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Steve Souders [email_address] http://stevesouders.com/ Even Faster Web Sites   best practices for faster pages  Disclaimer...
The Importance of Frontend Performance 17% 83% iGoogle, primed cache 9% 91% iGoogle, empty cache
Time Spent on the Frontend Empty Cache Primed Cache www.aol.com 97% 97% www.ebay.com 95% 81% www.facebook.com 95% 81% www....
The Performance Golden Rule 80-90% of the end-user response time is  spent on the frontend. Start there. greater potential...
14 Rules <ul><li>Make fewer HTTP requests </li></ul><ul><li>Use a CDN </li></ul><ul><li>Add an Expires header </li></ul><u...
High Performance Web Sites YSlow
<ul><li>http://conferences.oreilly.com/velocity/   20% discount:  vel08st </li></ul>
Even Faster Web Sites <ul><li>Split the initial payload </li></ul><ul><li>Load scripts without blocking </li></ul><ul><li>...
Why focus on JavaScript? AOL eBay Facebook MySpace Wikipedia Yahoo! YouTube
Scripts Block <script src=&quot;A.js&quot;>  blocks parallel downloads and rendering What's &quot;Cuzillion&quot;? http://...
Cuzillion 'cuz there are a zillion pages to check a tool for quickly constructing web pages to see how components interact...
Split the Initial Payload: Facebook 43 external scripts, 550K uncompressed 9% of functionality is used before onload
Unexecuted Payload 73.6% avg functions  not used  before onload www.aol.com 70% www.ebay.com 56% www.facebook.com 91% www....
Split the initial payload split your JavaScript between what's needed to render the page and everything else load &quot;ev...
MSN.com: Parallel Scripts Scripts and other resources downloaded in parallel! How? var p=g.getElementsByTagName(&quot;HEAD...
Advanced Script Loading XHR Eval XHR Injection Script in Iframe Script DOM Element Script Defer document.write Script Tag
XHR Eval script must have same domain as main page must refactor script var xhrObj = getXHRObject(); xhrObj.onreadystatech...
XHR Injection var xhrObj = getXHRObject(); xhrObj.onreadystatechange =  function() {  if ( xhrObj.readyState != 4 ) return...
Script in Iframe <iframe  src='A.html'  width=0 height=0  frameborder=0 id=frame1></iframe>  <ul><li>iframe must have same...
Script DOM Element var se = document.createElement('script'); se.src = 'http://anydomain.com/A.js'; document.getElementsBy...
Script Defer <script  defer  src='A.js'></script> only supported in IE script and main page domains can differ no need to ...
document.write  Script Tag document.write (&quot;<scri&quot; +  &quot;ipt type='text/javascript' src='A.js'>&quot; + &quot...
Browser Busy Indicators
Browser Busy Indicators good  to show busy indicators when the user needs feedback bad  when downloading in the background
Ensure/Avoid Ordered Execution <ul><li>Ensure scripts execute in order: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>necessary when scripts have ...
Summary of Traits * Only other document.write scripts are downloaded in parallel (in the same script block).
and the winner is...
Load Scripts without Blocking <ul><li>don't let scripts block other downloads </li></ul><ul><li>you can still control exec...
Inline Scripts Block Rendering <ul><li>long executing inline scripts block rendering of the entire page </li></ul><ul><li>...
Inline Scripts after Stylesheets  Block Downloading <ul><li>Firefox blocks parallel downloads when downloading stylesheets...
Examples of Scattered Scripts eBay MSN MySpace Wikipedia
Don't Scatter Scripts remember inline scripts carry a cost avoid long-executing inline scripts don't put inline scripts be...
Takeaways <ul><li>focus on the frontend </li></ul><ul><li>run YSlow:  http://developer.yahoo.com/yslow </li></ul><ul><li>V...
Steve Souders [email_address] http://stevesouders.com/
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Web 2.0 Expo: Even Faster Web Sites

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  • City Real Estate Europe http://www.cityorbestate.com


    عقار http://www.3qarsa.net

    حكايات نواعم http://www.nem-stories.com/vb/
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  • Another important technique would be to cache frequently accessed data from database close to the web application. Open source in-memory products such as memcached, CSQL Cache can be used to cache frequently accessed data from the database.

    http://www.csqldb.com
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  • My favorite web topic in the last 8 years is '0.03sec'.

    An awesome way to explain to web-disabled CEOs, that Performance is the only mission-critical factor for any website, CRM or SaaS, not the glossy Flash broshure, giving 'pleasure' solely to their own eyes.

    Great job Steve... as your book ;-)
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  • great tips - thanks for sharing!
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  • This is *good*! Is this the next book? ;->
    We are big devotees of the first book at slideshare ... it has made our pages load a LOT faster (we went from a D- to an A- in two weeks for the front page. Still working on the 'slideview' page, which is what you're looking at now).

    Any advice on how to handle external widgets (addthis, gigya wildfire) that screw up your grade on YSlow? We're thinking of postloading them, but I'm open to other suggestions...
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  • Permission to use photo given by Amnemona: http://www.flickr.com/photos/marinacvinhal/379111290/
  • Transcript of "Web 2.0 Expo: Even Faster Web Sites"

    1. 1. Steve Souders [email_address] http://stevesouders.com/ Even Faster Web Sites best practices for faster pages Disclaimer: This content does not necessarily reflect the opinions of my employer.
    2. 2. The Importance of Frontend Performance 17% 83% iGoogle, primed cache 9% 91% iGoogle, empty cache
    3. 3. Time Spent on the Frontend Empty Cache Primed Cache www.aol.com 97% 97% www.ebay.com 95% 81% www.facebook.com 95% 81% www.google.com/search 47% 0% search.live.com/results 67% 0% www.msn.com 98% 94% www.myspace.com 98% 98% en.wikipedia.org/wiki 94% 91% www.yahoo.com 97% 96% www.youtube.com 98% 97%
    4. 4. The Performance Golden Rule 80-90% of the end-user response time is spent on the frontend. Start there. greater potential for improvement simpler proven to work
    5. 5. 14 Rules <ul><li>Make fewer HTTP requests </li></ul><ul><li>Use a CDN </li></ul><ul><li>Add an Expires header </li></ul><ul><li>Gzip components </li></ul><ul><li>Put stylesheets at the top </li></ul><ul><li>Put scripts at the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid CSS expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Make JS and CSS external </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce DNS lookups </li></ul><ul><li>Minify JS </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid redirects </li></ul><ul><li>Remove duplicate scripts </li></ul><ul><li>Configure ETags </li></ul><ul><li>Make AJAX cacheable </li></ul>
    6. 6. High Performance Web Sites YSlow
    7. 7. <ul><li>http://conferences.oreilly.com/velocity/ 20% discount: vel08st </li></ul>
    8. 8. Even Faster Web Sites <ul><li>Split the initial payload </li></ul><ul><li>Load scripts without blocking </li></ul><ul><li>Don't scatter scripts </li></ul><ul><li>Split dominant content domains </li></ul><ul><li>Make static content cookie-free </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce cookie weight </li></ul><ul><li>Minify CSS </li></ul><ul><li>Optimize images </li></ul><ul><li>Use iframes sparingly </li></ul><ul><li>To www or not to www </li></ul>
    9. 9. Why focus on JavaScript? AOL eBay Facebook MySpace Wikipedia Yahoo! YouTube
    10. 10. Scripts Block <script src=&quot;A.js&quot;> blocks parallel downloads and rendering What's &quot;Cuzillion&quot;? http://stevesouders.com/cuzillion/?ex=10008
    11. 11. Cuzillion 'cuz there are a zillion pages to check a tool for quickly constructing web pages to see how components interact Open Source http://stevesouders.com/cuzillion/
    12. 12. Split the Initial Payload: Facebook 43 external scripts, 550K uncompressed 9% of functionality is used before onload
    13. 13. Unexecuted Payload 73.6% avg functions not used before onload www.aol.com 70% www.ebay.com 56% www.facebook.com 91% www.google.com/search 55% search.live.com/results 76% www.msn.com 69% www.myspace.com 82% en.wikipedia.org/wiki 68% www.yahoo.com 87% www.youtube.com 82%
    14. 14. Split the initial payload split your JavaScript between what's needed to render the page and everything else load &quot;everything else&quot; after the page is rendered separate manually (Firebug); tools needed to automate this (Doloto from Microsoft) load scripts without blocking – how?
    15. 15. MSN.com: Parallel Scripts Scripts and other resources downloaded in parallel! How? var p=g.getElementsByTagName(&quot;HEAD&quot;)[0]; var c=g.createElement(&quot;script&quot;); c.type=&quot;text/javascript&quot;; c.onreadystatechange=n; c.onerror=c.onload=k; c.src=e; p.appendChild(c) MSN
    16. 16. Advanced Script Loading XHR Eval XHR Injection Script in Iframe Script DOM Element Script Defer document.write Script Tag
    17. 17. XHR Eval script must have same domain as main page must refactor script var xhrObj = getXHRObject(); xhrObj.onreadystatechange = function() { if ( xhrObj.readyState != 4 ) return; eval(xhrObj.responseText); }; xhrObj.open('GET', 'A.js', true); xhrObj.send(''); http://stevesouders.com/cuzillion/?ex=10009
    18. 18. XHR Injection var xhrObj = getXHRObject(); xhrObj.onreadystatechange = function() { if ( xhrObj.readyState != 4 ) return; var se=document.createElement('script'); document.getElementsByTagName('head') [0].appendChild(se); se.text = xhrObj.responseText; }; xhrObj.open('GET', 'A.js', true); xhrObj.send(''); script must have same domain as main page http://stevesouders.com/cuzillion/?ex=10015
    19. 19. Script in Iframe <iframe src='A.html' width=0 height=0 frameborder=0 id=frame1></iframe> <ul><li>iframe must have same domain as main page </li></ul><ul><li>must refactor script: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>// access iframe from main page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>window.frames[0].createNewDiv(); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>// access main page from iframe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parent.document.createElement('div'); </li></ul></ul>http://stevesouders.com/cuzillion/?ex=10012
    20. 20. Script DOM Element var se = document.createElement('script'); se.src = 'http://anydomain.com/A.js'; document.getElementsByTagName('head') [0].appendChild(se); script and main page domains can differ no need to refactor JavaScript http://stevesouders.com/cuzillion/?ex=10010
    21. 21. Script Defer <script defer src='A.js'></script> only supported in IE script and main page domains can differ no need to refactor JavaScript http://stevesouders.com/cuzillion/?ex=10013
    22. 22. document.write Script Tag document.write (&quot;<scri&quot; + &quot;ipt type='text/javascript' src='A.js'>&quot; + &quot;</scri&quot; + &quot;ipt>&quot;); parallelization only works in IE parallel downloads for scripts, nothing else all document.write s must be in same script block http://stevesouders.com/cuzillion/?ex=10014
    23. 23. Browser Busy Indicators
    24. 24. Browser Busy Indicators good to show busy indicators when the user needs feedback bad when downloading in the background
    25. 25. Ensure/Avoid Ordered Execution <ul><li>Ensure scripts execute in order: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>necessary when scripts have dependencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IE: http://stevesouders.com/cuzillion/?ex=10017 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FF: http://stevesouders.com/cuzillion/?ex=10018 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid scripts executing in order: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>faster – first script back is executed immediately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://stevesouders.com/cuzillion/?ex=10019 </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Summary of Traits * Only other document.write scripts are downloaded in parallel (in the same script block).
    27. 27. and the winner is...
    28. 28. Load Scripts without Blocking <ul><li>don't let scripts block other downloads </li></ul><ul><li>you can still control execution order, busy indicators, and onload event </li></ul><ul><li>What about inline scripts? </li></ul>
    29. 29. Inline Scripts Block Rendering <ul><li>long executing inline scripts block rendering of the entire page </li></ul><ul><li>http://stevesouders.com/cuzillion/?ex=10020 </li></ul><ul><li>workarounds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>initiate execution with setTimeout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>move JavaScript to external script with advanced downloading techniques </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Inline Scripts after Stylesheets Block Downloading <ul><li>Firefox blocks parallel downloads when downloading stylesheets </li></ul><ul><li>IE doesn't... </li></ul><ul><li>...unless the stylesheet is followed by an inline script </li></ul><ul><li>http://stevesouders.com/cuzillion/?ex=10021 </li></ul><ul><li>best to move inline scripts above stylesheets or below other resources </li></ul>
    31. 31. Examples of Scattered Scripts eBay MSN MySpace Wikipedia
    32. 32. Don't Scatter Scripts remember inline scripts carry a cost avoid long-executing inline scripts don't put inline scripts between stylesheets and other resources
    33. 33. Takeaways <ul><li>focus on the frontend </li></ul><ul><li>run YSlow: http://developer.yahoo.com/yslow </li></ul><ul><li>Velocity: register before May 5 </li></ul><ul><li>this year's focus: JavaScript </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Split the Initial Payload </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Load Scripts without Blocking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don't Scatter Scripts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>speed matters </li></ul><ul><li>you CAN make your site even faster! </li></ul>
    34. 34. Steve Souders [email_address] http://stevesouders.com/
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