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Au psy m7_a2_olson_sreview Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Bipolar DepressionThe debilitating Disease
    Sheila Olson
    Argosy University
  • 2. AbstractExamination of articles written specifically about bipolar depression gives insight to this condition. Some patients have many questions and suspect depression in themselves. Others are referred to a professional psychiatrist to be assessed. Bipolar depression can be debilitating unless correctly treated. The differing opinions contrast the findings of this disease. The negative mood regulations should correlate with the number of depressive episodes. The treatments have been disputed. Some argue it is environmental and therapy is good enough for the condition. Others believe it is a genetic disease that medications must be needed for treatment. This paper reviews some long-term styles of treatment.
  • 3. Bipolar Depression
    Depression has long been a problem that a large amount of people are being diagnosed with during the past few years. The National Institute of Mental Health reports that the number of adults with Bipolar Depression Disorder is 2.6 percent in a 12 month period of time which calculates out to 5.7 million people in the United States (NIMH, 2005). Only 48.8 percent of these people are being treated properly (NIMH, 2005). The term bipolar describes the highs and the lows that are experienced emotionally. The individual can go into a high manic stage which brings on impulsive behaviors and a sense of euphoria (NIMH, 2005). Later, the individual can go into a low depression to the point of not enjoying anything that normally gives the person pleasure (NIMH, 2005).
    Bipolar depression can cause a person to be suicidal or have suicidal ideation. The emotions can go from happiness to irritable behaviors. Usually, panic attacks include a crushing feeling in the chest, a hard time breathing, and no peripheral vision(NIMH, 2005). Sometimes the symptoms are mistaken of a heart attack, when in reality it is usually severe stress and anxiety.
  • 4. Method
    One of the most common ways to view personality, as well as, bipolar depression is to think of it as a composite of the following categories (Gandotra, Ram, Kour, & Praharji, 2011):
    Biology - your genetic makeup
    Environment- the people and events that have shaped your life experiences
    Cognition-intelligence and how your mind processes information
    Emotion-your ability to feel, express, and respond to meaningful life situations
    Spiritual-your values and beliefs (Argosy,2011).
  • 5. Discussion
    The problem has been selected due to the suffering of so many families' loved ones that have this disease. People need more education about this problem to better understand the brain and how the chemicals are related to the behaviors. Some people question this illness as being one's personality.
    Personality is a combination of different traits. Theorists believe that personality is someone's genetic makeup of physical and biological traits (Argosy, 2011). Behaviorists conclude that a series of environmental reinforcements are necessary (Argosy, 2011). Social learning theorists have the idea that personality is learned by watching and emulating others (Argosy, 2005). Environmental influences are reinforcing behaviors that someone has been exposed to. For instance, a teenager that sees others in his or her family go to prison often, they learn from watching and emulating others, and continue those behaviors.
  • 6. Inside the Mind
  • 7. Medical Illness
    According to the DSM-IV-TR, the criteria of Bipolar Disorder I symptoms reports that the individual suffers from excessive anxiety and worry occurring more days than not for at least six months throughout a number of events or activities (Feist & Feist, 2009). He finds it difficult to control the worry and fear. Symptoms include difficulty concentrating, irritability, and excessive high and pervasive low mood depression (DSM-IV, 2006). In the past, it was described as manic-depression due to the mania episodes one experiences (Swartz, 2011). During these manic episodes, the individual tends to be impulsive and usually spends extra money on shopping or has sexual encounters that the individual would not normally be involved in. This disorder can be treated through psychotherapy.
     
    Diagnosis and Assessments
    How do we know we are not all mentally disordered in some manner? Individuals that have the ability to function in society may or may not be mentally ill. Some people can control their disease with therapy and medications and continue to function in society. The physician has to diagnosis upon what the patient tells him, which sometimes is not clear. The problem can be obvious, or it can be unidentifiable when the patient is first seen. The physician really needs to know if there have been any other family members that have had some type of mental illness. It can be genetically past through the family. This information can help with the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Physicians use the DSM-IV-TR in order to pinpoint the exact symptoms, and they also have to see which variety of the disease it is before prescribing medications.
  • 8. The ability to have healthy relationships with the family and friends is a good sign of health (Swartz, 2011). If the individual can cope with the stress of life, hold a job, or go to school, it usually means that that person is getting the good care and correct medications (Shwartz, 2011). The patient needs attention without stigma of the problems. Active listening skills are essential to build a good rapport.
    Management
    Psychotherapy is the next piece to the puzzle to treat this condition. There are many psychological theories in practice today. Many scientists and researchers have dedicated their lives to developing hypotheses and theories pertaining to maladaptive behavior. These historical findings were created to assess, diagnose, and treat the individual's conditions and behaviors.
    Sigmund Freud is perhaps the best-known theorist, but is probably also the most misunderstood personality theorist the world has seen. Psychoanalytic theory, which Freud was associated with, psychoanalysis which is the most famous of all personality theories (Fiest & Feist, 2009). The provinces of the mind are said to be the id, ego, and superego, to be one of his best discoveries. Early childhood experiences cause high levels of anxiety and are repressed and sometimes affect an individual's life later. Therapists today have great outlines to practice due to Freud and his discoveries. Freud's idea that all motivation can be traced to sexual and aggressive drives has been misunderstood. His three major stages of development are; infancy, latency, and a genital period. Other scientists greatly misunderstood the concept.
  • 9. Psychotherapy
    Psychodynamic perspectives "measure the person's core (but unconscious) conflicted relationships" (Butcher, Mineka, & Hooley, 2010). In some cases, a therapist might look at what happened to an individual as a child and if any of these experiences connect with the anxiety that he demonstrates today as an adult (Swartz, 2011). In some cases, a therapist might look at what happened to an individual as a child and if any these experiences connect with the anxiety that he demonstrates today as an adult (Swartz, 2011). The ego does not function adequately to control impulse gratification or does not adequately use defense mechanisms when faced with internal conflicts (Butcher al et., 2010). This is a long-term type of therapy that looks at repressed feelings, memories, and fears that helps individuals come to terms with their conflicts. It teaches clients how to control their "fight or flight" mechanisms and face the problem hopefully with less anxiety (Butcher al et., 2010). This is one way considered to be the best choice of therapy for the condition (Butcher al et., 2010).
    The cognitive-behavioral perspective studies the cognitive processes such as thinking, planning, and decision making processes (Butcher, al et., 2010).This abnormal behavior focus on how thought and information-processing can become distorted and lead to maladaptive emotions and behavior (Butcher, al met., 2010). Learning the concept of thought-stopping
  • 10. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
    The cognitive-behavioral perspective studies the cognitive processes such as thinking, planning, and decision making processes (Butcher, al et., 2010).This abnormal behavior focus on how thought and information-processing can become distorted and lead to maladaptive emotions and behavior (Butcher, al met., 2010). Learning the concept of thought-stopping helps to identify the triggers to his anxiety. The therapist can help an individual to interpret events by reframing them in a positive perspective. Changing how the client thinks about himself, can strengthen his self-esteem, and experience less irrational beliefs (Butcher, al et., 2010). The therapist usually encourages positive self-talk to improve the state of mind the client is experiencing.
    The behavioral perspective believes the individual must be viewed by directly observing the behaviors (Butcher al et., 2010). The idea of operant conditioning is applied in order to change and reinforce behaviors. Reinforcement refers to the delivery of a reward or pleasant stimulus (Butcher,, al et., 2010). This helps the client to identify what is rewarding and what is unrewarding. The therapist would point out the behaviors that need to be changed and help the person to make those changes. Setting goals for himself and following the treatment plan can work well.
     
  • 11. Medications
     
    Medications
    Patients that continue to have episodes can basically continue to deteriate. Neuroimaging studies of individuals with bipolar depression suggest evidence of brain cell loss (Soreff, 2011). Mood stabilizers and antidepressants alter mood by stimulating cell survival pathways and increasing levels of neurotropic factors to improve cellular resiliency (Soreff, 2011). Anticonvulsant medications help tremendously, such as (eg, carbamazepine and valproate) in the prevention of the highs and lows of depression (Soreff, 2010). There are several types of antidepressants and anticonvulsant drugs available today.
    Approximately 25 - 50 percent of individuals with bipolar disorder attempt suicide and 11 percent actually follow through and commit suicide.
  • 12. Weeping Woman
  • 13. Conclusion
     
    Assessment and diagnosis of bipolar depression disorder can be very difficult. This type of disease must be examined over an appropriate length of time. Any mature psychiatrist waits until the has given a thorough family history and completed assessment with questionnaires and assessment tools that have been approved by APA standards (Frye, 2011). The patient is not always accurate about their descriptions of symptoms right away due to embarrassment or exaggeration (Frye, 2011).
    The diagnosis, therapy, and medications are explored, but there are still questions. The old adage that these patients only need medications is absolutely untrue (Frye, 2011). This disorder must have both therapy and medication in order to manage this disease.
     
  • 14. References
     
    References
    Argosy University (2011). Modules 6, PSY 492. Retrieved from myeclassonline.com
    Butcher, J, Mineka, S., & Hooley, J. (2010). Abnormal Psychology. (14th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.
    Boston, MA: Pearson.
    DSM-IV-TR (2000). Diagnostic & statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th ed.). Arlington, VA. American Psychiatric Association Publishing, Inc.
    Feist, J. & Feist, G. (2011). Theories of personality. (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
    Companies, Inc.
    Frye, M. A. (2011). Bipolar disorder-A focus of depression. New England Journal of
    Medicine, 15(3).
     
  • 15. References
    Argosy University (2011). Modules 6, PSY 492. Retrieved from myeclassonline.com
    Butcher, J, Mineka, S., & Hooley, J. (2010). Abnormal Psychology. (14th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.
    Boston, MA: Pearson.
    DSM-IV-TR (2000). Diagnostic & statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th ed.). Arlington, VA. American Psychiatric Association Publishing, Inc.
    Feist, J. & Feist, G. (2011). Theories of personality. (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
    Companies, Inc.
    Frye, M. A. (2011). Bipolar disorder-A focus of depression. New England Journal of
    Medicine, 15(3).
  • 16. Gandora, S., Ram, D., Praharaj, S. (2011). Association between affective temperaments and bipolar spectrum disorders. Preliminary Perspective, 4 (2).
    NIMH (2005). National institute of mental health. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/statistics/1BIPOLAR_ADULT.shtmal
  • 17. Bipolar Depression Art