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538352main sts134 presskit_508

  1. 1. CONTENTSSection PageSTS-134 MISSION OVERVIEW ................................................................................................ 1STS-134 TIMELINE OVERVIEW ............................................................................................... 9MISSION PROFILE ................................................................................................................... 11MISSION OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................ 13MISSION PERSONNEL ............................................................................................................. 15STS-134 ENDEAVOUR CREW .................................................................................................. 17PAYLOAD OVERVIEW .............................................................................................................. 25 AL PHA M AG NE T I C SP E C TRO M ET E R- 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 25 E X P R ES S L OG I S TI CS CA RR I ER 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 31RENDEZVOUS & DOCKING ....................................................................................................... 43 U N D O CK I NG , S E PA RA TI O N A N D D EPA RTU R E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44SPACEWALKS ......................................................................................................................... 45STS-134 EXPERIMENTS .......................................................................................................... 55 S H OR T- D UR AT I O N EXP ER IM E NT S T O B E P E R FO RM E D O N S T S -1 3 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 R E S EA R CH TO B E D EL I V ER E D TO S TA TI O N O N SH UTT L E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 R E S EA R CH OF O PP O RT U NI T Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 59 R E S EA R CH SAM PL E S/H ARD WA R E T O BE R ET UR N E D T O S TAT I O N O N S H UTT L E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 S PA C E SH U TT L E D E V EL OPM E NT T E ST OB J E C T IVE S (DT O ) A N D D ET A I L E D S UP PL EM E NT A R Y OBJECTIVES ( D S O ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 D T O 703 S e ns or T es t F or O r ion Rela tiv e N a v ig at io n R is k M ig ig at io n ( ST OR RM ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65HISTORY OF SPACE SHUTTLE ENDEAVOUR (OV-105) ............................................................ 69SHUTTLE REFERENCE DATA .................................................................................................... 75APRIL 2011 CONTENTS i
  2. 2. Section PageLAUNCH AND LANDING ........................................................................................................... 93 L A U N CH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 A B OR T T O OR B IT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 T RA N S O C EA NI C A BO RT L AN D I N G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 93 R E T UR N TO L A UNCH SIT E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 93 A B OR T O N C E A RO U N D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 93 L A N D I NG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ......................................................................................... 95MEDIA ASSISTANCE ............................................................................................................... 109PUBLIC AFFAIRS CONTACTS .................................................................................................. 111ii CONTENTS APRIL 2011
  3. 3. STS-134 MISSION OVERVIEW Endeavour at Kennedy Space Center’s Launch Pad 39AEndeavour is targeted to launch on its final ammonia tank assembly, circuit breaker boxes,flight at 3:47 p.m. EDT Friday, April 29, for a Canadarm2 computer and a spare arm for theSTS-134’s 14-day mission to the International Dextre robot. The ELC3 also houses a suite ofSpace Station. The shuttle will deliver the Department of Defense (DoD) experiments thatAlpha Magnetic Spectrometer-2 (AMS), a will test systems and materials concepts forparticle physics detector designed to operate long duration spaceflight in low Earth orbit.from the station and search for various types ofunusual matter. STS-134 includes four spacewalks that focus on station maintenance, experiment swap out andAlso onboard for delivery will be station spare transferring Endeavour’s orbiter boom sensorparts on the ExPRESS Logistics Carrier 3 system (OBSS) to the station. The crew will(ELC3), including two S-band communications leave the boom as a permanent fixture to aidantennas, a high-pressure gas tank, an future station spacewalk work, if needed.APRIL 2011 MISSION OVERVIEW 1
  4. 4. NASA astronaut Mark Kelly (right foreground), STS-134 commander, and European Space Agencyastronaut Roberto Vittori (left foreground), mission specialist, participate in a simulation exercise in the motion-base shuttle mission simulator in the Jake Garn Simulation and Training Facility at NASA’s Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASAThe mission also features Endeavour’s Force), European Space Agency astronautapproach back toward the station after Roberto Vittori (Col., Italian Air Force),undocking to test new sensor technologies that Andrew Feustel and Greg Chamitoff.could make it easier for future space vehicles todock to the International Space Station. Kelly previously served as pilot of STS-108 in 2001, STS-121 in 2006 and commander ofMark Kelly (Capt., U.S. Navy) will command STS-124 in 2008. Johnson was the pilot onEndeavour and the veteran astronaut crew. STS-123 in 2008. Fincke has logged more thanGregory H. Johnson (Ret. Col., U.S. Air Force) 365 days in space and more than 26 hours ofis the pilot. They will be joined by Mission spacewalk time in six spacewalks throughoutSpecialists Mike Fincke (Col., U.S. Air Expedition 9 as a station flight engineer and2 MISSION OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  5. 5. Expedition 18 as station commander. Vittori of the flight, the crew will perform the standardhas flown to the International Space Station scan of the shuttle’s thermal protection systemtwice as part of two crews that delivered new using the OBSS attached to the end ofSoyuz spacecraft to the complex. Feustel Endeavour’s robotic arm. While the inspectionflew on the fifth and final Hubble Space is underway, Fincke and Feustel will work onTelescope servicing mission, STS-125, and preparing the spacesuits onboard the shuttleaccumulated more than 20 hours of spacewalk that will be transferred to the station aftertime during three excursions. Chamitoff served docking for use during the mission’s fouron Expeditions 17 and 18, logging a total of spacewalks. After the inspection and the boom183 days in space. extension is stowed, the shuttle robotic arm will be attached to the ELC3 to be ready for theEndeavour and crew will spend two days cargo carrier’s installation on the station soonheading toward a rendezvous with the after docking.International Space Station. On the second dayAPRIL 2011 MISSION OVERVIEW 3
  6. 6. NASA astronaut Mark Kelly, STS-134 commander, dons a training version of his shuttle launch and entry suit in preparation for a training session in the fixed-base shuttle mission simulator in the Jake Garn Simulation and Training Facility at NASA’s Johnson Space Center. United Space Alliance suit technician Andre Denard assists Kelly. Photo credit: NASAOn the third day of the flight, Endeavour will re-rendezvous with the station will occur laterapproach and dock with the space station. The in the flight for the heart of the test.Sensor Test for Orion Rel-nav Risk Mitigation,or STORRM, system will begin gathering After the hatches are opened between theinformation on a laptop inside the shuttle two spacecraft, both crews will begin workingduring rendezvous and docking. The unique on using the shuttle’s robotic arm to remove the ELC3 from inside the shuttle’s payload bay,4 MISSION OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  7. 7. hand it to the station’s robotic arm, and install it The crew will hand Endeavour’s orbiter boomin the upper outboard attach position on the sensor system from the station robotic arm toport side of the station’s truss structure. The the shuttle robotic arm on flight day 6. Theweight of the ELC3 is approximately boom extension is then ready for any focused14,023 pounds with the spares installed. inspection tasks on this day, if required, and the inspection activities later in the flight. TheThe AMS will be installed on flight day 4. afternoon will be off-duty time for the crewsSimilarly to the ELC3, the shuttle and station and then Feustel and Fincke will campout inrobotic arms will work together to place AMS the airlock for the next spacewalk.on the upper inboard attach position on thestarboard side of the station’s truss. The crews During the second spacewalk, on flight day 7,also will begin transferring equipment and Feustel and Fincke will refill the P6 trusssupplies between the spacecraft and make radiators with ammonia. They also willpreparations for the first spacewalk. Both complete venting the early ammonia system oncrews will walk through the choreography of P6, lubricate the race ring on the port solarthe spacewalk, and Feustel and Chamitoff will alpha rotary joint and lubricate the latching endspend the night camped out inside the Quest effector on Dextre.airlock. Flight day 8 includes the transfer of equipmentEach of the four spacewalks will last about six and supplies and additional off-duty time. Athours and will be conducted by three of the end of the day, Feustel and Fincke will notEndeavour’s crew members. Feustel is the lead campout in the airlock since the thirdspacewalker on STS-134. He has conducted spacewalk will feature a new pre-breathethree spacewalks previously and will wear a protocol that prepares the spacewalkers’ bodiessuit with solid red stripes. Fincke has to prevent decompression sickness whileconducted six spacewalks and will wear an wearing their low-pressure spacesuits.unmarked white suit. Chamitoff will bemaking his first spacewalks on STS-134 and will Flight day 8 includes the transfer of equipmentwear a suit with broken red stripes. and supplies and additional off-duty time. At the end of the day, Feustel and Fincke will notOn flight day 5, during the spacewalk, Feustel campout in the airlock since the thirdand Chamitoff will retrieve two material spacewalk will feature a new prebreatheexposure experiments and install a new protocol that prepares the spacewalkers’ bodiespackage of experiments on ELC2. They will to prevent decompression sickness whileinstall jumpers between the port 3/port 4 truss wearing their low-pressure spacesuits.segments and the port 5/port 6 truss segmentsfor ammonia refills, vent nitrogen from the The new spacewalk preparation, dubbedPort 6 (P6) early ammonia servicer, and install “in-suit light exercise,” does not require aan external wireless communication antenna on campout in the airlock and is expected to usethe Destiny laboratory that will provide less oxygen from the stores onboard than awireless communication to the ELCs mounted campout or the original cycling exerciseon the P3 and S3 truss segments. regimen. After putting on the suits on the morning of the third spacewalk, Feustel andAPRIL 2011 MISSION OVERVIEW 5
  8. 8. Fincke will exercise lightly by “walking” in the station robotic arm, possibly aiding futureplace for 50 minutes, and then rest for 50 more spacewalkers reach distant worksites aroundminutes. Following the spacewalk, the crew the complex. They also will retrieve the PDGFmembers and ground support team will assess from the P6 truss, remove the electrical grapplethe new process to determine if it will be used fixture from the OBSS and replace it with the P6for the fourth excursion. PDGF. They then will release restraints from one of the arms on Dextre and replace thermalThat third spacewalk, on flight day 9, will see insulation on one of the gas tanks on the QuestFeustel and Fincke install a power and data airlock.grapple fixture (PDGF) and the associatedpower and data cables on the Zarya module to The fourth spacewalk of STS-134 is the finalsupport robotic operations based from the scheduled spacewalk by a space shuttle crew.Russian segment. They also will install The single spacewalk scheduled during STS-135additional cables to provide redundant power is to be conducted by space station residentschannels to the Russian segment. Mike Fossum and Ron Garan.The “late inspection” of Endeavour’s heat Flight day 12 of STS-134 includes theshield to check for damage from space debris organization of spacewalking gear and morewill be conducted on flight day 10 while the transfer work before the hatches are closedorbiter is still at the station. This is usually between the two spacecraft near the end of thecompleted after undocking, but the inspection workday.boom will be left at the station when Endeavourleaves. A similar procedure was conducted Flight day 13 begins with Endeavour’sduring STS-131 so that the inspection data undocking from the space station, andcould be sent to Mission Control via the space continues with the primary objective ofstation’s system because the space shuttle STORRM.Discovery’s Ku-band system was not Once Endeavour undocks from the station,functioning. plans still call for Johnson to fly the shuttle inOn the station, crew members will begin three a lap around the International Space Stationdays of scheduled maintenance work on a complex. The shuttle crew will take detailedmachine that scrubs the atmosphere of carbon photographs of the external structure ofdioxide. Fincke and Chamitoff plan to campout the station, which serves as importantin the Quest airlock overnight, unless there is documentation for the ground teams insufficient information from the new prebreathe Houston to monitor the orbiting laboratory.process used before the third spacewalk to Once the loop around the station is finished,implement it on the next spacewalk. Endeavour will fire its engines to move awayOn flight day 11, during the fourth and final from the station. A second firing of the engines,scheduled spacewalk, Fincke and Chamitoff which would normally take the shuttle furtherwill attach the OBSS for storage on the interface away, will serve as the first of multiplebetween the starboard 0 and starboard 1 maneuvers to bring Endeavour back toward thetrusses. The boom could serve as extension for station for the sensor test.6 MISSION OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  9. 9. The re-rendezvous will mimic the Orion Flight day 14 will be spent checking outvehicle’s planned rendezvous trajectory and Endeavour’s Reaction Control System (RCS)will approach no closer than 600 feet to the jets and the flight control surfaces. Both ofstation. Endeavour is targeted to approach the these systems will be put through their paces tostation to a point 1,000 feet below and 300 feet ensure that they are ready to supportbehind the station at its closest point. Endeavour’s return to Earth. The RCS jets will be used during the early part of entry, up untilThe test will characterize the performance of the atmosphere builds up enough for the flightsensors in Endeavour’s payload bay and their control surfaces to take over and steer theacquisition of reflectors on a docking target at shuttle toward the runway.the station. Nearly five hours after undocking,Endeavour’s engines will fire again to depart Endeavour’s final landing is scheduled onthe station’s vicinity for good. flight day 15 at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. At the time of its scheduled landing, Endeavour will have travelled more than 100 million miles during 25 flights and spent more than 294 days in space.APRIL 2011 MISSION OVERVIEW 7
  10. 10. This page intentionally blank8 MISSION OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  11. 11. STS-134 TIMELINE OVERVIEWFlight Day 1 • Hatch opening and welcoming• Launch • Shuttle robotic arm grapple of Express Logistics Carrier-3, unberthing from• Payload bay door opening Endeavour’s payload bay, handoff to• Ku-band antenna deployment Canadarm2 and installation on the Port 3 truss segment• Shuttle robotic arm activation and payload bay survey Flight Day 4• Umbilical well and handheld external tank • Shuttle robotic arm unberth of the Alpha photo and TV downlink Magnetic Spectrometer-2 (AMS), handoff to Canadarm2 and installation of AMS on theFlight Day 2 Starboard 3 truss segment• Endeavour’s Thermal Protection System • Spacewalk 1 procedure review Survey with shuttle robotic arm/Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS) • Spacewalk 1 campout and prebreathe by Feustel and Chamitoff• Extravehicular mobility unit checkout Flight Day 5• Centerline camera installation • Spacewalk 1 by Feustel and Chamitoff• Orbiter docking system ring extension (MISSE experiment retrieval and installation,• Rendezvous tools checkout ammonia jumper installation between Port 3 and Port 6 truss segments, Destiny labFlight Day 3 wireless communications hardware• Rendezvous with the International Space installation) Station Flight Day 6• Rendezvous pitch maneuver photography of • Orbiter boom sensor system (OBSS) grapple Endeavour’s thermal protection system by by Canadarm2 and handoff to shuttle Expedition 27 crew members Nespoli and robotic arm Coleman • Crew off-duty period• Docking to Harmony/pressurized mating adapter 2 • Spacewalk 2 procedure review • Spacewalk 2 campout and prebreathe by Feustel and FinckeAPRIL 2011 TIMELINE OVERVIEW 9
  12. 12. Flight Day 7 spare robotic arm; this is the final scheduled spacewalk by Shuttle crew members)• Spacewalk 2 by Feustel and Fincke (Port Solar Alpha Rotary Joint cover removal Flight Day 12 and lubrication, Starboard 1 truss radiator • Post-spacewalk spacesuit reconfiguration grapple bar stowage, early ammonia servicer venting, refill of the Port 1 Ammonia Tank • Joint crew news conference Assembly, Dextre robot latching end effector • Farewells and hatch closure lubrication) • Rendezvous tools checkoutFlight Day 8 Flight Day 13• Crew off-duty period • Undocking and flyaround of ISS• Spacewalk 3 procedure review • STORRM detailed test objective forFlight Day 9 re-rendezvous demonstration• In-Suit Light Exercise (ISLE) prebreathe by • Final separation Feustel and Fincke Flight Day 14• Spacewalk 3 by Feustel and Fincke (Zarya PDGF installation, PDGF data cable • Cabin stowage installation, vision system installation, Strela adapter relocation) • Flight control system checkoutFlight Day 10 • Reaction control system hot-fire test• Late inspection of Endeavour’s thermal • Deorbit preparation briefing protection system heat shield • Ku-band antenna stowage• Spacewalk 4 procedure review Flight Day 15• Spacewalk 4 campout and prebreathe by • Deorbit preparations Fincke and Chamitoff • Payload bay door closingFlight Day 11 • Deorbit burn• Spacewalk 4 by Fincke and Chamitoff (install the OBSS at the Starboard 0/Starboard 1 • KSC landing truss interface, swap out of the OBSS grapple fixtures, retrieval of the Port 6 truss segment power and data grapple fixture, release of retention systems on the Dextre10 TIMELINE OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  13. 13. MISSION PROFILECREW Space Shuttle Main Engines:Commander: Mark Kelly SSME 1: 2059Pilot: Gregory H. Johnson SSME 2: 2061Mission Specialist 1: Mike Fincke SSME 3: 2057Mission Specialist 2: Roberto Vittori (ESA) External Tank: ET-122Mission Specialist 3: Drew Feustel SRB Set: BI-145Mission Specialist 4: Greg Chamitoff RSRM Set: 113LAUNCH SHUTTLE ABORTSOrbiter: Endeavour (OV-105) Abort Landing SitesLaunch Site: Kennedy Space Center, RTLS: Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Launch Pad 39A Landing FacilityLaunch Date: April 29, 2011 TAL: Primary – Zaragoza, SpainLaunch Time: 3:47 p.m. EDT (preferred Alternates – Morón, Spain and in-plane launch time) Istres, FranceLaunch Window: 10 Minutes AOA: Primary – Kennedy Space CenterAltitude: 122 nautical miles (140 miles) Shuttle Landing Facility orbital insertion; 188 nautical Alternate – White Sands Space miles (216 statute miles) Harbor rendezvousInclination: 51.6 degrees LANDINGDuration: 14 days Landing Date: May 13, 2011VEHICLE DATA Landing Time: 9:28 a.m. EDTShuttle Liftoff Weight: 4,524,863 Primary landing Site: Kennedy Space Center pounds PAYLOADSOrbiter/Payload Liftoff Weight: 268,580 pounds ExPRESS Logistics Carrier 3 (ELC3)Orbiter/Payload Landing Weight: 203,354 Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-2(AMS) poundsSoftware Version: OI-34APRIL 2011 MISSION PROFILE 11
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  15. 15. MISSION OBJECTIVES1. Dock space shuttle Endeavour to the 9. Activate Space Test Program − Houston 3 Pressurized Mating Adapter-2 port and (STP-H3) payload on ELC3 perform mandatory crew safety briefing for all crew members 10. Activate AMS for experiment operation2. Install Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-2 11. Perform Sensor Test for Orion Rel-nav Risk (AMS) to S3 upper inboard Payload Attach Mitigation (STORRM) System 2 (PAS-2) using shuttle and − Obtain data during undocking and International Space Station robotic arms and re-rendezvous provide keep-alive power − Obtain data during rendezvous,3. Install Expedite the Processing of proximity op and docking Experiments to the Space Station (ExPRESS) Logistics Carrier (ELC) 3 to P3 Upper − Photograph STORRM targets post Outboard Unpressurized Cargo Carrier docking and prior to undock for Attach System 1 (UCCAS-1) using shuttle photogrammetric analysis and station robotic arms and provide keep- alive power 12. Perform daily high priority payload activities4. Transfer critical items per flight ULF6 Transfer Priority List (TPL) 13. Perform daily station payload status checks5. Transfer mandatory items per Flight ULF6 14. Transfer remaining cargo items per flight TPL ULF6 TPL6. Transfer oxygen to the station’s Quest 15. Transfer nitrogen from the shuttle to the airlock high-pressure gas tanks space station7. Retrieve Materials International Space 16. Transfer water from the shuttle to the space Station Experiment (MISSE) Payload station Experiment Carriers (PECs) 7A and 7B from ELC2 and stow in payload bay for return 17. Transfer OBSS to space station [Extravehicular Activity (EVA)] 18. Remove and replace Node 3 Carbon8. Install and deploy MISSE 8 PEC on ELC2 Dioxide Removal Assembly rear bed [EVA]APRIL 2011 MISSION OBJECTIVES 13
  16. 16. 19. Complete the following EVA tasks: − Install multi-layer insulation over HPGT grapple fixture − Install the OBSS on the S1 truss − Lubricate SPDM latching end-effector − Refill P6 Photovoltaic Thermal Control snares System (PVTCS) ammonia − Reinstall Starboard SARJ cover No. 7 − Install FGB Y power feed cables for channels 1/4 and 2/3 − Install S1 radiator grapple bar stowage beam assemblies − Install external wireless communication antenna system − Inspect OTP long-duration tie-down tethers and recinch if necessary − Lubricate port Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) race ring − Install PDGF on FGB − Remove Special Purpose Dexterous − Retrieve P6 PDGF Manipulator (SPDM) spare arm EDF − Remove Electrical Flight Releasable bolts Grapple Fixture from OBSS and install adapter plate and PDGF14 MISSION OBJECTIVES APRIL 2011
  17. 17. MISSION PERSONNELKEY CONSOLE POSITIONS FOR STS-134 Flt. Director CAPCOM PAOAscent Richard Jones Barry Wilmore Kyle Herring Lee Archambault (Wx)Orbit 1 (Lead) Gary Horlacher Megan McArthur Kyle HerringOrbit 2 Paul Dye Steve Robinson Brandi DeanPlanning Kwatsi Alibaruho Shannon Lucid Josh ByerlyEntry Tony Ceccacci Barry Wilmore Kyle Herring Terry Virts (Wx)Shuttle Team 4 Richard Jones N/A N/AISS Orbit 1 Dana Weigel Rob Hayhurst N/AISS Orbit 2 (Lead) Derek Hassmann Lucia McCullough N/AISS Orbit 3 Dina Contella Dan Tani N/AStation Team 4 David KorthJSC PAO Representative at KSC for Launch – Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters/Doug PetersonKSC Launch Commentator – George DillerKSC Launch Director – Mike LeinbachNASA Launch Test Director – Jeff SpauldingAPRIL 2011 MISSION PERSONNEL 15
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  19. 19. STS-134 ENDEAVOUR CREW STS-134 Mission PatchThe design of the STS-134 crew patch highlights scientists better understand the evolution andresearch on the International Space Station properties of our universe. The shape of thefocusing on the fundamental physics of the patch is inspired by the international atomicuniverse. On this mission, the crew of space symbol, and represents the atom with orbitingshuttle Endeavour will install the Alpha electrons around the nucleus. The burst nearMagnetic Spectrometer-2 (AMS) experiment − a the center refers to the big-bang theory and thecosmic particle detector that uses the first ever origin of the universe. The space shuttlesuperconducting magnet to be flown in space. Endeavour and space station fly together intoBy studying subatomic particles in the the sunrise over the limb of Earth, representingbackground cosmic radiation and searching for the dawn of a new age, understanding theantimatter and dark matter, it will help nature of the universe.APRIL 2011 CREW 17
  20. 20. Attired in training versions of their shuttle launch and entry suits, these six astronauts take a break from training to pose for the STS-134 crew portrait. Pictured clockwise are NASA astronauts Mark Kelly (bottom center), commander; Gregory H. Johnson, pilot; Michael Fincke, Greg Chamitoff, Andrew Feustel and European Space Agencys Roberto Vittori, all mission specialists.Short biographical sketches of the crew appear More detailed biographies are available atin this package. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/astrobio.html18 CREW APRIL 2011
  21. 21. CREW BIOGRAPHIES Mark KellyVeteran astronaut and a captain in the through its rendezvous and docking to theU.S. Navy, Mark Kelly will lead STS-134 and its International Space Station.crew. In his role as commander, he hasoverall responsibility for the safety and Kelly previously served as pilot of STS-108 inexecution of the mission, orbiter systems 2001, STS-121 in 2006 and commander ofoperations and flight operations, including STS-124 in 2008. He has loggedlanding. In addition, he will fly Endeavour 38 days in space.APRIL 2011 CREW 19
  22. 22. Greg H. JohnsonGreg H. Johnson, a retired colonel in the displays for future shuttle missions. He wasU.S. Air Force, will be making his second trip also a key player on the External Tank foaminto space as pilot on STS-134. He will be impact test team investigating the cause of theresponsible for orbiter systems operations, will Columbia accident in 2003. Currently, Johnsonassist Kelly with rendezvous and will fly is the Astronaut Safety Branch Chief.Endeavour during undocking and the flyaround. Following initial astronaut training, Johnson was the pilot on STS-123 in 2008. HeJohnson was assigned to the Shuttle Cockpit has logged more than 4,000 flight hours in moreAvionics Upgrade council – redesigning cockpit than 40 different aircraft.20 CREW APRIL 2011
  23. 23. Michael FinckeA colonel in the U.S. Air Force, Michael Fincke International Space Station crew procedureswill serve as a mission specialist on STS-134. team lead. He is qualified to fly as a left-seatSelected by NASA in 1996, Fincke was assigned flight engineer (co-pilot) on the Russian Soyuztechnical duties in the Astronaut Office Station TM and TMA spacecraft.Operations Branch serving as an InternationalSpace Station Spacecraft Communicator Fincke has logged more than 365 days in space(ISS CAPCOM), was a member of the Crew and more than 26 hours of spacewalk time inTest Support Team in Russia and served as the six spacewalks throughout Expedition 9 and Expedition 18.APRIL 2011 CREW 21
  24. 24. Roberto VittoriRoberto Vittori is a member of the European Center in 1998, he worked in the Space ShuttleSpace Agency (ESA). A colonel in the Italian Operations System Branch of NASA’sAir Force, he was selected as an astronaut by Astronaut Office and then supported the Newthe Italian Space Agency (ASI), in cooperation Generation Space Vehicles Branch.with the ESA, and later joined the EuropeanAstronaut Corps. Arriving at Johnson Space Vittori has flown to the International Space Station twice as a spaceflight participant.22 CREW APRIL 2011
  25. 25. Andrew FeustelMaking his second trip into space, Andrew training. Feustel flew on the fifth and finalFeustel will serve as a mission specialist on Hubble servicing mission, STS-125, andSTS-134. Selected by NASA in 2000, he worked accumulated nearly 13 days in space and morein the Astronaut Office Space Shuttle and Space than 20 hours of EVA time in three spacewalks.Station Branches upon completion of astronautAPRIL 2011 CREW 23
  26. 26. Greg ChamitoffGreg Chamitoff will serve as a mission Office including space station procedure andspecialist on STS-134. Joining the Mission display development, crew support forOperations Directorate at Johnson Space Center Expedition 6, lead CAPCOM for Expedition 9in 1995, he developed software applications and space station robotics.for spacecraft attitude control monitoring,prediction, analysis and maneuver Chamitoff was a crew member of the Aquariusoptimization. One of these applications is the undersea research habitat for nine days as part3D “big screen” display of the station and of the NASA Extreme Environment Missionshuttle used by Mission Control. After initial Operations (NEEMO) 3 mission. In addition,training with the astronaut class of 1998, he he served on Expedition 17/18, loggingcompleted assignments within the Astronaut 183 days in space.24 CREW APRIL 2011
  27. 27. PAYLOAD OVERVIEWALPHA MAGNETIC SPECTROMETER-2WEIGHT: 15,251 pounds (6,917 kg) VOLUME: 1,650 cubic feet (46.7 m3)HEIGHT: 11 feet POWER: 2,400 wattsWIDTH: 15 feet DATA CHANNELS: 300,000LENGTH: 10 feet DATA DOWNLINK RATE: 6 megabits/secondMAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY: 1250 Gauss (4,000 times stronger than the Earth’s magnetic field)LIFETIME: Through 2020 and beyond – until the space station is deorbitedCOST: $2 billion (estimated, divided between contributors and not including launch and operations costs)ENGINEERS, SCIENTISTS, ANDTECHNICIANS INVOLVED: 600INSTITUTIONS INVOLVED: 56 COUNTRIES INVOLVED: 16APRIL 2011 PAYLOAD OVERVIEW 25
  28. 28. Overview those obtainable in accelerators built on the ground. And they will come in much greaterPacked away inside Endeavour’s cargo bay is a quantities, as well. The Earth’s atmospherescience experiment 16 years in the making, with protects us from the vast majority of the cosmicthe potential to help us answer questions that particles moving through the universe. Sittinghave been asked for millions of years. on the ground at Kennedy Space Center, theThe Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer-2 (AMS) is a AMS measured an average of 400 particles perstate-of-the-art particle physics detector to be second. In space, it is expected to seedelivered to the International Space Station. 25,000 particles per second.Using a large magnet to create a magnetic field What can these particles tell us? That is yet tothat will bend the path of the charged cosmic be seen. The expectation is that they willparticles already traveling through space, eight answer fundamental physics questions. Fordifferent instruments will provide information instance, the Hubble Space Telescope hason those particles as they make their way shown that the visible matter of the universethrough the magnet. Armed with that accounts for only a fraction of the mass neededinformation, hundreds of scientists from to explain the current rate of the universe’s16 countries are hoping to determine what the expansion – about one sixth. One possibleuniverse is made of and how it began, as the explanation for that is that there is a vastAMS searches for clues on the origin of dark amount of matter we cannot see – or darkmatter and the existence of antimatter and matter – which increases the total mass of thestrangelets. And if that’s not enough, there is universe and accounts for the faster expansion.also the information it could provide onpulsars, blazers and gamma ray bursters and If dark matter exists, the AMS will be able toany number of phenomena that have yet to be detect it. For instance, one candidate for thenamed. particles that are dark matter is the hypothetical, elementary neutralino particle. IfThe AMS is not the only experiment looking neutralinos exist, their collision could createinto these concepts – there are several large, excesses of electrons and anti-electrons –high-energy experiments here on Earth, and a positrons – that could then be detected by thenumber of telescopes and explorer missions AMS.studying the universe from space. But, AMSis unique. Where telescopes – which measure The AMS could also detect antimatter and helplight, whether visible or not – look at space, the answer another key question. Antimatter isAMS will sift through it, measuring cosmic made up of particles identical to those ofparticles. And unlike similar experiments on regular matter, but with opposite electric andthe ground, its study will not be limited to the magnetic properties. The Big Bang theoryparticles that make it through Earth’s assumes that there were equal amounts ofatmosphere or can be artificially created. matter and antimatter present when the universe began, in the complex form of heliumIn space, the AMS will naturally cross paths anti-nuclei or heavier elements has never beenwith particles of energies much higher than26 PAYLOAD OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  29. 29. found in nature. If it still exists, the AMS shuttle Discovery on the STS-91 mission inshould be able to detect it – in the 10 years or 1998. In the 103 hours that the experiment wasmore that the AMS will be in operation at the turned on, the AMS collected nearly 100 millionInternational Space Station, its detectors will cosmic rays. The data gathered provided thesee at least one (and possibly many) antihelium first accurate measurement of the compositionnucleus, if such a thing exists. If the detectors of primary cosmic rays, and seven scientificnever see one, the AMS team will be able to papers were published.affirm that they do not exist in the visibleuniverse. Work on the current version of the AMS began in 1998. After some uncertainty about itsIn studying these and other questions, the AMS future following the announcement of thebrings together two scientific fields that have retirement of the space shuttle fleet, the AMSnot historically interacted: astronomers who was finished and shipped from CERN – thehave seen the effects of these phenomena European Organization for Nuclear Research –through their telescopes for centuries and in Geneva to Kennedy Space Center in Floridahigh-energy physicists who have spent decades in August 2010 to await its launch aboard spacetrying to explain them from the ground. The shuttle Endeavour.AMS team hopes to find answers where the twoworlds meet. ElementsHistory The AMS is composed of a magnet and eight detectors that provide the scientists on theThe AMS project began in 1994, when Professor ground with information about the particlesSamuel Ting, a Nobel Laureate from the that travel through the magnet. All of theMassachusetts Institute of Technology was information is collected in the nanoseconds itconsidering a new high-energy physics takes a particle to travel through the AMS, andexperiment. The concept of an International then sent down to scientist on the ground forSpace Station had just been announced in 1993, analysis.and after having conducted experiments onthe ground for many years, Ting and his The Magnetcollaborators saw an opportunity for doing new At the center – and the heart – of the AMS is thegroundbreaking science in space. So, led by Permanent Magnet. Without it, cosmicTing, a group of particle physicists from the particles would fly directly through theUnited States, China, Italy, Finland, Russia and detectors in a straight line, offering no clues asSweden called The Antimatter Study Group to their charge.published the concept for “An AntimatterSpectrometer in Space.” The United States The Permanent Magnet, which also flew onDepartment of Energy agreed to sponsor the space shuttle Discovery in the early versionproject, NASA agreed to put it in space, and the of the AMS experiment, is a 1.105 meterAMS team grew. by 0.8 meter cylinder made up of more than 6,000 2-by-2-by-1-inch blocks ofTo prove the concept, an early version of the Neodymium-Iron-Boron glued together withAMS spent 10 days in space aboard spaceAPRIL 2011 PAYLOAD OVERVIEW 27
  30. 30. epoxy. Neodymium-Iron-Boron magnets are but a positive charge, like a proton. The TRDthe strongest permanent magnets, providing will allow scientists to tell protons andthe AMS with a magnetic field 3,000 times positrons apart in the search for antimatter.stronger than that of the Earth. However itdoes not draw the cosmic particles to the The Time-of-Flight DetectorsInternational Space Station. In fact, the The two Time-of-Flight (ToF) detectors (one atmagnetic draw will not be felt at all, outside of the top of the magnet and one at the bottom) actthe AMS – otherwise it might change the space as the AMS’s stopwatch. When one is triggeredstation’s orientation or draw astronauts to it on by a particle entering the magnet, it starts thespacewalks. other detectors; when the particle exits from theInstead, it takes advantage of the cosmic opposite side, the other detectors stop.particles already traveling in the space station’s The ToF can also provide scientists informationpath, and bends their trajectory as they pass on the direction a particle is traveling, which isthrough the magnet. The direction of the curve important for antimatter identification, aswill provide the scientists on the ground with electrons can be mistaken for their positroninformation about the charge of the particle counterparts, if one does not know the direction(whether it is positive or negative). of a particle. And it assists in identifying theThe Permanent Magnet’s strength should last charge of a particle, which will help scientiststhrough 2020 – the planned life of the space determine which element a particle is.station – and beyond. Each of the ToF detectors is made up of twoThe Transition Radiation Detector scintillation counters. (Scintillation is a flash of light created when a particle going throughThe first detector that a particle will pass the ToF emits a photon.) The top and bottomthrough as it enters the AMS is the Transition ToFs are about 4 feet apart and are preciseRadiation Detector (TRD). The TRD has the down to 150 picoseconds. This allows theability to distinguish between electrons and detectors to measure particles traveling atprotons by detecting X-rays emitted by some speeds up to 98 percent of the speed of light.particles. The Silicon TrackersThe TRD is made of 328 modules, arranged in20 layers. Each module contains 16 straw Without the magnet, particles would travel in atubes filled with a Xenon-rich gas mixture straight line through the AMS, but without theand 20 millimeters of radiator made of silicon trackers, we would not know thepolypropylene/polyethylene fiber fleece. When difference. There are nine tracker planesan electron passes through these layers, it will arranged throughout the AMS – one at the top,emit an X-ray. Protons will not. one at the bottom, and seven within the magnet. Each of them works together toOn the other hand, positrons – the antimatter provide data on the curvature of the trajectory acounterpart of electrons – will emit an X-ray. particle takes through the AMS, as it isPositrons have the same mass as an electron, influenced by the magnet: A positively charged28 PAYLOAD OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  31. 31. particle will curve in the opposite direction of a particles, the Anti-Coincidence Counters act asnegatively charged particle. This information, the ToF detector for these rogue particles, butwhen combined with the information provided for the opposite reason – rather than turning onby the other detectors, allows scientists to the other detectors when a particle passesdistinguish between matter and antimatter. through it, it tells them not to track the particle.The tracker panels are made of 2,264 double- The Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detectorsided silicon sensors, with a total of 200,000sensor channels. The trackers require their own One of the distinguishing characteristics of aradiator to keep them cool. particle is its mass, however, the AMS has no instrument that measures a particle’s mass.The Tracker Alignment System Instead, the mass determined indirectly using a formula that requires the particle’s curvature,Because the curvature of the particles is so its charge and its speed. The Ring Imagingcrucial to the AMS experiment, it is important Cherenkov (RICH) detector provides the speedto know that the tracker panels are measuring part of the equation.the particles’ paths accurately. To do so, theymust be precisely aligned, or corrections must The RICH is named for and makes use of thebe made for any misalignment they might Cherenkov Effect, which describes the wayexperience in space. Otherwise, what looks like particles that are traveling at a speeda particular curve could actually be caused by a somewhere between the speed of light in aparticle moving through misaligned trackers. vacuum and the speed of light through glass emit cones of light when they travel throughThe Tracker Alignment System monitors the certain mediums – in this case, the RICH’spositions of the trackers themselves, using radiator. The cone of light can take the shape of20 (10 going up and 10 going down) straight a circle or an ellipse, and the shape can be usedlaser beams that mimic the tracks of particles. to determine the particle’s speed.It is able to detect changes in the trackerpositions of down to five micrometers or less. The RICH is made up of a radiator plane, a conical mirror and a photon detection plane.The Anti-Coincidence Counter The Electromagnetic CalorimeterAlthough cosmic particles will enter the AMSfrom all angles, only the ones that enter from To determine the energy of the particlesthe top and exit at the bottom are certain to passing through the AMS, the Electromagneticmake it through all of the AMS detectors. The Calorimeter (ECAL) was added. The ECAL is ainstruments will not be able to gather all the 3-by-3-by-.75-foot block of lead with thousandsnecessary information on the other eight-tenths of fiberoptic lines running through it.of the particles, and the extra particles traveling Depending on the energy of a particle, whenin abnormal directions can confuse the silicon it passes through lead, it may break uptrackers. and produce an electromagnetic shower or a hadronic shower. The shapes of the twoSo, rather than gather incomplete information showers are very different, and from the shape,and risk spoiling the data on the desirableAPRIL 2011 PAYLOAD OVERVIEW 29
  32. 32. scientist can pick out the one positron from as can then be compared to stellar maps tomany as 100,000 protons, or one antiproton determine the AMS’s orientation.from 100 electrons. The GPS antenna is fixed on the top of theThe ECAL is made up of nine super-layers, Transition Radiation Detector, and the receivereach of which contains 11 leaves of thick lead is on top of the AMS.foil alternating with layers of scintillating fibers, Teamglued together. Led by Principle Investigator and SpokespersonElectronics Samuel Ting of the Massachusetts InstituteThe AMS uses about 300,000 electronics of Technology and Deputy Spokespersonchannels to provide power to the detectors and Roberto Battiston, of the University ofrecord the data they collect. That is about Perugia, Italy, the AMS team includes somethe same number of channels in this one 600 physicists from 56 institutions inexperiment as the rest of the International 16 countries. The various participants builtSpace Station requires in total. their particular contributions, which were all integrated when the AMS was built at CERN inThe AMS computers were specifically designed Geneva.and tested for space applications, so everypiece of electronics, including each computer, During the STS-134 mission and for the firston the AMS is at least 10 to 100 times faster several months afterward, about 40 members ofthan any available aerospace component. The the AMS team will monitor the experiment andexperiment will gather more than seven analyze the data it sends down from thegigabits of data, per second. That data will then Payload Operations Control Center at Johnsonbe analyzed, compressed by Space Center in Houston. Eventually AMS650 computers onboard the station and readied operations will move back to CERN, where thefor transmission to Earth at approximately AMS team will continue monitoring thesix megabits per second. experiment 24 hours a day, gathering data for as long as the space station is in orbit.The Star Trackers and GPS Countries participatingTo correlate the findings of the AMS with thoseof other scientific instruments in space, it is Europe: Denmark. Finland, France,important to know where the AMS Germany, Italy, Theis looking as it gathers its information. To track Netherlands, Portugal,its position and the direction its pointing, the Romania, Russia, Spain,AMS has two Star Trackers (pointed in different Switzerlanddirections, so that when one is pointing at the Asia: China, South Korea, Taiwansun and therefore blinded, the other can still North America: United States, Mexicoprovide information) and a GPS. The StarTrackers will take one photo of the sky in a Institutions and agencies participating:6-degree field-of-view per second. The photos http://www.ams02.org/partners/participating- institutions/30 PAYLOAD OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  33. 33. NASA Participation and the STS-134 NASA has been a part of the AMS project sinceMission 1994, overseeing the integration of the various parts of the experiment at CERN and providingThe AMS will be launched into space aboard advice on making them hardy enough tospace shuttle Endeavour as part of the STS-134 survive in the extreme environments of space.mission, and installed on the S3 segment of theInternational Space Station’s truss system. ResultsAs soon as Endeavour makes it into orbit and It is difficult to anticipate exactly what scientiststhe cargo bay doors are open, the AMS team on might learn from the AMS – historically, few ofthe ground will turn the experiment on to make the major physics experiments that have beensure that it survived launch intact. Then, after performed discovered what they originally setarriving at the space station on flight day 3, the out to look for. Much work has been doneSTS-134 crew members on flight day 4 will ahead of time by the AMS team to ensure thatinstall the AMS robotically from inside the the instrument will work as its intended, and sostation and shuttle. Mission Specialists long as it does, they will consider any newRoberto Vittori and Andrew Feustel will use information they uncover a success.the space station’s robotic arm to lift theexperiment out of the shuttle’s cargo bay. They EXPRESS LOGISTICS CARRIER 3will hand it over to the space station’s robotic Space shuttle Endeavour’s STS-134/ULF6arm, with Pilot Greg H. Johnson and Mission payload includes the ExPRESS LogisticsSpecialists Greg Chamitoff at the controls, for Carrier (ELC) 3 and the AMS. The totalinstallation on three guideposts (called a payload weight, not counting the middeck, isPayload Attach System) on the truss. 29,323 pounds. The space shuttle will carry onOnce it is installed, the astronauts will have its middeck a variety of experiments andvery little involvement with the AMS, but the supplies.experiment will benefit in many ways from The OBSS will go up on the space shuttle, butbeing installed on the space station. The space will be stored on the truss structure on thestation will provide it with power and a way to International Space Station. The OBSS is beingsend data back to scientists on the ground, and stored on two pieces of Orbital Supportsince it is able to orbit as part of the space Equipment (OSE) that are attached to the zenithstation, it has no need of any independent trunnion pins of the Starboard one (S1) trusscontrol or maneuvering system. segment.APRIL 2011 PAYLOAD OVERVIEW 31
  34. 34. ELC3 LayoutThe OBSS is being stored on the station for The Expedite the Processing of Experiments tothe purposes of having it available as a the Space Station (ExPRESS) Logistics Carriercontingency tool during a spacewalk. The (ELC) is a platform designed to supportOBSS serves as an “extension” to the Space external payloads mounted to the InternationalStation Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) Space Station starboard and port trusses withwhen grappled to it. In the event that a crew either deep space or Earthward views. Eachmember is required to work beyond the typical pallet spans the entire width of the shuttle’sreach of the SSRMS, the SSRMS can grapple payload bay, can carry science experiments,onto the OBSS (after it is removed from the and serve as a parking place for spare hardwareOSE) and increase its usable length by the that can be replaced robotically once in orbit.50-foot OBSS. An example might be if one of The ELC is capable of carrying as manythe solar arrays needed repair while in the fully as 12 fully integrated payloads, Orbitaldeployed/rotated orientation. Replacement Units (ORUs), or other loads of outfitting cargo.Boeing provided the OSE hardware andthermal/structural analysis that ensures the STS-134 will carry ELC 3 to the station where itOBSS could be safely stored in orbit. The OBSS will be placed on the Port 3 truss upper inboardcan be safely stored in orbit indefinitely. Passive Attachment System (PAS). ELC 1 and 2 were placed on the station’s truss structure during STS-129. ELC-4 was carried to the32 PAYLOAD OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  35. 35. station on STS-133 and was installed on the provides power to the ELCs through twoStarboard 3 truss lower inboard PAS. ELC 1 is 3 Kilowatt (kW), 120 Volts direct current (V dc)mounted on the Port 3 truss element feeds at the station to ELC interface. The ELCUnpressurized Cargo Carrier Attachment power distribution module converts theSystem (UCCAS) while ELC 2 was placed on 120 V dc power to 120 V dc and 28 V dc. Boththe Starboard 3 truss upper outboard PAS. power voltages are provided to each payload attached site by separated buses. 120 V dcRemmele Engineering, based in Minneapolis, power is also provided to the other cargoMinn., built the integral aluminum ELC decks attached site.for NASA. Engineers from Goddard SpaceFlight Center’s Carriers Development Office ELC 3 is the final of four ELCs total to bedeveloped the challenging, lightweight ELC attached to the station before the scheduleddesign, which incorporates elements of both the retirement of the space shuttle. Two ELCsExPRESS Pallet and the Unpressurized attached to the Starboard truss 3 (S3) and twoLogistics Carrier. Orbital Science Corporation ELCs mated to the Port truss 3 (P3). Bybuilt the ELC. attaching at the S3/P3 sites, a variety of views such as zenith (deep space) or nadirEach ELC can accommodate 12 Flight (Earthward) direction with a combination ofReleasable Attachment Mechanism ram (forward) or wake (aft) pointing allows for(FRAM)-based cargos which includes two many possible viewing opportunities. Cargopayload attached sites with full avionics stationed on the ELC is exposed to theaccommodation. The mass capacity for an microgravity and vacuum environments ofELC is 9,800 pounds (4,445 kg) with a volume space for extended periods of time whileof 98 feet (30 meters) cubed. The empty weight docked to the station, unshielded from incidentof ELC 3 is around 4,000 pounds. The station radiation and orbital debris. The International Space Station contains several unpressurized platforms that include ExPRESS Logistics Carriers (ELC) 1-4 and External Storage Platforms (ESP) 1-2 ExPRESS Logistics Carrier 3 (ELC 3)APRIL 2011 PAYLOAD OVERVIEW 33
  36. 36. ELC 3 contains one site designated to Boeing has the responsibility under itsaccommodate payloads launched on other Checkout, Assembly and Payload Processingmissions. NASA uses a system on the external Services (CAPPS) contract with NASA, forcarriers to attach to ORUs and payloads payload integration and processing forconsisting of the Flight Releasable Attachment every major payload that flies on each spaceMechanism (FRAM). This mechanism has shuttle flight. The Boeing processing teaman active side with moving mechanical provides all engineering and hands-on workcomponents, and a passive side that the active including payload support, project planning,side engages with mechanically driven pins and receiving of payloads, payload processing,latches. The active FRAM is driven by an maintenance of associated payload groundEVA astronaut using a Pistol Grip Tool, systems, and logistics support. This includesor the station’s robotic arm. These FRAM integration of payloads into the space shuttle,mechanisms are mounted to the ELC test and checkout of the payload with theon PFRAM Adapter Plate Assemblies (PFAPs) orbiter systems, launch support and orbiterand also provide an electrical connection that postlanding payload activities.can be used if needed by the ORU or payloadbeing attached. This empty PFRAM will beused for a future payload. Top view of the ELC 334 PAYLOAD OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  37. 37. Bottom (keel) view of the ELC 3ELC 3 will carry seven ORUs and one inventory management, and provides theempty PFAP. The weight of the ELC 3 is capability to vent the PM and ATA byapproximately 14,023 pounds with the ORUs connection to an external nonpropulsive ventinstalled. The following is a description of panel. The length is 57 inches by 80 inchesthose items: width with a height of 45 inches. A new ATA, with 600 pounds of Ammonia, weighsAmmonia Tank Assembly approximately 1,702 pounds.The primary function of the Ammonia TankAssembly (ATA) is to store the ammonia usedby the External Thermal Control System(ETCS). The major components in the ATAinclude two ammonia storage tanks, isolationvalves, heaters, and various temperature,pressure and quantity sensors. There is oneATA per loop located on the zenith side of theStarboard 1 (Loop A) and Port 1 (Loop B) trusssegments. Each is used to fill their respectiveETCS loop on startup (loops are launched withnitrogen in the lines) and to supply makeupfluid to that loop. It also assists the Pump Cover is removed on the AmmoniaModule (PM) accumulator with ammonia Tank AssemblyAPRIL 2011 PAYLOAD OVERVIEW 35
  38. 38. Cargo Transportation Container ACU is programmed to receive and process commands from the station crew or fromELC 3 will carry a Cargo Transportation ground control for moving Canadarm2. TheContainer (CTC) 2 that will contain 10 Remote ACU is being launched on STS-134 to add to thePower Controller Modules (a large circuit inventory of Canadian pre-positioned spares inbreaker box) and 11 RPCM ORU Adapter Kits orbit.(OAKs) – basically brackets installed in the CTCto hold the ORUs. The empty RPCM OAK is Orbital Sciences Corporation delivered fiveused for a “fast swap” as the RPCM has a CTCs to NASA for use in conjunction with thelimited thermal clock, this allows the arm to resupply of the International Space Station.remove the bad RPCM first, open the lid, place Each CTC measures about 4 feet by 3 feet bythat in the blank spot, grab the replacement and 3 feet. The CTC weighs in at 809 pounds.install it in the shortest amount of time. (680 pounds is the weight of the box only). Depending on internal configuration it canIn addition, the CTC will contain an Arm weigh up to a total of 1,300 pounds, for thisComputer Unit (ACU) ORU. The ACU is the mission it is coming in at a total of 1,050heart of the computer subsystem of Canadarm2 pounds.– the station’s Canadian-built robotic arm. The Cargo Transportation Container36 PAYLOAD OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  39. 39. The CTCs can be opened and their contentsretrieved either through robotic methodsor by astronauts performing extravehicularoperations.High-Pressure Gas TankHigh pressure oxygen onboard the spacestation provides support for EVAs andcontingency metabolic support for the crew.This high pressure O2 is brought to the stationby the High-Pressure Gas Tanks (HPGTs) andis replenished by the space shuttle by using theOxygen Recharge Compressor Assembly(ORCA). There are several drivers that must be High-Pressure Gas Tank with the coverconsidered in managing the available high removedpressure oxygen on the station. The amount ofoxygen the space shuttle can fly up is driven by S-Band Antenna Support Assemblymanifest mass limitations, launch slips; and in-orbit shuttle power requirements. The amount The S-band Antenna Support Assembly (SASA)of oxygen that is used from the station’s HPGTs is an assembly that consists of the Assemblyis driven by the number of shuttle docked and Contingency Radio Frequency Group (RFG, orundocked EVAs, the type of EVA prebreathe ACRFG), SASA Boom and Avionics Wireprotocol that is used, contingency use of oxygen Harness.for metabolic support, and emergency oxygen. The SASA supports the RFG in each of theThe HPGT will be transferred from ELC 3 to the two redundant strings of S-Band hardware onQuest airlock. The HPGT measures 5 feet by the Port 1 (P1) and Starboard 1 (S1) trusses.6.2 feet by 4.5 feet and weighs approximately The major functions of the RFG are to receive a1,240 pounds of which 220 pounds is gaseous modulated radio signal from the S-bandoxygen at 2,450 pounds per square inch of Transponder, amplify it to a power levelpressure. The HPGT was provided by Boeing. necessary to be acquired by the Tracking Data and Relay Satellite (TDRS), and broadcast that signal through the selected antenna. Also, the RFG receives a signal from the TDRS through the antenna, amplifies it, and sends it to the Transponder for demodulation. The RFG consists of three units: the Assembly/ Contingency (S-Band) Transmitter/Receiver Assembly (ACTRA), a High Gain Antenna (HGA), and a Low Gain Antenna (LGA).APRIL 2011 PAYLOAD OVERVIEW 37
  40. 40. The SASA boom assembly consists of a mast, an The total envelope of the RFG is 36" × 59" × 33"EVA handle, a harness, a connector panel, a (maximum dimensions). The SASA boom ismounting surface for the RFG, and a baseplate 61" × 30¼" × 43". The entire SASA weighsfitting. The baseplate fitting is the structural 256 pounds. The unit that is being flown oninterface for mounting the SASA to the truss on this mission was provided by MacDonaldthe station. The Avionics Wire Harness is Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. (MDA).installed on the SASA Boom Assembly.Through the harness, operational and heater In addition to the two SASAs in use, there ispower are provided to the RFG; command and currently an external in-orbit spare, deliveredstatus signals and RF transmit and receive on STS-129 and installed on the Zenith 1 (Z1)signals are sent to and from RFG. truss. ELC 3 will hold two additional spare SASAs, one on the “top” side, the other on the “keel” side. Photo of the S-Band Antenna Support Assembly38 PAYLOAD OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  41. 41. Diagram of the S-Band Antenna Support AssemblyDextre the tasks currently performed by astronauts. Not only does this innovation reduce the risksDextre (also known as the Special Purpose to human life in space, but the technology isDexterous Manipulator), is the station’s currently being miniaturized for delicatetwo-armed robotic “handyman,” or medical procedures here on Earth.telemanipulator. Dextre’s reach and delicate manipulationDextre was built by MacDonald, Dettwiler and capabilities allow servicing and maintenance ofAssociates Ltd. (MDA) as part of the Canadian user ORUs. Dextre’s ORU Tool ChangeoutSpace Agency’s Mobile Servicing System, Mechanism (OTCM) can interface mechanicallyCanada’s robotic contribution to the with user equipment or robotic tools byInternational Space Station. Outfitted with two grasping a Standard Dexterous Grasphighly maneuverable arms and interchangeable Fixture (SDGF) that is attached to the usertools, Dextre is designed to carry out many of equipment (ORU) or robotic tools.APRIL 2011 PAYLOAD OVERVIEW 39
  42. 42. Photo of DextreSTS-134 will deliver a spare arm for Dextre to Space Test Program − Houston 3the station. The spare is 11.5 feet (3.51 metres)long with seven joints and a load-carrying Space Test Program − Houston 3 (STP-H3) is acapability of 1,320 pounds (600 kg). The seven complement of four individual experimentsjoints provide the arm with the flexibility to that will test concepts in low Earth orbit forgrasp difficult-to-reach ORUs. It is equipped long duration. The first experiment, Massivewith an Orbital Tool Changeout Mechanism Heat Transfer Experiment (MHTEX) is(OTCM) at the end of the arm to hold different sponsored by the Air Force Researchtypes of tools. It also has a camera and light Lab (AFRL). Its goal is to achieve flightthat provide imagery of robotic targets. ORUs qualification of an advanced capillary pumpedremoved by Dextre are temporarily stored on a loop system that includes multiple parallelplatform (Enhanced ORU Temporary Platform) evaporators, a dedicated starter pump and anattached to robot’s body. advanced hybrid evaporator. Extended operation in the microgravity environment is to be demonstrated, and correlation of performance to ground testing for design and40 PAYLOAD OVERVIEW APRIL 2011
  43. 43. test purposes will be performed. The second than traditional thermal blankets. The thirdexperiment, Variable emissivity device Aerogel experiment, Digital Imaging Star Camerainsulation blanket Dual zone thermal control (DISC) is sponsored by the Naval ResearchExperiment suite for Responsive space Laboratory (NRL). It is a low size, weight and(VADER), is also sponsored by the AFRL. It power sensor used for pointing knowledgewill test a robust, reconfigurable thermal of 0.02 deg or greater. The fourth experiment,control system that is focused primarily at Canary (not an acronym) is sponsored by thesmall responsive space missions but is U.S. Air Force Academy. It will investigate theapplicable to a wide range of missions and interaction of approaching spacecraft and thesatellite classes. It will also test a new form of background plasma environment around theMulti-Layer Insulation (MLI) protection using station. The STP-H3 complement is integratedAerogel material as the thermal isolator. This and flown under the direction and managementmaterial is more durable, lighter and cheaper of the DoD Space Test Program Houston office. Photo of the Space Test Program − Houston 3APRIL 2011 PAYLOAD OVERVIEW 41
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  45. 45. RENDEZVOUS & DOCKINGEndeavour’s launch for the STS-134 mission is resolution and a 400 mm lens providingtimed to lead to a link up with the International three-inch resolution.Space Station about 220 miles above the Earth.A series of engine firings during the first two The photography is one of several techniquesdays of the mission will bring the shuttle to a used to inspect the shuttle’s thermal protectionpoint about 50,000 feet behind the station. Once system for possible damage. Areas of specialthere, Endeavour will start its final approach. interest include the thermal protection tiles, theAbout 2.5 hours before docking, the shuttle’s reinforced carbon-carbon panels along the wingjets will be fired during what is called the leading edges and the nosecap, landing gearterminal initiation burn. The shuttle will cover doors and the elevon cove. The photos will bethe final miles to the station during the next downlinked through the station’s Ku-bandorbit. communications system for analysis by imagery experts in Mission Control.As Endeavour moves closer to the station,its rendezvous radar system and trajectory When Endeavour completes its back flip, it willcontrol sensor will provide the crew with range be back where it started with its payload bayand closing-rate data. Several small correction facing the station. Kelly then will fly the shuttleburns will place the shuttle about 1,000 feet through a quarter circle to a position aboutbelow the station. 400 feet directly in front of the station. From that point, he will begin the final approach toCommander Mark Kelly, with help from pilot docking to the Pressurized Mating Adapter 2 atGregory H. Johnson and other crew members, the forward end of the Harmony node.will manually fly the shuttle for the remainderof the approach and docking. The shuttle crew members will operate laptop computers that process the navigational data,Kelly will stop Endeavour about 600 feet below the laser range systems and Endeavour’sthe station. Timing the next steps to occur with docking mechanism.proper lighting, he will maneuver the shuttlethrough an approximate eight-minute back flip Using a video camera mounted in the center ofcalled the rendezvous pitch maneuver, also the orbiter docking system, Kelly will line upknown as the R-bar pitch maneuver since the docking ports of the two spacecraft. IfEndeavour is in line with an imaginary vertical necessary, he will pause the shuttle 30 feet fromR-bar directly below the station. During this the station to ensure the proper alignment ofmaneuver, station crew members Paolo Nespoli the docking mechanisms. He will maintainand Cady Coleman will photograph the shuttle’s speed relative to the station atEndeavour’s upper and lower surfaces through about one-tenth of a foot per second, whilewindows of the Zvezda Service Module. They both Endeavour and the station are movingwill use digital cameras equipped with an at about 17,500 mph. Kelly will keep the800 mm lens to provide up to one-inchAPRIL 2011 RENDEZVOUS & DOCKING 43
  46. 46. docking mechanisms aligned to a tolerance of Endeavour will move to a distance of aboutthree inches. 450 feet, where Johnson will begin to fly around the station. Endeavour will circle the shuttleWhen Endeavour makes contact with the around the station at a distance of aboutstation, preliminary latches will automatically 600 feet. The shuttle crew will take detailedlink the two spacecraft. The shuttle’s steering photographs of the external structure of thejets will be deactivated to reduce the forces station, which serves as importantacting at the docking interface. Shock absorber documentation for the ground teams insprings in the docking mechanism will dampen Houston to monitor the orbiting laboratory.any relative motion between the shuttle andstation. Once the shuttle completes 1.5 revolutions of the complex, Johnson will fire Endeavour’s jetsOnce motion between the shuttle and the to leave the area. Nearly two hours afterstation has been stopped, the docking ring will undocking a second firing of the engines, whichbe retracted to close a final set of latches would normally take the shuttle further away,between the two vehicles. will serve as the first maneuver to bringThe Sensor Test for Orion Rel-nav Risk Endeavour back toward the station for theMitigation, or STORRM, system is flying STORRM. The test will characterize theaboard Endeavour to examine sensor performance of sensors in Endeavour’s payloadtechnologies that could make it easier for future bay and acquisition of reflectors on the shuttle’sspace vehicles to dock to the International docking target at the station.Space Station. It will gather data during the The re-rendezvous will mimic the Orioninitial rendezvous and docking to the station, vehicle’s planned rendezvous trajectory andduring the nominal undocking, and again will approach no closer than 600 feet to theduring a dedicated re-rendezvous. station. Endeavour is targeted to approach the station to a point 1,000 feet below and 300 feetUNDOCKING, SEPARATION AND behind the station at its closest point.DEPARTURE Nearly five hours after undocking, Endeavour’sAt undocking time, the hooks and latches will engines will fire again to depart the station’sbe opened and springs will push the shuttle vicinity. The shuttle will begin to increaseaway from the station. Endeavour’s steering its distance behind the station with each tripjets will be shut off to avoid any inadvertent around the Earth while ground teams analyzefirings during the initial separation. data from the late inspection of the shuttle’sOnce the shuttle is about two feet from the heat shield. However, the distance will bestation and the docking devices are clear of one close enough to allow the shuttle to return toanother, Johnson will turn the steering jets back the station in the unlikely event that the heaton and will manually control Endeavour within shield is damaged, preventing the shuttle’s safea tight corridor as the shuttle separates from the re-entry.station.44 RENDEZVOUS & DOCKING APRIL 2011
  47. 47. SPACEWALKS NASA astronaut Greg Chamitoff, STS-134 mission specialist, attired in a training version of hisExtravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit, awaits the start of a spacewalk training session in the waters of the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) near NASA’s Johnson Space Center.APRIL 2011 SPACEWALKS 45

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