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Geographical Indications
Contents
Geographical Indications (GI)
Types of GI
Why GI needs to be protected?
Advantages of GI
How are GIs Protected?
WIPO and GI
GI in India and Italy
What is Geographical
Indication?
• A geographical indication (GI) is a
name or sign used on certain products
which corresponds to a specific
geographical location or origin (e.g. a
town, region, or country)
• Examples: Basmati rice, Swiss
watches etc
Types of GI
 Protected designations of origin
(PDO):
 Characteristics resulting solely from
the terrain and abilities of
producers in the region of
production with which they are
associated. (require all stages of the
food production process to be
carried out in the area concerned)
 “Huile d’olive de Nyons” and
“Shetland lamb”
Types of GI
• Protected geographic indications
(PGI):
• Characteristic or reputation
associating them with a given area,
and at least one stage in the
production process must be carried
out in that area, while the raw
materials used in production may
come from another region
• “Arancia Rossa di Sicilia”
Why GI is to be protected ?
• Denote quality and origin of products
• Good reputation for the product
• Preventing the product from generic
products
• Protecting the domestic market from
competitors
Advantages of GI:
• Legal protection and preventing from
unauthorized use
• Benefits for farmers and local
producers
• Boost the rural development
• Reduces unfair practices of trade
• Preserving local culture and
resources
• Provides complete information to
consumers
How are GIs protected?
• In accordance with international
treaties and national laws under a
wide range of concepts:
• special laws for the protection of
geographical indications or
appellations of origin
• trademark laws in the form of
collective marks or certification
marks
• laws against unfair competition
• consumer protection laws, or
• specific laws or decrees that
recognize individual geographical
indications.
WIPO and GI:
• International treaties: part or entire
protection of geographical indications.
• Providing General Standards of
Protection:
• Paris Convention: (Article 10 and
10ter) False indications of the
source of goods
• Madrid Agreement: Repression of
False or deceptive indication of
source of goods.
WIPO and GI:
• Governing Registration System for
obtaining Protection:
• Lisbon Agreement for the Protection
of Appellations of Origin and their
International Registration
• Madrid Agreement Concerning the
International Registration of Marks
• Protocol Relating to the Madrid
Agreement Concerning the
International Registration of Marks
(which also provides for the
international registration of
certification marks)
WIPO and GI:
• The TRIPS Agreement - (came into
effect on 1 January 1995): addresses
the international protection of GIs
within the framework of the World
Trade Organization (WTO)
• Standards
• Enforcement
• Dispute Settlement
• Articles 22 to 24: definition - legal
means - ex-officio invalidation -
unfair competition - exceptions.
WIPO and GI:
• Through the work of the Standing
Committee on the Law of Trademarks,
Industrial Designs and Geographical
Indications (SCT).
• The WIPO international/worldwide
Symposia, (held every two years).
• WIPO GOLD is a free public resource
which provides a one-stop gateway to
WIPO’s global collections of searchable
IP data. 
WIPO GOLD
GI in India:
• In India the Geographical Indications of
Goods (Registration and Protection) Act,
1999 came in force with effect from
September 2003.
• Section 2(e) of the Act defines a GI as :
“geographical indication”, in relation to goods,
means an indication which identifies such goods
as agricultural goods, natural goods or
manufactured goods as originating, or
manufactured in the territory of a country, or a
region or locality in that territory, where a given
quality, reputation or other characteristic of such
goods is essentially attributable to its geographical
origin and in case where such goods are
manufactured goods one of the activities of either
the production or of processing or preparation of
the goods concerned takes place in such territory,
region or locality, as the case may be.”
Process of registration in
India:
• Producers dealing with the following
three categories of goods can apply:
• Agricultural Goods includes the
production, processing, trading or
dealing
• Natural Goods includes exploiting,
trading or dealing
• Handicrafts or Industrial goods
include making, manufacturing,
trading or dealing
How to apply?
• The application must be filed at the
Office of the GI Registry located in
Chennai
• Geographical Signification of the
Indication
• Class of goods;
• Geographical Area;
• Details of the appearance;
• Particulars of the producers;
• Affidavit deposing the Applicant’s
right to become the Registrant;
• The Registrar will have the Application
examined.
• Published in the GI journal.
• Notice of Opposition within a
maximum period of four months of
publication in the Journal.
• If the Registrar accepts the Application
then a certificate of registration
issued.
Geographical indications
Darjeeling Tea
• Most coveted tea in the world.
• Darjeeling planters association formed in
1892.
• Achieved international status similar to
champagne or scotch whisky.
• Darjeeling logo as well as the word are
now registered as the certification
trademarks of the board under
Trademarks act of 1999.
GI in Italy
• Mostly used in Agricultural and food
processing sectors
• The Mozzarella di Bufala and Brunello
Assosciations
• More geographic indications than any
other EU country(21% of GI’s in EU)
• More a question of culinary methods than
geographically-tied agricultural production.
•
‘Abbacchio Romano’
• Sheep breed believed to originally came
from Sardinia.
• ''an age-old association with Rome's rural
roots'' and only lambs from approved
farms can be used in the dish.
• The word abbacchio, believed to come
from the dialect term 'bacchio' for the stick
once used to stun animals before the
slaughter, is only used in Rome and the
Lazio region.
Conclusion:
• Efforts to create more distinct laws
and regulations.
• Joint work of all the bodies associated.
• Removal of ambiguity.
• More benefits to the customers and
also to the producers.
Geographical indications
Examples of geographical
indications
Columbia Columbian coffee
India Basmati (rice)
Greece Ouzo (spirit)
France Champagne (sparkling wine),
Roquefort (cheese)
Mexico Tequila (spirit)
Italy Parma ham
Switzerland Etivaz, Gruyere (cheese)
Portugal Port (wine)
Questions?
Sources:
• http://www.wipo.int/geo_indications/en/about.html
•www.iprcommission.org/papers/pdfs/final_report/Ch4final.p
df
•http://commerce.nic.in/pressrelease/pressrelease_detail.as
p?id=1840
•http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,9010309
08-480249-1,00.html
•http://www.wipo.int/meetings/en/details.jsp?
meeting_id=17802
•http://www.lexorbis.com/geographical-indications-
registration.html
•http://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN
%20Publications/Geographic%20Indications%20Italy's
%20Food%20Trademark%20System%20_Rome_Italy_3-1-
2010.pdf
Thank You

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Geographical indications

  • 2. Contents Geographical Indications (GI) Types of GI Why GI needs to be protected? Advantages of GI How are GIs Protected? WIPO and GI GI in India and Italy
  • 3. What is Geographical Indication? • A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on certain products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g. a town, region, or country) • Examples: Basmati rice, Swiss watches etc
  • 4. Types of GI  Protected designations of origin (PDO):  Characteristics resulting solely from the terrain and abilities of producers in the region of production with which they are associated. (require all stages of the food production process to be carried out in the area concerned)  “Huile d’olive de Nyons” and “Shetland lamb”
  • 5. Types of GI • Protected geographic indications (PGI): • Characteristic or reputation associating them with a given area, and at least one stage in the production process must be carried out in that area, while the raw materials used in production may come from another region • “Arancia Rossa di Sicilia”
  • 6. Why GI is to be protected ? • Denote quality and origin of products • Good reputation for the product • Preventing the product from generic products • Protecting the domestic market from competitors
  • 7. Advantages of GI: • Legal protection and preventing from unauthorized use • Benefits for farmers and local producers • Boost the rural development • Reduces unfair practices of trade • Preserving local culture and resources • Provides complete information to consumers
  • 8. How are GIs protected? • In accordance with international treaties and national laws under a wide range of concepts: • special laws for the protection of geographical indications or appellations of origin • trademark laws in the form of collective marks or certification marks • laws against unfair competition • consumer protection laws, or • specific laws or decrees that recognize individual geographical indications.
  • 9. WIPO and GI: • International treaties: part or entire protection of geographical indications. • Providing General Standards of Protection: • Paris Convention: (Article 10 and 10ter) False indications of the source of goods • Madrid Agreement: Repression of False or deceptive indication of source of goods.
  • 10. WIPO and GI: • Governing Registration System for obtaining Protection: • Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their International Registration • Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks • Protocol Relating to the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks (which also provides for the international registration of certification marks)
  • 11. WIPO and GI: • The TRIPS Agreement - (came into effect on 1 January 1995): addresses the international protection of GIs within the framework of the World Trade Organization (WTO) • Standards • Enforcement • Dispute Settlement • Articles 22 to 24: definition - legal means - ex-officio invalidation - unfair competition - exceptions.
  • 12. WIPO and GI: • Through the work of the Standing Committee on the Law of Trademarks, Industrial Designs and Geographical Indications (SCT). • The WIPO international/worldwide Symposia, (held every two years). • WIPO GOLD is a free public resource which provides a one-stop gateway to WIPO’s global collections of searchable IP data. 
  • 14. GI in India: • In India the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 came in force with effect from September 2003. • Section 2(e) of the Act defines a GI as : “geographical indication”, in relation to goods, means an indication which identifies such goods as agricultural goods, natural goods or manufactured goods as originating, or manufactured in the territory of a country, or a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristic of such goods is essentially attributable to its geographical origin and in case where such goods are manufactured goods one of the activities of either the production or of processing or preparation of the goods concerned takes place in such territory, region or locality, as the case may be.”
  • 15. Process of registration in India: • Producers dealing with the following three categories of goods can apply: • Agricultural Goods includes the production, processing, trading or dealing • Natural Goods includes exploiting, trading or dealing • Handicrafts or Industrial goods include making, manufacturing, trading or dealing
  • 16. How to apply? • The application must be filed at the Office of the GI Registry located in Chennai • Geographical Signification of the Indication • Class of goods; • Geographical Area; • Details of the appearance; • Particulars of the producers; • Affidavit deposing the Applicant’s right to become the Registrant;
  • 17. • The Registrar will have the Application examined. • Published in the GI journal. • Notice of Opposition within a maximum period of four months of publication in the Journal. • If the Registrar accepts the Application then a certificate of registration issued.
  • 19. Darjeeling Tea • Most coveted tea in the world. • Darjeeling planters association formed in 1892. • Achieved international status similar to champagne or scotch whisky. • Darjeeling logo as well as the word are now registered as the certification trademarks of the board under Trademarks act of 1999.
  • 20. GI in Italy • Mostly used in Agricultural and food processing sectors • The Mozzarella di Bufala and Brunello Assosciations • More geographic indications than any other EU country(21% of GI’s in EU) • More a question of culinary methods than geographically-tied agricultural production. •
  • 21. ‘Abbacchio Romano’ • Sheep breed believed to originally came from Sardinia. • ''an age-old association with Rome's rural roots'' and only lambs from approved farms can be used in the dish. • The word abbacchio, believed to come from the dialect term 'bacchio' for the stick once used to stun animals before the slaughter, is only used in Rome and the Lazio region.
  • 22. Conclusion: • Efforts to create more distinct laws and regulations. • Joint work of all the bodies associated. • Removal of ambiguity. • More benefits to the customers and also to the producers.
  • 24. Examples of geographical indications Columbia Columbian coffee India Basmati (rice) Greece Ouzo (spirit) France Champagne (sparkling wine), Roquefort (cheese) Mexico Tequila (spirit) Italy Parma ham Switzerland Etivaz, Gruyere (cheese) Portugal Port (wine)