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A Computational Space for the Web of Things3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things (WoT 2012), Newcastle, UKSimon ...
Motivation / Background Earthquake and Tsunami on March 11, 2011 Nuclear meltdown in three reactors of the Fukushima NPP...
Motivation / Background                         Cheap                         Geiger                        counters      ...
Motivation / Background                       Commodity                        Hardware                 Information       ...
Motivation / Background                                                                  Crowd-sourced information creatio...
Motivation / Background                                                             Smartphones, Smart Consumer           ...
Algorithms should be linked together in an open   and extensible fashion to enable multi-tier   computations in a construc...
Constraints on a Computational Marketplace Clients need to be able to find computations on the  marketplace and select ap...
Constraints on a Computational Marketplace Clients need to be able to find computations on the  marketplace and select ap...
Interface Discovery Marketplace API exposes paths                           GET marketplace/node_arrhythmia              ...
Interface Discovery                                                                        GET marketplace/node_arrhythmia...
Constraints on a Computational Marketplace Clients need to be able to find computations on the  marketplace and select ap...
Path Traversal Guidance Humans do it...7/13/2012           WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things   13
Path Traversal Guidance Machines can, too!7/13/2012          WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things   14
Path Traversal Guidance using Path Deciders Application-specific (here: Arrhythmia Detection)7/13/2012            WoT 201...
Path Traversal Guidance will work if... Machines can understand and interpret path names        Long shot, but could wor...
Constraints on a Computational Marketplace Clients need to be able to find computations on the  marketplace and select ap...
Computational Paths Optimization Optimize traversal according to application needs Multi-dimensional cost metrics: time,...
Computational Paths Optimization using PathDeciders Generic (here: Lowest time cost path)7/13/2012           WoT 2012: 3r...
Constraints on a Computational Marketplace Clients need to be able to find computations on the  marketplace and select ap...
Security and Billing Authentication, authorization, and billing schemes to  restrict access to computational resources D...
Demo 1: Arrhythmia Patient Scenario Four separate computational mashups        Arrhythmia        Arrhythmia probability ...
Demo 2: Marketplace Exchange Time cost-based traversal optimization of multiple clients        Uses generic time-cost-ba...
Demo 2: Marketplace Exchange Time cost-based traversal optimization of multiple clients        Uses generic time-cost-ba...
Conclusion Concept of computational marketplace Constraints for scalable, fault-tolerant, and change-tolerant  N-tiered ...
Acknowledgements7/13/2012    WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things   26
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A Computational Space for the Web of Things

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The expansion of the World Wide Web to include information that is generated by physical devices with embedded sensing and actuation capabilities entails a surge of high-frequency real-time data that is mostly published without further processing in its raw form. To derive "smart" decisions from this data and thus use it to enable a "smart world" requires the distilling of more abstract, higher-level knowledge from it. We propose the concept of a computational marketplace as a framework to enable the analysis and aggregation of real-time data. Here, multiple tiers of hyperlinked algorithms from different providers interact to refi ne data within computational graphs, which are linked structures of cascaded processing steps. In the associated paper, S. Mayer and D. Karam, A Computational Space for the Web of Things, we present an analysis of the key constraints on such a framework and provide a corresponding implementation as well as results from evaluations in an experimental use case scenario.

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Transcript of "A Computational Space for the Web of Things"

  1. 1. A Computational Space for the Web of Things3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things (WoT 2012), Newcastle, UKSimon Mayer, Distributed Systems Group, ETH Zurich, simon.mayer@inf.ethz.chDavid S. Karam, Chair of Scientific Computing, TU Munich, karam@in.tum.de
  2. 2. Motivation / Background Earthquake and Tsunami on March 11, 2011 Nuclear meltdown in three reactors of the Fukushima NPP Releases of radioactive materials US federal occupational limit: 0.5 μSv/h www.pref.fukushima.jp7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 2
  3. 3. Motivation / Background Cheap Geiger counters Radiation data streams “Wind from Fukushima” App Mashing of radiation and wind data7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 3
  4. 4. Motivation / Background Commodity Hardware Information Markets Apps like “Wind from Fukushima” allow to mashup this data to provide a service What happens with the refined data?7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 4
  5. 5. Motivation / Background Crowd-sourced information creation Commodity Hardware Information sharing and aggregation Information Markets Comput ational Markets Information processing, refinement, and analysis7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 5
  6. 6. Motivation / Background Smartphones, Smart Consumer Crowd-sourced information creation Products, Electricity Meters, ... Commodity Hardware Cosm, Sen.Se, Twitter, Information sharing and aggregation FB Graph API, ... Information Markets Comput ational Markets Information processing, refinement, and analysis7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 6
  7. 7. Algorithms should be linked together in an open and extensible fashion to enable multi-tier computations in a construct that we call a computational marketplace
  8. 8. Constraints on a Computational Marketplace Clients need to be able to find computations on the marketplace and select appropriate computations to achieve their goal The marketplace should provide meta-information about algorithms and thus help to optimize traversal Mechanisms required for security and billing7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 8
  9. 9. Constraints on a Computational Marketplace Clients need to be able to find computations on the marketplace and select appropriate computations to achieve their goal The marketplace should provide meta-information about algorithms and thus help to optimize traversal Mechanisms required for security and billing7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 9
  10. 10. Interface Discovery Marketplace API exposes paths GET marketplace/node_arrhythmia { “service” : “www.arrhythmia_detection.net” “forward_paths” : { “emergency” : “node_dispatch”, “default” : “node_start_arrhythmia” } }7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 10
  11. 11. Interface Discovery GET marketplace/node_arrhythmia { Marketplace API exposes paths “service” : “www.arrhythmia_detection.net” “forward_paths” : { “emergency” : “node_dispatch”, “default” : “node_start_arrhythmia” } } “Graph Crawler” maps computational graph  Basically an ordinary search machine… Crawler7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 11
  12. 12. Constraints on a Computational Marketplace Clients need to be able to find computations on the marketplace and select appropriate computations to achieve their goal The marketplace should provide meta-information about algorithms and thus help to optimize traversal Mechanisms required for security and billing7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 12
  13. 13. Path Traversal Guidance Humans do it...7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 13
  14. 14. Path Traversal Guidance Machines can, too!7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 14
  15. 15. Path Traversal Guidance using Path Deciders Application-specific (here: Arrhythmia Detection)7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 15
  16. 16. Path Traversal Guidance will work if... Machines can understand and interpret path names  Long shot, but could work...  Definitely future work! Path descriptions (e.g., “emergency”) are fixed/meaningful  Easy!7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 16
  17. 17. Constraints on a Computational Marketplace Clients need to be able to find computations on the marketplace and select appropriate computations to achieve their goal The marketplace should provide meta-information about algorithms and thus help to optimize traversal Mechanisms required for security and billing7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 17
  18. 18. Computational Paths Optimization Optimize traversal according to application needs Multi-dimensional cost metrics: time, money, quality,... routes → Generic path deciders Marketplace offers this information, but does not decide on7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 18
  19. 19. Computational Paths Optimization using PathDeciders Generic (here: Lowest time cost path)7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 19
  20. 20. Constraints on a Computational Marketplace Clients need to be able to find computations on the marketplace and select appropriate computations to achieve their goal The marketplace should provide meta-information about algorithms and thus help to optimize traversal Mechanisms required for security and billing7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 20
  21. 21. Security and Billing Authentication, authorization, and billing schemes to restrict access to computational resources Don’t create a centralized repository for login data: trust problems, security problems, scaling problems... Instead use third-party schemes (OAuth 2.0!) and inline this functionality as a linked computational node!7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 21
  22. 22. Demo 1: Arrhythmia Patient Scenario Four separate computational mashups  Arrhythmia Arrhythmia probability from heartbeat data  Ambulance Optimal ambulance dispatch  Traffic Predicts traffic from location of people and cars and weather data from yahoo/google predict Composite mashup: Weather + Traffic + Ambulance + Arrhythmia  OAuth-based authentication for prediction API7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 22
  23. 23. Demo 2: Marketplace Exchange Time cost-based traversal optimization of multiple clients  Uses generic time-cost-based path decider... Three arrhythmia detectors: 𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶 𝑖 = 𝑑 + 𝑘 ∗ #𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝑖7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 23
  24. 24. Demo 2: Marketplace Exchange Time cost-based traversal optimization of multiple clients  Uses generic time-cost-based path decider... Three arrhythmia detectors: 𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶 𝑖 = 𝑑 + 𝑘 ∗ #𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝑖7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 24
  25. 25. Conclusion Concept of computational marketplace Constraints for scalable, fault-tolerant, and change-tolerant N-tiered computational model Proof of concept marketplace implementation + scenarios7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 25
  26. 26. Acknowledgements7/13/2012 WoT 2012: 3rd International Workshop on the Web of Things 26
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