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Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
Divorce Effects
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Divorce Effects

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  • 1. Divorce Effects By Deborah Duffy
  • 2. Stressors of Divorce
  • 3. Children View Divorce As:- Frightening Unpredictable Life changing Threatening Skolnick and Skolnick (2007)
  • 4. As the children's lives are dismantled they experience feelings of: Fear Uncertainty Guilt Anger Resentment Mourning/Grief Isolation Loss Depression Skolnick and Skolnick (2007)
  • 5. The children in divorce situations are often subjected to: Loss of home and playmates Change of school and friends Change of economic status Watching one parent leave the home Separation from the exiting parent Anger and arguments between the parents prior to separation Skolnick and Skolnick (2007)
  • 6. The children in divorce situations are often subjected to: Arguments between the parents over money, belongings, jealousy Being asked to serve as messengers between parents Being asked to choose between parents Being ignored by the stressed parents and relatives Skolnick and Skolnick (2007)
  • 7. CHILDREN . . . LOVE both parents LOVE their friends SEE both parents as a part of their PERSONALITY CHERISH their friendships and relationships outside home UNDERSTAND DIVORCED to mean they are being DIVORCED too Skolnick and Skolnick (2007)
  • 8. CHILDREN . . . FEAR the stranger presented as the new Mom or Dad BECOME JEALOUSY of new step siblings and parents FEEL they are losing the other parent to a new family Skolnick and Skolnick (2007)
  • 9. CHILDREN . . . WORRY where they will live FEAR rejection from new people REQUIRE affection SEEK attention Skolnick and Skolnick (2007)
  • 10. CHILDREN . . . ARE NOT considered people, but as ARE part of the property to be divided. Skolnick and Skolnick (2007)
  • 11. Parents sometimes . . .
      • See the children as $$$ Using the children as pawns for economic stability and self gain Skolnick and Skolnick (2007)
  • 12. Parents sometimes . . . Get too wrapped up in their own emotions to see the effects in the children Think of the stress divorce caused them without thinking of the stress on the children. Skolnick and Skolnick (2007)
  • 13. Parents sometimes . . . EXPECT TOO MUCH EXPLAIN TOO LITTLE Skolnick and Skolnick (2007)
  • 14. Parents sometimes . . . Become the children. Demanding & Inconsiderate Skolnick and Skolnick (2007)
  • 15. Children sometimes . . . Become the Parents Skolnick and Skolnick (2007)
  • 16. Diminished Parenting
  • 17. Less positive involvement with the child Gives less affection to the child Allocates less time to the child & Issues erratic, harsh discipline Diminished Parenting is when the custodial parent has. . .
  • 18. Neglected Unimportant Ignored & ANGRY The Child feels . . .
  • 19. ACT OUT to gain attention The Child will . . .
  • 20. This is due to parental stress (Hodges 1991) Hodges says…
  • 21. The parents are too wrapped in their own problems (Henslin 2001 ) Henslin says…
  • 22. The parents need parenting and comfort. (Wallerstein, Lewis and Blakeslee, 2000) Wallerstein says…
  • 23. The children fill this role as best they can. (Wallerstein, Lewis and Blakeslee, 2000)
  • 24. CHILD PARENTIFICATION Wallerstein, Lewis and Blakeslee, 2000) This is . . .
  • 25. Risk Factors of Divorce
  • 26. Studies show that children suffer during divorce situations. The question is in what manner and to what extent.
  • 27. Studies say children . . . Do worse in school academics and risk expulsion Have behavioral problems that can lead to police interventions or detainment (especially boys)
  • 28. Studies say parents . . . Do not spend time supervising homework Are inconsistent with discipline Are not home enough to monitor the children Do not become actively involved in the child’s life
  • 29. Studies say children . . . Become promiscuous Are more likely to turn to drugs and alcohol Are lonely and depressed
  • 30. Studies say parents . . . Do not give children enough affection and time Put children into the center of THEIR conflicts Do not consider children’s socialization needs and friends when determining the residence of child and effect of relocation.
  • 31. Studies say children . . . have a 75 – 80% chance of turning out normal and functioning well in their futures.
  • 32. Studies say children . . . That 20 – 25% of these children grow up to be dysfunctional.
  • 33. Studies say children . . . Are affected by divorce into their adult life Will lack trust in their future relationships with partners Will probably choose not to marry in their adult life and cohabitate instead.
  • 34. Studies say parents . . . Show children that marriage is unstable and angry Encourage distrust in the children through their lack of trust with the other parent Manipulate the children to side against the non custodial parent.
  • 35. Studies say children . . . Suffer from the economic stress Miss out on community activities Live in cramped poverty Suffer ridicule from peers
  • 36. Studies say parents . . . Argue over visitation Attempt to get the child to take sides Barter time for money Do not pay ordered child support
  • 37. Studies say children . . . Get hurt In DIVORCE
  • 38. Studies say parents . . . Care more about WINNING Than THE CHILDREN
  • 39. Studies say. . . The Legal System of Divorce Can Perpetuate ADVERSITY Between the Parents
  • 40. Studies say. . . The lawyers intimidate the opposing parent and misrepresent the statements they make.
  • 41. Studies say. . . The parents are confused by the complex legal system
  • 42. Studies say. . . The parents become more defensive and combative when lawyers get involved
  • 43. Studies say. . . The parents create accusations to win in court battles
  • 44. Studies say. . . Children get caught in the conflict
  • 45. Studies say. . . Children carry guilt and feel responsible for parental conflict
  • 46. Studies say. . . Children feel they have control over the outcome of parents in conflict
  • 47. WHAT CAN BE DONE NOW?
  • 48. Parents can . . . Communicate their divorce plans to the children in a way the children can accept and understand
  • 49. Parents can . . . Communicate with each other
  • 50. Parents can . . . recognize the children are a part of both of them that was created through love and attraction they once held for each other.
  • 51. Parents can . . . Cooperate with each other to benefit the children’s needs for stability and security
  • 52. Parents can . . . Pay the defined child support to make certain that the children have all they need environmentally and medically.
  • 53. Parents can . . . Collaborate on discipline actions and confer with each other directly to deter manipulation by the children.
  • 54. Parents can . . . Put their personal conflicts and jealousies aside.
  • 55. Parents can . . . Realize the children belong to them and not the judicial system.
  • 56. Courts can . . . Demand Lawyers for the children in disputed custody battles.
  • 57. Courts can . . . Penalize parent wars by fines to persuade parental cooperation that benefits the children.
  • 58. Courts can . . . Penalize lawyers who encourage parents to argue by telling them they do not have to settle and can get more and pay less
  • 59. Courts can . . . Recognize the use of manipulation in their systems and evaluations by both the Lawyers and Parents
  • 60. Courts can . . . Mandate better education for their evaluators on children’s responses under pressure.
  • 61. Courts can . . . Mandate better education for their mediators to recognize parental and lawyer manipulations that put them into a stalemate.
  • 62. Courts can . . . Create a safe counsel for parents to use that does not involve lawyers.
  • 63. Courts can . . . Create a simple process that does not mimic the criminal law processes.
  • 64. Courts can . . . Mandate therapeutic interventions to settle custody disputes That MUST involve both parents working together with the children
  • 65. Courts can . . . Give the CHILDREN A VOICE in their lives and futures.
  • 66. Courts can . . . Give the CHILDREN A CHANCE TO LEARN HOW TO LIVE AND LOVE
  • 67. Courts can . . . Do a lot more and with less trauma for all concerned
  • 68. References Amato, P., & Cheadle, J. (2005). The long reach of divorce: Divorce and child well-being across three generations. [Electronic version]. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67 (1), 191-206 . American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental diseases , (3rd ed. rev). Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric Association. Baum, N. (2006). Post divorce paternal disengagement: Failed mourning and role fusion [Electronic Version]. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 32 (2), 245-255. Blank, G., & Ney, T. (2006). The (de)construction of conflict in divorce litigation: A discursive critique of “parental alienation syndrome” and “the alienated child” [Electronic version]. Family Court Review, 44 (1), 138-148. Braver, S., Cookston, J., & Cohen, B. (2002). Experiences of family law attorneys with current issues in divorce practice [Electronic version]. Journal of Family Relations, 51 (4), 325-334. Bumberry, Wm., & Whitaker, C. (1988). Dancing With the Family: A Symbolic-Experiential Approach: A Symbolic Experiential Approach (1st ed.). Levittown, PA: Taylor and Francis Group Cavanagh, S., & Huston, A. (2006). A family instability and children's early problem behavior [Electronic version]. Social Forces, 85 (1), 551-581 .  Cohen, R., Paul, R., Stroud, L., Gunstad, J., Hitsman, B., & McCafferey, J., et al. (2006). Early life stress and adult emotional experience: An international perspective [Electronic version]. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 36 (1), 35-52
  • 69. References DePanfilis, D., & Scannapieco, M. (1994). Assessing the safety of children at risk of maltreatment: Decision-making models [Electronic version]. Child Welfare, 73 (3), 118-127. Depner, C., Cannata, K., and Simon, M. (1992). Building a uniform statistical reporting system: A snapshot of California Family Court Services [Electronic Version]. Family and Conciliation Courts Review 30, 185–206. Foucault, M. (1972). The discourse on language , New York, NY: Random House Inc. Forehand, R., Biggar, H., & Kotchick, B. (1998). Cumulative risk across family stressors: Short- and long-term effects for adolescents [Electronic version]. The Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26 (2), 119-128. Fraad, H. (2006). Intimate life and social change- A psychohistorical view [Electronic Version]. The Journal of Psychohistory, 34 (2), 100-109. Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2004). Family therapy: An overview (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning. Johnston, J. (1994). High-conflict divorce [Electronic Version]. Children and Divorce, 4 (1), 165-182. Judicial Council of California (2006). Statewide caseload trends 1995-1996 through 2004-2005 [Electronic Version]. Court statistics report. Kelly, J., & Emery, R. (2003). Children’s adjustment following divorce: Risk and resilience perspectives [Electronic Version]. Family Relations 52 (4), 352-362. Kruk, E. (1992). Child custody determination: An analysis of the litigation model, legal practices, and men’s experiences in the process [Electronic version]. Journal of Men’s Studies , 1 (2), 163-175.
  • 70. References Maccoby, E., & Mnookin R. (1992). Maccoby and Mnookin on Joint Custody.Website: http://www.members.aol.com/asherah/joint_custody_maccob y.html Macionis, J. J. (2007). Sociology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Marcovitz,H. (2004) Irreconcilable Differences. Teens & Family Issues. (pp. 40-45). Stockton, New Jersey: OTTN Publishing. Maume Jr, D. J. (2005). Work and Family in America. Website: http://www.artsci.uc.edu/sociology/kunztr/stats.htm Skolnick, A.S. & Skolnick, J.H. (2007) Family in Transition . Boston: Pearson. Sommers-Flanagan, R., Elander, C. & Sommers-Flanagan, J. (2000). Don’t Divorce Us! Kids Advice to Divorcing Parents . Alexandria, Virginia: American Counseling Association. Steinberg, Laurence (2005) Adolescents. (pp. 158). New York. McGraw- Hill Wallerstein, J., Lewis, J.M., & Blakeslee, S. (2000) The Unexpected Legacy of Divorce: A 25 Year Landmark Study . New York: Hyperion. Lee, M. (2001). Marital violence: Impact on children’s emotional experiences, emotional regulation and behaviors in a post-divorce/separation situation [Electronic version]. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 18 (2), 137-163. Maccoby, E., and Mnookin, R. (1992). Dividing the child: Social and legal dilemmas of custody . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Mann, B., & Gilliom, L. (2004). Emotional security and cognitive appraisals mediate the relationship between parents’ marital conflicts and adjustments in older adolescents [Electronic version]. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 165 (3), 250-271.
  • 71. References Northern California Mediation Center. (2006). Frequently asked questions re: Divorce [Electronic Version] http://www.ncmc-mediate.org/DivorceFAQ.htm#whatmediation Peterson, C., & Grant, M. (2001). Forced-choice: Are forensic interviewers asking the right questions? [Electronic version]. The Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 33 (2), 118-127. Richardson, S., & McCabe, M. (2001). Parental divorce during adolescence and adjustment in early adulthood [Electronic version]. Journal Adolescence, 36 (143), 467-489. Rogers, C.R. (1961). On becoming a person (Sentry ed.). Boston, Ma.: Houghton Mifflin Company. Schermerhorn, A., Cummings, E., & Davies, P. (2005). Children’s perceived agency in the context of marital conflict: Relations with marital conflicts over time [Electronic version]. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 51 (2), 121-124. Sierminska, E., Brandolini, A., & Smeeding, T. (2006). Comparing wealth distribution across rich countries: First results from the Luxembourg wealth study [Electronic Version]. The LIS Working Papers Series, 1 (May, 2006) www.lisproject.org . Skolnick, A., & Skolnick, J.H. (2007). Family in transition (14th ed.). Boston: Pearson. Storksen, I., Roysamb, E., Holmen, T., & Tambs, K. (2006). Adolescent adjustment and well-being: Effects of parental divorce and distress [Electronic version]. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 47 , 75-84. Superior Court of California. (2006, January). County of Los Angeles Statewide Civil Fee Schedule, (Version 02). [Electronic Version]. Tiet, Q., Bird, H., Hoven, C., Moore, R., Wu, P., Wicks, J., et al. (2001). Relationship between specific adverse life events and psychiatric disorders [Electronic version]. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29 (2), 153-165. U.S. Census Bureau. (2000). Census 2000 summary file 3 [Electronic Version]. Wakefield, H., & Underwager, R. (1990). Personality characteristics of parents making false accusations of sexual abuse in custody disputes [Electronic version]. Issues In Child Abuse Accusations, 2 (3), 121-136. Waller, M., & Swisher, R. (2006). Fathers’ risk factors in fragile families: Implications of ‘ healthy’ relationships and father involvement [Electronic version]. Society for the Study of Social Problems Inc., 53 (3), 392-420 .
  • 72. The End.
  • 73.  

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