Venomous snakes


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Venomous snakes

  1. 1. <ul><li>SNAKE FAMILY </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>VENOMOUS SNAKES </li></ul><ul><li>DR.SRINIVASREDDY PATIL </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
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  3. 3. <ul><li>Snakes have a long, legless, flexible body that is covered with dry scales. When snakes move about on land, they usually slide on their belly. Snake's eyes are covered by clear scales rather than movable eyelids; therefore, their eyes are always open. They repeatedly flick out their narrow, forked tongue, using it to bring odors to a special sense organ in the mouth. </li></ul>
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  5. 5. <ul><li>Snakes belong to the order of animals called reptiles. This group also include crocodiles, lizards, and turtles. As with the other reptiles, snakes maintain a fairly steady body temperature by their behavior. They raise their temperature by lying in the sun or lower it by crawling into the shade.   </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>There are about 2,700 species of snakes in the world. They live almost everywhere, in deserts, forests, oceans, streams, and lakes. Some are ground dwellers, others live in trees, and other snakes spend most of their lives in water. There are a few areas where snakes do not live. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>They cannot survive in places where the ground stays frozen the year around, so they are missing in the polar regions or at high mountain elevations. Several islands, including Ireland and New Zealand, do not have snakes. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>It is commonly believed that all snakes are venomous, but this is an erroneous belief. Of the 2700 known species of snake only 300 are venomous. </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>Total ignorance prevails about snakes and snakebite in India and because of the superstitions many precious lives are lost. About 25000 people die of snakebite in India every year, mostly in rural India.There are two important aspects of snakebite treatment, one is the first-aid and then the treatment (antivenom serum). </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>Since rural people have to rush to nearby towns and cities to get medical support, a very precious time is lost in traveling. If one could understand about the first aid for snakebite and applies it properly then one gains time to reach the hospital. </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>All snakes are not poisonous – so every snakebite is not going result in death – it would save people from quacks. </li></ul><ul><li>Even a venomous bite is not always fatal – why?. Quacks en-cash on it. </li></ul><ul><li>With local symptoms a common man would be able to ascertain, by one self, whether it is venomous bite or not – needs first aid and proper treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>First Aid would enable a person to buy more time to reach medical aid in cities on time. </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>The only cure which is available is Anti-venom Serum Injection and not quacks. </li></ul><ul><li>First Aid - if not done properly could cause more harm. </li></ul><ul><li>Save the rural innocent/simple people from snake-charmers’ . </li></ul><ul><li>As a common man, one should know how to administer proper first-aid for all snakebites. Never try to assess whether it was venomous snakebite. </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>Snakes love dark and cool places! </li></ul><ul><li>Educate your children that putting one’s hand into a burrow could be dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>Never get into a dark bathroom; first switch on a light and then see around you before you enter. </li></ul><ul><li>Drain mesh should be fixed with cement and not with hinges. In case you need to clean the drain, just break the cement; the cost of a little cement is not worth bartering with your life. Mostly snakes make their way to your bathrooms and toilets through drain system. </li></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>Snakes are revengeful. There is no scientific basis to this. A snake's brain is not developed to the extent of retaining memory. It is said that if you kill a snake, another (its mate) will follow you and take revenge. That, of course is wrong, but may have some basis in fact. When you kill a snake it expels its musk from the anal opening; it is very possible that a nearby snake may show up to investigate what the musk (a sex - attractant) is all about. </li></ul><ul><li>Snakes guard wealth. This is a common misbelief. Old crumbling houses, 'wadas' are ideal for snakes as they find plenty of hiding places together with rats and mice. In the days of yore, people often buried their wealth and it could be a possibility that a snake and the hidden wealth were unearthed together, giving this impression. </li></ul><ul><li>Old snakes have hair on them. Hair does not grow on snakes. Periodically snakes cast of moult and if some moult remains, it appears like hair. Sometimes some snake charmers even stick hair onto the snake's head. </li></ul>
  15. 19. <ul><li>Snakes hypnotize. This is believed to be so because snakes stare fixedly as they do not have eyelids and cannot blink. </li></ul><ul><li>Snakes sway to the music of the flute. This misbelief has been strengthened by our ever popular but ludicrous Hindi films. Even though it is now proven that they can detect some airborne sounds, there is no evidence that snakes can appreciate music. Snakes are said to dance to music. While playing the flute, the snake charmer sways and the snake moves to the swaying movement. It is the natural instinct of the snake to keep a close track of any moving object. In fact they instinctively stay away from artificial vibrations.The music of the snake-charmers only serves to charm the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Cobras, particularly the king cobra,  are supposed to wear a 'nagmani' that makes one a millionaire. The poor Irula tribal snake-catcher has a good answer to the legend of the jewel or light in the head of the snake. When asked about this belief, an Irula will reply, &quot; if it was so we would be rajas not snake-catchers.&quot; </li></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>Snakes suck milk from a cows udder by coiling around its legs. This is not true. Milk is not part of a snake's natural diet. Where they would find it in nature, how they would obtain it with no powers of suction and with over hundred sharp teeth in the way, and of what nutritional value a few spoonfuls of milk would be to a snake, are questions that should be considered. </li></ul><ul><li>Sand boa bites cause leprosy. The blotches on the skin of the sand boa have given rise to this notion. Since this harmless snake has a body pattern that vaguely resembles that of patients suffering from this dreaded disease, people are quick to make this association. Actually, snakes are clean and free of disease. </li></ul>
  17. 22. <ul><li>A green tree snake pierces a man's head with its pointed head. The vine (common green whip) snake is accused of poking one's eyes out or `stinging' one on the forehead. Actually, the pointed nose of this harmless snake is soft and rubbery.The vine snake can inflict a painful(but harmless) bite on the finger or even on the nose, but no one has ever received an eye injury. </li></ul><ul><li>Snakes like the sweet pungent smell of the kevada or the raat-ki-rani. This is an unproven statement. </li></ul><ul><li>A small snake of Kashmir is supposedly so deadly that it melts the snow it passes through ! </li></ul><ul><li>The tails of rat snakes, despite various stories about them, are no more dangerous then pieces of rope and so not have stingers, do not suffocate cows, lash down paddy and so on. </li></ul>
  18. 24. <ul><li>Vipers are believed to jump through the air for six feet or more. Six inches would be more accurate. </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant women loose their eyesight if they see a snake. This is not true. </li></ul><ul><li>Pythons suck their prey from a distance. </li></ul>
  19. 27. <ul><li>The venom apparatus (more info soon) reaches the highest development in snakes and is a weapon for capturing prey, defence and a digestive aid. The salivary secretion of the harmless snakes is equally effective against their prey species. Snake venom is highly modified saliva, and is produced by modified saliva glands. The proteinaceous nature of snake venom was established by Napoleon Bonaparte's brother, Lucien in 1843. </li></ul>
  20. 28. <ul><li>Proteins constitute the major portion of venom's dry weight–90% or more. Snake venom is a cocktail of hundreds, sometimes thousands, of different proteins and enzymes. Many of these proteins are harmless but a percentage of them are toxins. The makeup of these toxins varies widely from species to species. This complexity accounts for the widely differing effects of snakebite. </li></ul>
  21. 29. <ul><li>Venoms are rich in hydrolithic enzymes, a complex mix of polypeptides, nucleases, peptidases, etc., which help digest the snake's prey. Some of them also enhance or contribute to the toxic effect of the venom. As early as 1949 it was shown that an enzyme from the Bothrops species produces a vasodilation resulting from the production of a hypotensor neuropeptide, bradykinin. This had important consequences for man leading to drugs for the control of blood pressure. </li></ul>
  22. 30. <ul><li>Hemotoxin (blood toxin) : Hemotoxic venom attacks the circulatory system and muscle tissue causing excessive scarring, gangrene, and sometimes leads to amputation of the affected area. This venom basically destroys tissue and blood cells. In addition to killing the prey, part of the function of a hemotoxic venom for some animals is to aid digestion. The venom breaks down protein in the region of the bite, making prey easier to digest.ex : Vipers </li></ul>
  23. 31. <ul><li>Neurotoxin (nerve toxin) : Neurotoxic venom attacks the victim's central nervous system and usually result in heart failure and/or breathing difficulties or even total respiratory paralysis. eg: Cobras,Kraits, Coral Snakes. </li></ul>
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  25. 33. <ul><li>The most deadly snake in the world is called the Black Mamba. This snake is located in Africa and is colored dark olive or a dark brown color with black spotting along its back. The Black Mamba has the longest fangs of any snake and when strikes it delivers quick multiple bites and flees. This snake’s venom is a cardio toxin and a fully grown Black Mamba can deliver 100mg to 120mg. A lethal dose of a cardio toxin to a human is 10mg to 15mg. A human has up to four hours to live after one is bitten. </li></ul>
  26. 36. <ul><li>The second most deadly snake in the world is called the Common Krait. This Snake is located mostly in Southeast Asia and is normally black with yellow bands around it. This snake can go either on land or water and is highly venomous. There venom affects the nerves and produces a nerve paralysis. There fangs are not very long so the Krait has to chew on it’s pray to induce the venom into the blood stream. </li></ul>
  27. 38. <ul><li>The third most deadly snake is the Russell’s Viper. This is located in South Asia and is light brown with three rows of black or brown spots bordered by yellow or white around. This snake is responsible for the most fatalities to humans than from any other snake. It is highly irritable and coils up before it strikes with its fangs and venom. This venom does damage to the blood cells and tissue. </li></ul>
  28. 41. <ul><li>The fourth most deadly snake is the Taipan . It is located in Australia and is a pale creamy color on the head. They are one of three colors light brown, dark brown, copper, or olive. The Taipan only strikes with its fangs and venom to its prey. They usually stay away from humans unless backed into a corner then the Taipan will defend itself. </li></ul>
  29. 43. <ul><li>The fifth most deadly snake in the word is called the Indian Cobra. It is located in South Asia and has one of the more recognizable traits. The Indian Cobra has a hood that pops up behind with a symbol on the back which supposedly looks like eyes. The unique thing about this snake is it can either spit venom at you or it can bite you with its fangs and release venom that way. Spiting venom isn’t deadly but if it gets into your eyes you will have severe pain and damage. </li></ul>