continues “Other areas suggested for future research include the investigation of relationships between IL strategies and other organizational strategies (…); and comparative studies of IL strategy development in different sectors (…)” (Corrall 2008, p. 35); ─ thirdly, although there are some formal strategic documents related to Information Literacy development in existence they are of narrow scope and constrained to one organization, in particular – a university. Moreover, those strategies are usually not “proper” ones, that is – do not encompass all required elements and issues (Corrall 2008) (for an example see IFLA Information Literacy Section Strategic Plans at http://www.ifla.org/en/publications/information-literacy-section-strategic-plan). Page 4 of 15
  • METHODOLOGYWhen creating a strategic model for Information Literacy development one has to takeinto account the two following aspects: ─ the formal structure of a strategy – what should any strategic document include – e.g. components, frame, length, appendices, etc.; ─ the subject content – related to a particular area of Information Literacy, learning sector, etc..At the moment, as has been mentioned earlier, there are no ready tools or techniquesfor creating Information Literacy development strategies. The appropriate knowledgeand methods coming from the Management Sciences achievements may be usedhere. Protzko, reviewing already cited Corral (2008) paper, notices: “One or morestrategic management models or tools available could improve IL strategydevelopment, consistency, and coherency. (…) Conforming to strategic planningnorms could strengthen IL strategy. Elements of models from the public or privatesectors might be tailored to meet the specific needs of IL strategies. Further researchcould identify suitable strategy models for IL development. The process ofimplementing IL strategy should also be considered in future research” (Protzko2008).Valuable guidelines for the content and structure of Information Literacy developmentstrategies – in the teaching/learning environments – are given in the Characteristicsof Programs of Information Literacy that Illustrate Best Practices: A Guideline by theAmerican Library Association / Association of College and Research Libraries(ALA/ACRL 2003). Although the terms “strategy” or “strategic model” are not used inthat document, the elements proposed there are relevant to strategic thinking, andinclude: ─ Mission ─ Goals and Objectives ─ Planning ─ Administrative and Institutional Support ─ Articulation with the Curriculum ─ Collaboration ─ Pedagogy ─ Staffing ─ Outreach ─ Assessment/Evaluation Page 5 of 15
  • To conclude, any strategy should embrace at least the following parts: ─ Context – accepted values, assumptions, background, definitions, environment, situation analysis ─ Mission/vision statement ─ Aims/Goals/Objectives ─ Actions – action plans, responsibilities, targets, timescales ─ Standards ─ Stakeholders ─ Outcomes, performance measures ─ References ─ Appendices, e.g. illustrative best practice casesIn the next section of this document the above listed structural elements are used tobuild the framework for the proposed Information Literacy development strategy. Page 6 of 15
  • THE STRATEGY FOR INFORMATION LITERACY DEVELOPMENT – A POSSIBLE FRAMEWORK WITHSOME TENTATIVE CONTENT1. Context with elements of situational analysis1.1. What is Information Literacy?As already noted, the meanings of the term “Information Literacy” are described indetail in the Deliverable 1.1 of the EMPATIC project. So, here we cite only one, butvery influential definition of “Information Literacy” by American Library Association /Association of College and Research Libraries:“People – as individuals and as a nation – must be information literate. To be informationliterate, a person must be able to recognize when information is needed and have the ability tolocate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information” (ALA/ACRL 1989).and“Information literacy forms the basis for lifelong learning. It is common to all disciplines, to alllearning environments, and to all levels of education. It enables learners to master content andextend their investigations, become more self-directed, and assume greater control over theirown learning. An information literate individual is able to: ─ determine the extent of information needed; ─ access the needed information effectively and efficiently; ─ evaluate information and its sources critically; ─ incorporate selected information into one’s knowledge base; ─ use information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose; ─ understand the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information, and access and use information ethically and legally” (ALA/ACRL 2011).1.2. Information Literacy is importantInformation literacy is widely recognized as an essential competence for participationin general and higher education, the workplace and society. In UNESCO’s AlexandriaProclamation on Information Literacy and Lifelong Learning we read:“Information Literacy (…) is crucial to the competitive advantage of individuals, enterprises(especially small and medium enterprises), regions and nations; provides the key to effectiveaccess, use and creation of content to support economic development, education, health andhuman services, and all other aspects of contemporary societies (…)”. And also: “InformationLiteracy lies at the core of lifelong learning. It empowers people in all walks of life to seek,evaluate, use and create information effectively to achieve their personal, social, occupationaland educational goals. It is a basic human right in a digital world and promotes social inclusionof all nations” (Alexandria Proclamation, 2005).In Europe Information Literacy is unappreciated, its role is undervalued, and it hasbeen frequently equated with the Digital Literacy (Basili 2008a). For example – in theofficial EU document Key Competences for Lifelong Learning – A European Framework– there is a separate part on Digital Competence, defined as “the confident and criticaluse of Information Society Technology (IST) for work, leisure and communication”,but not on Information Literacy. Page 7 of 15
  • Information Literacy development ought to be a matter of strategic thinking, not leftto library and information community only, and ad hoc actions. The strategy should beprepared by the key stakeholders in the process, working collaboratively.1.3. Information Literacy “environment”The Information Literacy contexts, making a background for the IL developmentstrategy are presented by Figures 1 and 2.Figure 1. Contexts and dimensions of Information Literacy Page 8 of 15
  • Figure 2. IL-related competencies2. Mission ─ Mainstreaming of Information Literacy at the national and European Union levels3. Vision ─ Information literate – at least at the basic level (see Deliverable 1.1, p. 66) – citizens, business, government, societies in Europe4. Goals ─ Raising society-wide Information Literacy awareness ─ “Institutionalization” of Information Literacy ─ Integrating Information Literacy in curricula in all levels and sectors of the educational systems in Europe Page 9 of 15
  • 5. Actions (examples) ─ Within the goal “Raising society-wide Information Literacy awareness” o To organize IL-oriented “events” (conferences, meetings, happenings, etc.) addressed to different professional and social groups o To provide targeted marketing to the IL stakeholders and potential “support groups” o To utilize the Internet power and influence, e.g. to create IL-oriented websites, to promote IL concept in the social media ─ Within the goal “Institutionalization of Information Literacy” o To establish official bodies responsible for Information Literacy o To produce formal documents, establishing the legal ground for the IL development at national and European levels ─ Within the goal “Integrating Information Literacy in curricula in all levels and sectors of the educational systems in Europe” o To embed IL content into existing curricula of different kind o To advance knowledge and understanding of Information Literacy among school teachers and universities’ faculty, e.g. by “training of trainers”6. StakeholdersInformation Literacy (potential) stakeholders are both organizations (formal orinformal) and individuals, listed here in the alphabetical order: ─ Business organizations ─ Citizens (“everybody”) themselves ─ European Union agencies, in particular those connected with the education, lifelong learning and information society areas, e.g. EACEA (the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency) ─ Interested researchers, scientists ─ Libraries and the library and information science (LIS) communities and associations ─ Local authorities ─ National governments, including appropriate ministries (of education, information society, regional development etc.) ─ NGO – nongovernmental organizations ─ Other interested individuals, e.g. Information Literacy bloggers, activists ─ School authorities, schools of different level and type, headmasters and teachers ─ Universities and other higher education bodiesThe division of IL development responsibilities and areas of action amongst potentialstakeholders should be a matter of further diagnosis and decisions. Page 10 of 15
  • 7. Information Literacy standards and performance indicatorsOne can find in the literature a number of Information Literacy standards, orstandard-like statements, fully or partly related to the four learning sectors, i.e.school, higher education, vocational and adult ones. But, it has to be emphasised thatthe most-known, elaborated and recognized standards, frequently embracing also theIL performance measures, are connected predominantly with the higher educationsector. In particular, there do not exist “ready-to-use”, fully developed InformationLiteracy standards for the adult/lifelong learning sector.The examples of IL standards or proto-standards that may be of use at least as“starting points” for further discussion, are collected in Table 1.Table 1: Selected Information Literacy standards and “proto-standards”Learning Related LLP Information Literacy standardssector programme A fragment on Information Literacy in Partnership for 21st Century Skills (2009). Framework Grundtvig –Adult for 21st Century Learning. Adultsector http://www.p21.org/documents/P21_Framework_Definit learning ions.pdf by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills SCONUL Advisory Committee on Information Literacy (1999). Information skills in higher education. http://www.sconul.ac.uk/groups/information_literacy/pa pers/Seven_pillars2.pdf by the Society of College, National and UniversityHE – Erasmus – Libraries SCONULHigher Higher orEducation education ALA/ACRL (2000). Information Literacy Competencysector Standards for Higher Education. http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/infor mationliteracycompetency.cfm by the Association of College and Research Libraries ACRL, a division of the American Library Association ALA Page 11 of 15
  • ALA/AASL (2007). Standards for the 21st-Century Learner. http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/aasl/guidelinesandst andards/learningstandards/AASL_LearningStandards.pdf Comenius – by the American Association of School Librarians AASLSchool Action for (a division of the American Library Association ALA)sector school or – as an example of “detailed” approach – Nevada Department of Education (2003). Nevada Information literacy Standards. Information Literacy Content Standards for K-12 grades. http://www.doe.nv.gov/Standards/IL/infolit.pdf U.S. Department of Labor (1991). What Work Requires of Schools. A SCANS Report for America 2000.VET http://wdr.doleta.gov/SCANS/whatwork/whatwork.pdfVocational LeonardoEducation da Vinci – orand Vocational Bruce, Christine Susan (1999). Workplace experiencesTraining training of information literacy. International Journal ofsector Information Management Volume 19, p. 33-47. (“Seven Faces” of Information Literacy in the workplace)In addition, it is reasonable to connect the IL standards and performance measures –seen in the context of creating the Europe-wide Information Literacy developmentstrategy – with the other EU actions and conceptual frames, particularly thosepertaining to lifelong learning and education.At the moment, the most important enterprise in this regard seems to be EQF – theEuropean Qualification Framework for Lifelong Learning. In the European Commissiondocument we read: “As an instrument for the promotion of lifelong learning, the EQFencompasses all levels of qualifications acquired in general, vocational as well asacademic education and training. Additionally, the framework addresses qualificationsacquired in initial and continuing education and training. The eight reference levels aredescribed in terms of learning outcomes. (…) In the EQF a learning outcome is definedas a statement of what a learner knows, understands and is able to do on completionof a learning process. The EQF therefore emphasizes the results of learning ratherthan focusing on inputs such as length of study. Learning outcomes are specified inthree categories – as knowledge, skills and competence” (European Commission2008, p. 3). Page 12 of 15
  • CONCLUSIONSTo create functional, detailed, and – what is most important – practicallyimplementable strategic models for Information Literacy development in Europefurther work is needed, particularly in two directions: ─ working out the proper formal structure of strategic documents, adequate for the Information Literacy area ─ working out the specific, learning sector oriented IL strategies content.This further work can only be achieved by the team-work of co-operating ILstakeholders of various backgrounds. Page 13 of 15
  • REFERENCES AND SELECTED LITERATURE• ALA/AASL (2007). Standards for the 21st-Century Learner. http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/aasl/guidelinesandstandards/learningstandards /AASL_LearningStandards.pdf• ALA/ACRL (2000). Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/informationliteracycompetency. cfm• ALA/ACRL (2003). Characteristics of Programs of Information Literacy that Illustrate Best Practices: A Guideline. http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/characteristics.cfm• Basili, Carla (2008a). Information and education policies in Europe: key factors influencing Information Literacy academic policies in Europe. In: Information Literacy at the crossroads of Education and Information Policies in Europe. Ed. Carla Basili. Roma: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, p. 18-32.• Basili, Carla (2008b). Theorems of Information Literacy. A mathematical-like approach to the discourse of Information Literacy. In: Seria III: ePublikacje Instytutu INiB UJ. Red. Maria Kocójowa. Nr 5. Biblioteka: klucz do sukcesu użytkowników. Kraków: Instytut Informacji Naukowej i Bibliotekoznawstwa UJ. http://www-old.inib.uj.edu.pl/wyd_iinb/s3_z5/basili-n.pdf• Bruce, Christine Susan (1999). Workplace experiences of information literacy. International Journal of Information Management Volume 19, p. 33-47.• Catts, Ralph; Lau, Jesus (2008). Towards Information Literacy Indicators. Paris: UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001587/158723e.pdf• Corrall, Sheila (2008). Information literacy strategy development in higher education: an exploratory study. International Journal of Information Management Volume 28, p. 26-37.• European Communities (2007). Key Competences for Lifelong Learning – A European Framework. http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/publ/pdf/ll- learning/keycomp_en.pdf• European Communities (2008). The European Qualification Framework for Lifelong Learning (EQF). http://ec.europa.eu/education/pub/pdf/general/eqf/broch_en.pdf• IFLA (2011a). InfoLit Global. http://www.infolitglobal.info/en/• IFLA (2011b). Information Literacy Section Strategic Plan. http://www.ifla.org/en/publications/information-literacy-section-strategic-plan• Information Literacy Website. http://www.informationliteracy.org.uk/• Library of the University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia (2011). Information Literacy Strategy. http://www.usc.edu.au/University/Library/About/InformationLiteracy/• Partnership for 21st Century Skills (2009). Framework for 21st Century Learning. http://www.p21.org/documents/P21_Framework_Definitions.pdf• Protzko, Shandra (2008). Information Literacy Strategy Development: Study Prescribes Strategic Management Framework for Academic Institutions. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice Volume 3 Number 4. http://ejournals.library.ualberta.ca/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/4149 Page 14 of 15
  • • SCONUL Advisory Committee on Information Literacy (1999). Information skills in higher education. http://www.sconul.ac.uk/groups/information_literacy/papers/Seven_pillars2.pdf• U.S. Department of Labor (1991). What Work Requires of Schools. A SCANS Report for America 2000. http://wdr.doleta.gov/SCANS/whatwork/whatwork.pdf• UNESCO (2005). Beacons of the Information Society. The Alexandria Proclamation on Information Literacy and Lifelong Learning. http://archive.ifla.org/III/wsis/BeaconInfSoc.html• UNESCO (2011). Information Literacy. UNESCO’s action to provide people with the skills and abilities for critical reception, assessment and use of information and media in their professional and personal lives. http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php- URL_ID=15886&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html• Webber, Sheila; Johnson, Bill (2006). Information Literacy: Standards and statements. http://dis.shef.ac.uk/literacy/standards.htm Page 15 of 15
  • http://empat-ic.eu/eng/ Project funded by the European Commission under the Lifelong Learning Programme This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot beheld responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. 1