Geographical Indications Act in India


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Basics of legal instrument for protection of geographical indication (GI) in India

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Geographical Indications Act in India

  1. 1. ©S.K. Soam, NAARM, Hyderabad Geographical Indications a Community IP S.K. Soam Head, ICM Division National Academy of Agricultural Research Management, Hyderabad-500030
  2. 2. ©S.K. Soam, NAARM, Hyderabad Geographical location Geo-climatic features Specially attained skills Special characteristics Reputation Product (goods) Services
  3. 3. ©S.K. Soam, NAARM, Hyderabad Some Examples of GI • Textiles and Handicrafts – Kalamkari, pochampally, nirmal toys; bukhara carpets, hereke carpets • Fruits and nuts – Kesari, Alphonso, Dashari, Chounsa, Makhana, Nagpur orange; seville oranges, jaffa oranges • Ayurvedic products medicinal plants – Triphala,Chayavanprash, Njavara rice, Kalimoonch rice, Ashvagandha • Alcoholic & non alcoholic beverages – Feni, Zumai, zutuilling,yuu; ruou, sake, mezcal, tequila, sherry wine, rioja wine, bordeaux, champagne, chablis – Darjeeling tea, nilgiri tea; Rooibos tea
  4. 4. ©S.K. Soam, NAARM, Hyderabad Some Examples of GI • Food grains – Pokkali rice/ Jeerakshala, Gandhakshala /Basmati rice (pusa basmati, shaheen basmati, basmati pak, tarawadi basmati, Dehrdun basmati), tandur dal; Arroz de valencia rice • Animal and meat products – Kadaknath, chegu goat,Jamunapari goat (paneer) ongole bull; carora, malbuner sausages (Liechtenstein) • Miscellaneous products – Masticatory (paan); food recipes (chicken tikka, hyderabadi biryani; swiss fondue); timbers; bhedaghat marbel; gangajal- korytnicka minerala voda; special skills required (khurja ceramics- delft ceramics, Ferozabad glass-belgian glass, toledo steel- Munger country made pistols, gur • Rural niche products – Desi ghee, sirka; feta cheese, sherry vinegar
  5. 5. ©S.K. Soam, NAARM, Hyderabad Factors determining quality of GI Strong GI Weak GI Geographical contribution Geographical association Geographical location HumanNature
  6. 6. ©S.K. Soam, NAARM, Hyderabad Legal instruments • Section 3: TRIPS • The Geographical Indications of Goods (registration & protection)Act 1999 • 22.1TRIPS/ 2.1.e, 2.1.f GI ACT
  7. 7. ©S.K. Soam, NAARM, Hyderabad TRIPS plus provisions • 23 TRIPS additional protection to wines/spirits – Refusal for GI &TM/homonymous indications/ multilateral protection • 22.2, 22.3/ Rule 79 – Champagne Type Whisky – Champagne fruit juice – Darjeeling type tea – American kind Basmati – Kerala Basmati – Saree in Pochampally style – Pochampally saree made at Benaras • Additional protections does not confer automatically (rule77) on the basis of measurable attributes (rule79) decision of registrar (rule 81.1)/ pay fees
  8. 8. ©S.K. Soam, NAARM, Hyderabad TRIPS Plus provisions: Homonymous Indications • 23.3 & 24.4 TRIPS/ Section 10
  9. 9. ©S.K. Soam, NAARM, Hyderabad TRIPS Plus provisions: 24.4 TRIPS/ 84.2 Black label Scotch : Champagne Transportation Service • Nothing in this Section shall require a Member to prevent continued and similar use of a particular geographical indication of another Member identifying wines or spirits in connection with goods or services by any of its nationals or domiciliaries who have used that geographical indication in a continuous manner with regard to the same or related goods or services in the territory of that Member either (a) for at least 10 years preceding 15 April 1994 or (b) in good faith preceding that date.
  10. 10. ©S.K. Soam, NAARM, Hyderabad Owners of a GI • Producer 2.1.k GI Act • Proprietor (Part-A) 2.1n, 7.2GIAct, • Authorised user (Part-B)2.1b, 17,7.3GIAct
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  12. 12. ©S.K. Soam, NAARM, Hyderabad Negative protection • Nullifying provisions – 22.4TRIPS/ 9.g/22.1c
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  15. 15. ©S.K. Soam, NAARM, Hyderabad Negative protection Infringement of registered GI – 22.1a/22.2a TRIPS – 22.4TRIPS/9.g/22.c – act of unfair competition Art 10 bis of paris convention- 22.1.b/ 22.2b TRIPS • Chapter VIII –offences/penalty/provisions of falsifying/falsely applying/ 38.4 burden of proof on accused-Kadaknath chicken
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  21. 21. ©S.K. Soam, NAARM, Hyderabad Procedures • TRIPS provide no procedural guidelines • Who can register 11.1 • What are requirements 11.2 • What can not be registered sec 9/ 9.f, 26.2 & 24.9 TRIPS • No distinction with foreigners except – GI protected in their own country – Certificate from competent authority – If not a citizens from convention countries (84.1)
  22. 22. ©S.K. Soam, NAARM, Hyderabad Claw back provisions- Parma ham case • Proscuitto di Parma –GI of Italy- Parma Ham • Consorzio del Prosciutto di Parma- TM in canada
  23. 23. ©S.K. Soam, NAARM, Hyderabad Inventory of GI:priorities and goals Endogenic A Njavara rice Kalimoonch rice Kadakntah chicken B Alphonso mango Basmati rice Darjeeling tea C Sirka Desi ghee Chettinad chicken D Nirmal toys Kalmkari Triphala Technical Trade Naturalfactors Exogenic Anthropogenic skills Strategic policy issues A- Protection concerns- IPR, variety, genetic resources B- International trade concerns- agric. goods C- Protection concerns- measures to check niche products becoming generic D- International trade concerns- manufacturing goods
  24. 24. ©S.K. Soam, NAARM, Hyderabad Why? Who? How? What? © S.K.Soam, NAARM