PEMBACAAN DAN PENILAIAN KENDIRIMERUJUK TEKS TUGASAN 4 – CHAPTER 3 NAME : TENGKU NORAINI BINTI MEGAT ABDULLAH STUDENT NO : M20111000250 LECTURER : PROF MADYA DATO’ DR ABD LATIF HAJI GAPOR COURSE CODE : KPT 6044
CHAPTER THREE INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGY AND MEDIA INTO INSTRUCTION : THE ASSURE MODELQuestion 1What are the primary types of criteria used to analyze learners ? The ASSURE Model is an Instructional System design process that was modified to beused by teachers in the regular classroom. The process is one in which the teachers andtrainers can use to design and develop the most appropriate learning environment for theirstudents. Teachers also can use this process in writing lesson plans and in improving teachingand learning. It consist of six steps namely : 1. A – Analyze Learners 2. S – State Objectives 3. S – Select Methods, Media and Materials 4. U – Utilize Media and Materials 5. R – Require Learner Participation 6. E – Evaluate and Revise The first step is Analyze Learners. Before we can begin, we must know our targetaudience which is our students. We need to analyze and write down the relevant informationabout our students. Thus, theprimary types of criteria used to analyze learners are consist ofIdentify Learners, Investigate their General Characteristics, Analyze their Specific EntryCompetencies and Identify the suitable Learning Style according to their characteristics. Furtherexplanation is presented as per table below ( Figure 1.1 ).
No Criteria Explanation 1 Identify Learners The first step is to specifically define the audience. We must know the learners since we are to select the best strategies to meet the objectives that we have set. It is related to the question of who are your students? While this seems to be common sense, but this step is important to mention because keeping our students in mind will help to ensure that we can work diligently to find materials and resources that will be most appropriate and useful to students.2 General Characteristics This is description of the class as a whole. It includes such information as the number of students, region, grade, age, ethnic group, sex, mental, emotional, physical, social problem or socioeconomic level. It can help teachers to select the method or materials of teaching according to characteristics of their students.3 Specific Entry Competencies This is a description of the types of knowledge expected of the learners. It is include prior knowledge, Skills and attitudes. Ask question such as Do the learners have the knowledge base required to enter the lesson ? Do the learners have the entry competencies and technical vocabulary for this lesson ? Have the learners already mastered the skills you are planning to teach ? Do the learners have biases or misconceptions about the subject ?4 Learning Style This is a description of the learning stylistics preferences of the individual members of the class. It can be include verbal, logical, visual, musical or structured. Students have their own learning style. Individuals learning style refer to the most appropriate and effective learning control. Knowledge of learning style can help teachers to write the lesson plan. Figure 1.1 : Types of Criteria used to analyze learners
Question 2Why are learning objectives an important aspect of lesson planning ? The learning objective is important aspect of lesson planning because objectiveswas indicated as learning outcomes, that is what will the student get out of the lesson.Therefore it is important to clearly and specifically state objectives of the lesson. Thus, theobjectives also must be in specific. Besides, objectives statement also can help teachers inselecting the appropriate of media and teaching method to be use. Teachers may not be able toassess student achievement without the learning objectives. The objectives statement is describing on what the learner will do as a result ofinstruction. Things to keep in mind as we write the objectives are should focus on the learner,not the teacher, use behaviors that reflect real world concerns and also must ensure theobjectives are descriptions of the learning outcomes and are written using ABCD format. In thisregard, a good objective statement contains the criteria of Who is to be achieve ? What youwant to achieve ?How to achieve ?andWhat is minimum level of achievement ?Or it can bepresented in ABCD format which are consist of : 1. A – AudienceIt is refer to who is the audience in which specifies the learners for whom the objective isintended. Therefore, a major premise of systematic instruction is to focus on what the learner isdoing, not on what is the teacher is doing. 2. B – BehaviorIt is refer to what do you want them to do ? The behavior or capability needs to be demonstratedas learner performance, an observable, measurable behavior or a real – world skill.
3. C – ConditionIt is refer to under what circumstances or conditions are the learners to demonstrate the skillbeing taught ? Here, be sure to include equipment, tools, aids or references the learner may ormay not use or special environmental conditions in which the learner has to perform. Therefore,a statement of objective should include the conditions under which performance is to beobserved, if such conditions are relevant. 4. D –DegreeThe final requirement of a well – stated objectives is to indicate the standard by whichacceptable performance will be judge. It is refer to how well do you want them to demonstratetheir mastery ? Degree to which the new skill must be mastered or the criterion for acceptableperformance which is include time limit, range of accuracy, proportion of correct responsesrequired and qualitative standards. Besides,learning objective is importantbecause the selection of instructionalmethods and media depend on what type of objective is being pursued and so does thechoice of evaluation instruments. The three domain on classification of objectives are : 1. Cognitive – Learning involves the whole array of intellectual capabilities from simple factual recall to the generation of new theories. 2. Affective – Learning involves feelings and values. Objectives in the affective domain may range from stimulating interest in a school subject to encouraging healthy social attitudes to adopting a set of ethical standards. 3. Motor Skill – Learning involves athletic, manual and other such physical skills. Objectives in the motor skill domain include capabilities ranging from simple mechanical operations to those entailing sophisticated neuromuscular coordination and strategy as in competitive sports.
Question 3Describe methods of eliciting student participation when using technology and mediaduring instruction. The methods of eliciting student participation when using technology and mediaduring instruction are : 1. In order to get each learner actively and individually involved in the lesson, teachers can use the teaching method such as games, group work, presentations and so on. Our role in the classroom today is one of a guide on the side and students, especially with technology connected lessons. 2. Learners need to practice what they have learned. To ensure their participation, correct responses should be reinforced. There should be activities included in the lessons that allow learners to respond and receive feedback before any type of evaluation is administered. In - class and follow - up activities also can help learners to process the information by themselves. 3. An activity that involves students participation will produce a permanent change in behavior. The learning experience will help in maintaining the students motivation toward learning activity. Training in the form of discussions, drills, written exercises, language games and so can improve students’ participation. 4. Preparation of media and appropriate resources can actually help and maintain students’ participation. It is include the discussion within the group which can generate ideas and problem solving activities.