Screen shot taken from home page of website: http://hardknock.tv/category/videos/Title adaptation taken from Week 7 reading: Lawrence Lessig “Remix”YouTube. (2011). About youtube. YouTube. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/t/about_youtubeInspired by the recent reading of Lawrence Lessig’s “Remix” I decided to adapt my presentation from chapter seven’s brief discussion on hybrid economies, in particular YouTube. With this presentation, I hope to show how YouTube being used as an open community allows users to garner much commercial success through sharing content.
Image Link: http://hardknock.tv/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/youtube-logo.pngWebsite Link (source of image): http://hardknock.tv/category/videos/Hard Knock TV. (2011). YouTube. http://hardknock.tv/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/youtube-logo.pngYouTube is considered a social media website and one of the largest being localized in over 30 countries, according to Wikipedia. Paying homage to its slogan “Broadcast Yourself”, YouTube is a video-sharing website where users can upload, watch and share content.
“About YouTube”, taken from “About” section of website (http://www.youtube.com/t/about_youtube) “Founded in February 2005, YouTube allows billions of people to discover, watch and share originally-created videos. YouTube provides a forum for people to connect, inform, and inspire others across the globe and acts as a distribution platform for original content creators and advertisers large and small. See our company timeline for more information on our company history.”In the About YouTube section, YouTube offers different options as how to optimize usage for the site. Giving you guidelines and essentials while offering you a position to play the role of a consumer as well. YouTube. (2011). About youtube. YouTube. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/t/about_youtube
As stated YouTube is a sharing community, which is free to use and distribute. However, many users have become successful, commercially succesful by way of YouTube. Individuals have gained record deals, television interviews and so forth all because they shared a video or someone shared a video of them on YouTube. We’ll take a look at some of these success stories.
“Antoine Dodson”- original video footage: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EzNhaLUT520George Lopez Show footage: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dObpl0ihwOI&feature=relatedYouTube. (2011). Antoine Dodson warns a perp on live tv! (original). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EzNhaLUT520YouTube. (2011). Antoine Dodson interview – Lopez Tonight. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dObpl0ihwOI&feature=relatedAntoine Dodson, popularized by his infamous saying “hide yo kids, hide yo wives” in a video posted of a recorded news cast, recollecting events that happened to his sister in their home. An auto-tune song was created from the popular saying, resulting in royalties and other commercial opportunities such as t-shirt deals and a hair care line. Here he is after gaining success on the George Lopez Tonight show.
Man with Golden voice: Today Show interview http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LAcIFIASiI4&feature=relatedOne of the original videos showcasing Homeless man: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6rPFvLUWkzs&feature=relatedYouTube. (2011). ‘Golden voice’ homeless man finds job, home after viral video success. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LAcIFIASiI4&feature=relatedYouTube. (2011). [HQ] Ted Williams on Today Show [1/6/2011] full interview – golden voice. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6rPFvLUWkzs&feature=relatedTed Williams, formerly known as the man with the golden voice is now gainfully employed and receiving commercial offers from every which of way. Once a homeless man on the street found success through a YouTube video being posted which showed Williams’ and his dynamic voice. Another YouTube discovered talent.
http://itthing.com/5-people-who-got-famous-because-of-youtubeWebsite: “it THING” It THING. (2011). Young Justin Bieber from never say never. Retrieved from http://itthing.com/5-people-who-got-famous-because-of-youtubeIt THING. (2011). Justin Bieber – never say never ft. Jaden Smith. Retrieved from http://itthing.com/5-people-who-got-famous-because-of-youtubeDo you have Bieber fever? We all had or currently have Bieber fever! Now 17 years old and a pop phenomenon with chart topping hits and movies under his belt, this young kid was popularized by YouTube as well. Showed above singing before stardom and showed at the bottom in a featured YouTube video showcasing his hit single “Never Say Never” featuring Jaden Smith.
Definition sources: Merriam-Webster. (2011). Community. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionaryMerriam-Webster. (2011). Commercial. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionaryMerriam-Webster. (2011). Content. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionaryMerriam-Webster. (2011). Success. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionaryMerriam-Webster. (2011). Sharing. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionaryMerriam-Webster. (2011). User. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionaryNow that you have viewed some examples of commercial success on YouTube, let’s view some terminology. There is some key terminology in determining the success of YouTube stories or other community markets as such, such as community, commercial, content, user and success. Most importantly here, commercial is defined as “viewed with regard to profit” and community is defined as a “joint owernship or participation.” More clearly distinguishing the relationship between community and commerce.
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/community?show=0&t=1318488231Sharing – to partake of use, experience, occupy, or enjoy with others“All the category of “sharing economy” requires is that the terms upon which people participate in the economy are terms not centered on cash. In each, the work that others might share is never shared for the money. So why do people do it? What’s in it for them? What is their motivation? This question has been studied extensively in the context of free and open-source software. Its answer begins by recognizing how small the “motivation” is that requires any special kind of explanation. For as a corollary to Dan Bricklin’sCoornucopia of the Commons, we need to remember that a large part of the motivation for contributing to these sharing economies comes from people just doing for themselves what they want to do anyway (Lessig 173). Image: Sharing. (2011). http://blog.beyondtrust.com/Portals/44952/images/sharing-300x273.gifImage site source:http://blog.beyondtrust.com/bid/60230/Sharing-Isn-t-Always-Caring-Without-Least-Privilege
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/community?show=0&t=1318488231Commercial – viewed with regard to profit < a commercial success>Image: Commercial. (2011). http://ecdn1.hark.com/images/000/004/258/4258/original.jpgImage site source: http://www.hark.com/collections/rcjtfrjwhq-commercial
“Commercial economies build value with money at their core. Sharing economies build value, ignoring money. Both are critical to life both online and offline. Both will flourish more as Internet technology develops. But between these two economies, there is an increasingly important third economy: one that builds upon both the sharing and commercial economies, one that adds value to each. This third type – the hybrid – will dominate the architecture for commerce on the Web. It will also radically change the way sharing economies function” (Lessig 177). Academic and author Lawrence Lessig introduced us to Hybrid economies on last week and this is the theory behind the success stories of the likes of Antoine Dodson on YouTube. A Sharing Economy, with freedom to produce and consume content meets a commercial economy, through reproduction of goods (referencing the shared content) which produces the hybrid economy. Annotation: Lessig, L. (2008). Remix: making art and commerce thrive in the hybrid economy. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
The user shares and produces content for other individuals in the community to see and share as well. When and if in fact the user gains high visibility through sharing the content, it becomes popular which opens the door to other avenues such as commercial operations of t-shirt sales, book deals and so on. The user then experiences success through the hybrid economy. Lessig, L. (2008). Remix: making art and commerce thrive in the hybrid economy. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
Lessig, L. (2008). Remix: making art and commerce thrive in the hybrid economy. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
Website: http://gigaom.com/2005/10/18/web-20-the-community-the-commerce-conundrum/Malik, O. 2005, October 18. Web 2.0, community & the commerce conundrum. Gigaom. Retrieved from http://gigaom.com/2005/10/18/web-20-the-community-the-commerce-conundrum/On the commercial side of things, the user’s content is appreciated and gains notoriety through the community which captures of the attention of commercial companies, businesses and platforms. These companies recognize the success through YouTube views and likes and they find a way to produce other content from the brand of the user which generates revenue for the sharing user and the company. This is the main reason that sharing communities such as YouTube can quickly be considered a commercial community as well.
http://www.google.com/#hl=en&sugexp=kjrmc&cp=7&gs_id=p&xhr=t&q=user+generated+content&pf=p&sclient=psy-ab&site=&source=hp&pbx=1&oq=user+ge&aq=0&aqi=g4&aql=f&gs_sm=&gs_upl=&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.,cf.osb&fp=c3626591ea9f6d0f&biw=1260&bih=811One of the key elements of having a hybrid economy is the emergence of sharing and commercial activity. Content Sharing is the initial factor. An article on “it Things” website describes content sharing as “Where social networks allow users to share all manner of content and media with one another, sites like YouTube and Flickr allow them to share a specific kind of content.”YouTube. (2011). Homepage. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lsmNqyG4jZs
Sheldon, P. 2010, April 26. The convergence of content, community & commerce. Get Elastic.http://www.getelastic.com/content-community-commerce/Here is a diagram which shows the emergence of all three factors, creating what we know as a Hybrid Community. For example, YouTube is a site where users can upload and view videos of almost any kind. Here, content is the focal point, where users don’t need to create a page to participate, and ifthey do, those pages need not contain much, if any, personal information. Platform Status Report: USER GENERATED CONTENT, SOCIAL MEDIA, AND ADVERTISINGLike many other UGC sites, YouTube and Flickr allow users to post comments regarding others’ content.This again fosters a freewheeling exchange of ideas and opinions—sometimes polite, sometimes not.Interactive Advertising Bureau: IAB Platform Status Report: “User Generated Content, Social Media, and Advertising – An Overview” April 2008What Is Social Media? Page 5Content Sharing Page 6
“The goal is to make people feel like there are real social benefits and economic benefits for them to invest in this platform.” “To say that community is important – or in the terms I’ve been suggesting, to say the “sharing economy” is important – is obviously not to say community alone is enough. Nor is it event to say that among all the factors of success, community is the most important thing.” “O’Reilly points to YouTube as an example. YouTube’s success, he argues (agreeing again with Chen), came not from the rah-rah of the community activism. Its success came instead from great code: YouTube’s success, O’Reilly explained to me, wasn’t because [people] thought it was cool. It was because YouTube figured out how to make it viral. Viral is about making it serve the people’s own interest, so that they’re participating without thinking that they’re participating. Google said, “Upload your video here and we’ll host it,” and YouTube with their Flash player said, “Either put this video on your site or we’ll host it anyway.” So you get to share the video without any of the costs and with no-muss-no-fuss” (Lessig 224).Lessig, L. (2008). Remix: making art and commerce thrive in the hybrid economy. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
“The challenge of the hybrid economy is what Mozilla, RedHat, Second Life, MySpace are struggling with all the time. How can you continue to inspire the creative work of the second economy, while also expanding the value of the commercial economy? This is, in my view, a different challenge from the challenge of how you call this second economy into being, but obviously, they are related. But this challenge too is one I don't think anyone yet understands fully.”“But the important point to recognize is that this effort to preserve the separation is fundamentally different from the effort of many in the "free software" or "free content" movement who want all "free" licenses to permit any sort of use, commercial or not. Imho, they are simply ignoring an important reality about the difference between these two economies. Indeed, they're making the opposite mistake that many in the commercial world make: Just as many commercial rights holders believe every single use of creative work ought to be regulated by copyright (see, e.g., the push to force what are plainly "fair uses" of copyrighted work on YouTube to pay the copyright owners), so too these advocates of "free content" would push everyone to treat everything as if it is free of copyright regulation (effectively, if not technically). Second economy sorts believe differently -- that some uses should be free, and others should be with permission.”http://www.lessig.org/blog/2006/09/on_the_economies_of_culture.htmlLessig, L. (2006, September 28). On the economies of culure. Lessig 2.0. Blog. Sheldon, P. 2010, April 26. The convergence of content, community & commerce. Get Elastic. http://www.getelastic.com/content-community-commerce/
http://keithhopper.com/essay/shifting-social-tolerence-in-hybrid-economyHopper, K. (2011). Shifting tolerance in a hybrid economy. Keithhopper.com
TerminologyCommunity – joint ownership or participation (community ofgoods)Commercial – viewed with regard to profit < a commercialsuccess>Content –the principal substance (as written matter, illustrations,or music) offered by a World Wide Web siteSuccess – favorable or desired outcome; also: the attainment ofwealth, favor, or eminenceSharing – to partake of use, experience, occupy, or enjoy withothersUser- one that uses
Hybrid Economy Gains visibility in community through sharing Achieves SuccessShares/Produces by way of the Content hybrid economy User
Convergence Simplified User Shared Community Content Platform Commercial Visibility Notoriety Attention
Commercial CommunitiesUser Content gains high visibility,attract attention of commercialrepresentatives Content becomes marketable and noteworthy Companies or individuals create more brands from community generated content