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  1. 1. Sharks’ Sense of Smell Edwin ISM 1
  2. 2. Have youever beenbitten by a shark? 2
  3. 3. What is a shark?A type of fish / Mostly heard in the news about surfers bitten by sharks even in our area like Monterey Bay! 3
  4. 4. Shark basic information• Been around about 400 million years• Over 400 species• Largest 39 ft, smallest 6.7 in• Never run out of teeth; use 20,000 in life• Feed on plankton, squid, small fish, and other SHARKS—STRANGE!• Found in all seas 4
  5. 5. Sharks’ anatomy 5
  6. 6. Shark senses• Like us, sharks’ senses are smell, taste, touch, eyesight, and hearing.• A shark’s primary sense is its sense of smell; 2/3 brain dedicated to smell.• Sharks have good eyesight. They have color vision –so they see color pictures!• Sharks are very sensitive to low frequency sounds: hear sounds more than 700 ft away!• Sharks have taste buds in their mouth.• Sharks touch things by biting them. 6
  7. 7. Sharks’ sense of smellHow do sharks sense smell under water?• Sharks’s primary sense is the sense of smell. The smell organs in the noses of some sharks are so strong that they can detect ONE droplet of blood in A MILLION drops of sea water.• Two nostrils at the front of a shark’s face pull water into a nasal chamber where smells are detected. Water flows through the nostrils giving the shark olfactory information. This is how sharks smell things. 7
  8. 8. Sharks’ sense of smell, continuedThe chemistry of sharks’ sense of smell• Oh, boy this is the real HARD part,  since it’s getting SO technical. First I didn’t understand the question, nor did my parents. I asked Mr. Spedding. I was told it’s about molecules and atoms that I actually missed before I came here. Then I emailed Mr. Manny Ezcurra, the shark expert at the Monterey Aquarium for help. He gave me some pointers, which are very very helpful. So here you go! 8
  9. 9. Sharks’ sense of smell, continued• Sharks are attracted to the chemicals found in the guts of animals.• Smells begin when odor molecules that travels through water stimulate olfactory receptor cells in the nostrils.• The cell sends electrical impulses to a particular microregion of olfactory bulb.• The microregion that receives the information then passes it to sharks’ brain. This is how sharks sense a certain smell. 9
  10. 10. Sharks’ sense of smell, continued• Sharks are guided by the nostril that detects the prey’s odor first.• The odor reaches one nostril before the other, signaling whether to turn left or right.• The ocean is a smelly place, full of odors or scents of hundreds of different kinds of animals. Sharks can sort it all out. 10
  11. 11. Chemistry of sharks’ sense of smell —SUMMARY Molecules (of odor)  Receptor cells (in nostrils)  (Sends electrical impulses to) Microregions (of olfactory bulbs)  (Passes info to) Sharks’ brains 11
  12. 12. Sharks’ sense of smell —Scenario 12
  13. 13. Any questions?Thank you for listening! 13