World Bank History The World Bank is the outcome of the Breton Woods Conference, held in 1944. It was launched alongside the International Monetary Fund(IMF), in the presence of a number of important world delegates, and many important policy makers from the United States of America.
FUNDING Financial resources are acquired by borrowing on the international bond market. It issues bonds to raise money and then passes on the low interest rates to its borrowers. It is made up of185 member countries. These countries are jointly responsible for how the institution is financed and how its money is spent.
The Bank Group uses financial resources and extensive experience to help poor nations reduce poverty, increase economic growth, and improve the quality of life.
World Bank provides technical and financial assistance to under developed nations for development schemes like building roads, schools, hospitals, etc. The main aim is to eliminate poverty from the world
The World Bank collaborates with numerous other partners and multilateral organizations, including theWorld Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), to realize the most far-reaching results possible. * Current global challenges include the financial crisis, high food prices, and climate change
WORKING GROUP OF WORLD BANK 1)International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) 2)International Development Association (IDA) 3)International Finance Corporation (IFC) 4)Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) 5)International Centre for Settlement
The IBRD in the World Bank Group World Bank (1944) makes Long Term loans to countries to enhance sustainable economic development alleviates external debt burden maintains profit-oriented objectives loans are not subsidized engages in co-financing agreements to extend economic impact (catalytic role)
The IBRD Organization The World Bank is a truly global institution 185 countries, all members of the IMF (precondition) Established in 1945, as part of a new framework for international cooperation (Bretton Woods Conference, New Hampshire, July 1944) The 24-member Board represents the 184 member countries and is made up of 5 appointed and 19 elected Executive Directors Cumulative lending = $420 billion Loans outstanding= $103 billion Lending in 2006: $11 billion in 37 countries Equity to Loans ratio = 33%
Cooperative institution owned by its members who subscribe to its capital. The amount of shares each member is allocated reflects its quota in the IMF. Members pay in a small portion of the value of their shares, the remainder is “callable capital” (only be paid should the IBRD be unable to meet its obligations) Subscribed capital= US$189 billion
2. IDA Established in 1960; 165 members 81 eligible countries with per capita GDP < $1065 Cumulative lending as of 2007: $170 billion Loans in 2006: $9 billion to 59 countries Helps the world’s poorest countries reduce poverty by providing "credits," which are loans at zero interest with a 10- year grace period and maturities of 35 to 40 years. IDA countries have little or no access to capital markets and no capacity to borrow on market terms Target sectors: health, education, private sector development, governance
Where do IDA resources come from? Contributions from donor countries (USA, UK, Japan, France, Italy and Canada) Repayments from « graduated » and current IDA borrowers Investment income and IBRD net income
IDA Top ten borrowers India Vietnam Bangladesh Pakistan Ethiopia Ghana Tanzania Nigeria Uganda Afghanistan
3. MIGA: Multilateral Investment Guarantee Authority MIGA Is an insurer, not a lender! No export crédit insu rance but Investment insu rance! Guarantee up to 15 years, with minimum of 3 years Eligible sectors: oïl and gas, infrastructure, mining, télécommunications, services, agrobusiness, manufacturing
4 types of guarantees Transfer restrictioncoverage protects against losses arising from an investor's inability to convert local currency (capital, interest, principal, profits, royalties, or other monetary benefits) in to foreign exchange for transfer outside the host country. Expropriation coverage offers protection against loss of the insured investment as a result of acts by the host government that May reduce or eliminate ownership of, control over, or rights to the insured investment. War and civil disturbance coverage protects against loss due to the destruction, disappearance, or physical damage to tangible assets caused by politically motivated acts of war or civil disturbance, including revolution, insurrection, and coups d‘ etat . Terrorism and sabotage are also covered. Breach of contractcoverage protects against losses arising from the host government's breach or repudiation of a contractual agreement with the investor.
MIGA’s Guarantees Process Only new investments and new contributions towards the expansion, privatization, or modernization of existing enterprises are eligible. MIGA must obtain approval from the host government to offer a guarantee to the investor. MIGA’s legal department undertakes a range of mediation activities to encourage the amicable settlement of disputes between investors and host countries, to forestall the need for formal international arbitration.
4. IFC and the World Bank partnership with the Private Sector
IFC (1956) finances private sector investment, mobilize capital, and provides technical advice for private sector ventures and projects in developing countries: equity, LT loans, loan guarantees and risk-management products.
Source of funds: member capital, capital markets (80%) and IBRD (20%)
The Investment Promotion Agency Network is an online information exchange, marketing, and communications network linking investment intermediaries, private investors, business associations, investment promotion agencies, and providers of technology in over 150 countries. It is a useful forum to provide and obtain information
The International Finance Corporation (a member of the World Bank Group) lends directly to private sector entities for projects in various sectors in developing countries. * A foreign or domestic company or an entrepreneur, seeking to establish a new venture or expand an existing enterprise, can approach IFC directly. *As a rule, the enterprises that IFC finances must be majority private sector owned and controlled.
5. International Centre for the Settlement of Disputes International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID-1966) provides facilities for the the settlement by conciliation or arbitration of investment disputes between members. Provisions for ICSID dispute settlements are common features of international investment contracts. The Bank's overriding consideration in creating ICSID was the belief that an institution specially designed to facilitate the settlement of investment disputes between governments and foreign investors could help to promote increased flows of international investment.
back to its earliest days. India was one of the 17 countries which met in Atlantic City, USA in June 1944 to prepare the agenda for the Bretton Woods conference, and one of the 44 countries which signed the final Agreement that established the Bank. In fact, the name "International Bank for Reconstruction and Development" [IBRD] was first suggested by India to the drafting committee
*Empower the development of legal and judicial systems, business opportunities and protection of individual rights. *Benefit from micro credit as well as large corporate undertakings. *Combat corruption. *Promote research and training opportunities.
*In the area of privatisation and corporate restructuring, IFC advises at every stage of the process. *IFC undertakes a strategic review and recommends financial and organizational restructuring, assisting in changes of legal status where necessary. *IFC also helps implement sales, orchestrating a competitive bidding process, crafting sales and related contracts, marketing companies to interested investors, and conducting tender evaluation and negotiations.
Reduce poverty. *Develop an investment-environment. *Increase job opportunities. *Work towards sustainable economic growth. * Promote socio-economic growth through investment. *Strengthen governments with education.
Partnerships with Business Organizations: The BPC is establishing partnerships with leading business organizations around the world (such as chambers of commerce and federation of industries) to disseminate information about the Bank Group's private sector activities
Provides low-interest loans *Interest-free credits *Grants to include investments in education, Health , Public administration , Infrastructure, *Financial and private sector development, *Agriculture, *Environmental and natural resource management