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Aging And Affecting Factor

Aging And Affecting Factor






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    Aging And Affecting Factor Aging And Affecting Factor Presentation Transcript

    • Your amazing body Gas- On average, you will release 2 litres of gases from your intestines today as burps or farts. Hair- Hair grows about 0.5mm a day. Heartbeats- Your heart pumps 13,640 litres of blood around your body in a day – enough to fill nearly 40,000 drink cans. An average heart beat pumps 59cc of blood. An average heart beat rate of 70 beats a minute adds up to more than 100,000 beats a day. Blood- An adult man’s body contains about 5 litres of blood. A woman’s contains about 4.3 litres. The blood travels along 100,000 km of blood vessels, which is equal to going 2.5 times round the equator. It contains 25,000,000,000 to 30,000,000,000 red cells . The life span of red cells is only about 120 days, and 1,200,000 to 2,000,0000 of them are made every second. In a human life time you will make 0.5 tonne of red cells. Red cells are made and destroyed at a rate of 2-3 million per second.
      • Brain power- You lose 100,000 brain cells every day! Luckily you have 100 billion altogether. If the surface area of your brain could be ironed out it would measure 2,090 sqm.
      • Breathing –The average person inhales 65 liters a day. You take
      • 13-17 breaths a minute when sitting still and up to 80 during vigorous exercise. If you average 20 breaths a minute, you breathe 28,800 times a day.
      • Cells – There are 50 trillion cells in your body and 3 billion of them
      • die every minute (4,320,000,000 a day). Most of these are replaced.
      • You make 10 billion new white blood cells each day. You have a
      • total of 1,000,000,000,000 white cells, which help fight germs and infections.
      • Mouth - You will produce 37,800 litres of saliva in your lifetime.
      • Nails – Your fingernails grow 0.05cm a week, which is four times faster than your toenails.
      • Nerves –There are about 13,000,000,000,000 nerve cells in your body, transmitting messages at speeds of 290 km/hr as fast as the worlds speediest road cars.
      • Nose – Your sneezes can travel at 160km/h – as fast as a train.
      • Skin – Your skin weighs up to 4 kg and covers an area of up to 1.3 – 1.7 sqm. Getting dressed ad un dressed, rubbing body parts together, and even breathing cause microscopic flakes of skin to fall off at the rate of 50,000 flakes a minute. In a life time you will shed a total of 18kg of skin. Up to 80 percent of house hold dust is made of dead human skin cells.
    • Sleep – In 7.5 hours of sleep, you will sleep lightly for 60 percent of the time and deeply for 18 percent . You will dream for 20 percent of the time. Sweat – You lose about 0.5 litres of water a day through 3,000,000 sweat glands. In hot climates you may lose as much as 13.5 litres a day. Urine – You will pass between 400 and 2,000 milliliters of urine every day, depending on how old you are, your body size and the outside conditions, especially temperature. Chemicals – There is enough carbon in your body to fill 900 pencils, enough fat to make a 7.5cm nail. Digestive system – Your stomach produces up to 2 litres of hydrochloric acid a day. Stomach acid is strong enough to dissolve metals, but it does not have time to damage the stomach walls because 500,000 cells in your stomach lining are replaced every minute. The small intestine is about 5m long and is the longest part of your digestive system. The large intestine is a thicker tube, but is only about 1.5m long. Eyes – You blink about 20,000 times a day.
    • What’s your body made of ? 1 Silicon 140 Sulphur 2.3 Zinc 780 Phosphorus 4 Iron 1200 Calcium 25 Magnesium 1800 Nitrogen 95 Chlorine 7000 Hydrogen 100 Sodium 16000 Carbon 110-140 Potassium 43000 Oxygen Average in 70kg person (g) Elements Average in 70kg person (g) Elements
    • Largest human organs 315 265 Male Female Heart 580 510 Right Left Lungs 1408 1263 Male Female Brain 1560 Liver 4100 Skin Average weight (grams) Organ
    • 6 6 Left Right Adrenals 20 Male only Prostate 35 Thyroid 98 Pancreas 170 Spleen 150 140 Left Right Kidneys
    • What we eat in life time(80 ) 1,140 Poultry 1,444 Cakes and biscuits 1,851 Processed fruit and nuts 2,092 Cereals 2,113 Other fresh vegetables 2,775 Processed vegetables 2,991 Fresh potatoes 3,058 Alcoholic drinks 3,166 Fresh fruit 3,261 Bread 7,255 Soft drinks 8,969 Milk and cream Amount eaten (kg) Food/drink
      • Continution
      • Fresh green vegetables 1,023
      • Fats 836
      • Sugar and preserves (jam, etc) 720
      • Fish 678
      • Beef and veal 537
      • Sweets 532
      • Cheese 458
      • Eggs 404
      • Flour 304
      • Beverages 295
      • Pork 258
      • Mutton & lamb 2 04
    • 115 years and 228 days 115 years and 252 days 115 years and 319 days 116 years and 88 days 116 years and 175 days 117 years and 229 days 117 years and 229 days 117 years and 248 days 119 years and 248 days 122 years and 164 days Age UK Denmark/USA USA USA Japan USA Canada USA USA France Country Charlotte Hughes (1877-1993) Christan Mortensen (1882-1998) Maggie Barnes (1882-1998) Carrie white (1874-1991) Tane Ikai (1879-1995) Estella jones (1881-1999) Marie-Louise Meillur (1881-1999) Lucy Hannah (1875-1993) Sarah DeRemer Knauss (1880-1999) Jeanne Calment (1857-1997) Name/dates
      • People do not want to die and they want to look and feel young until they do die.
      • Does heredity determine life span? Can length and quality of life be influenced by lifestyle, environment, less stress, positive attitudes? It's the old question of "nature versus nurture.“
    • Usually five women reach the century mark for every man who accomplishes that feat. Jean Calment, who died in 1997 at the age of 122. In 1900 the average life expectancy was 45 years. Japan had the highest average healthy life expectancy of 74.5 years. The U.S. placed 24th with 70.0 years.
      • “ Relatively minor" effect and variable manifestations of genetic risk factors, is that lifestyle and other environmental influences profoundly change the outcomes of aging. Several studies suggest that only about 25% of the variance in adult longevity is attributable to genetic differences. The other 75% seems to be related to early life events and a person's current environment and lifestyle. Physically active people have a life expectancy which is, on average, seven years longer than sedentary people .
      • There is less depression, less anxiety, better mental efficiency, higher self esteem, more restful sleep, more relaxation, spontaneity, enthusiasm, and better self acceptance. Most centenarians studied kept active, both physically and mentally. They "adopt strategies to keep their minds sharp and their limbs strong." The mediators scored highest in mental health, cheerfulness, and improved learning ability, and lowest in blood pressure. Three years later, about one-third of the residents had died. However, all of the mediators were still alive. Not only does meditation seem to prolong life, it enhances the quality of life.
      • After compiling insurance data from 2,000 individuals who meditated regularity and comparing it with comparable data from a group of non-mediators, it was found that mediators required only half as much medical care as their matched controls who did not meditate. There were reductions in hospital admissions in 17 major medical treatment categories including 87% less heart disease; 55% fewer benign and malignant tumors; 87% fewer nervous disorders, 30% fewer infectious diseases.
      • Poor nutritional status (inadequate intake of nutrients and/or excessive intake of nutrient-poor foods) is "a major problem in older Americans." Data show that about 80% of diets of free-living people age 65 or older are "needing improvement" or "poor." Under-nutrition is especially prevalent among hospitalized and nursing home elderly. Deficiencies were found in 53% of males and 61% of females by the time of admission to the hospital. Under-nutrition "possibly Precedes debilitation and disease and is a contributing factor to hospitalization
      • 86% of older Americans have one or more chronic diet related diseases including diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, singly or in combination. "These conditions have adverse health consequences that could be prevented or reduced with appropriate nutrition intervention."
      • Some single nutrients studied and found to be deficient or especially important to aging persons include: vitamins B1 B2", B3", B 6 folate, B 12, A, E, D, and C, carotenoids, linoleic and linolenic fatty acids, phosphatidylcholine (precursor of acetylcholine, the chemical messenger that jumps between nerves and muscles to make muscles contract), ribonucleic acid, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, selenium, iodine, chromium, molybdenum, manganese,
      • Trace minerals in general.
      • Oatmeal, olive oil, raisins, apples, and other fruits. they did all eat moderately and sensibly. their current weight was close to what they had weighed their entire adult lives; 99% did not meet the criteria for obesity. None revealed any history of alcohol abuse. Smoking was practically nonexistent. Most kept active, both physically and mentally.
    • After 30-35 years several systems of aging start making their appearance slowly. The Thymus gland which is responsible for protecting The body against invading foreign organism weighs about 200-250 grammas at birth. After maturityorganbegins to shrink and by the 60 th year reduced To a small size about 3-5 grammas.
    • By the time of one is sixty, as much as three fourths of an inch in height is lost,
      • More than half the muscle mass is lost by time one is seventy.
    • There is increase in incidence of anaemia in old age due to depletion of blood forming step cells.
      • More than 50% of the population suffer from cataract by the time they attain the age of sixty.
    • Long sleep diminishes tend to sleep shorter duration and quality of sleep is light rather than deep one.
      • A 2% reduction in the calorie requirement occurs every ten years.
    • Brain losses 20% of its weight from adult hood to old age.
      • . Diseases of the heart account for over 50% of deaths offer the age of sixty five.
    • . May flies – 1 day House flies – 30days Rat – 3years Dogs – 12 years Horses – 25 years Elephant – 65 years Man – 70years
    • Stochastic theories again predict that the aging process can be influenced by random events that takes place inside the body as well as out side the body for example exposure to radiation, dietary habits and climate condition .
      • Stochastic Theories
      • The Death Gene Theory.
      • Gene regulation Theory.
      • Colon restriction Theory.
      • Somastic mutation Theory.
      • DNA Damage and Repair Theory .
      • Prof MS Kannugo gene after reproductive maturity is reached there is a sequential activation and repression of genes through the three phases of life- Development, reproductivity and senescence.
      • Shows that in general there after springs of along live parents have a longer life span.
      • (Vilcabamba,Humza,Abkhasia) (120) years.
      • Exposure to radiation damages the structure of
      • DNA the blue print.
    • THE LONGEVITY PUZZLE The mutations seem to make cells less responsive than normal to insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1), a key growth hormone secreted by the liver. In past studies, IGF1 disruption increased the life span of mice by 30 to 40 percent and delayed the onset of age-related diseases in the animals. The finding suggests that the IGF1R mutations confer added "susceptibility" to longevity, perhaps in concert with other genetic variants, the research team reports in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
      • IGF1 is well known among longevity genes . A regulator of growth and differentiation, it has a strong effect on body size, accounting for size extremes in dogs , for example. Animals fed restricted calorie diets live longer and show lower levels of IGF1. (Also implicated are changes in activity of the sirtuin or SIRT protein
      • family.) When engineered specifically to produce less of the hormone, they don't grow as large, but their life span is 30 to 50 percent longer.
      • genes such as the one for human growth hormone, which stimulates IGF1 production.
    • Eat (Less) to Live (Longer)
      • Scientists have known for more than 70 years that the one surefire way to extend the lives of animals was to cut calories by an average of 30 to 40 percent. The question was: Why?
      • Now a new study begins to unravel the mystery and the mechanism by which reducing food intake protects cells against aging and age-related diseases.
      • Researchers report in the journal Cell that the phenomenon is likely linked to two enzymes—SIRT3 and SIRT4—in mitochondria (the cell's powerhouse that, among other tasks, converts nutrients to energy). They found that a cascade of reactions triggered by lower caloric intake raises the levels of these enzymes, leading to an increase in the strength and efficiency of the cellular batteries. By invigorating the mitochondria, SIRT3 and SIRT4 extend the life of cells, by preventing flagging mitochondria from developing tiny holes (or pores) in their membranes that allow proteins that trigger apoptosis, or cell death, to seep out into the rest of the cell.
      • The researchers determined from cultures of human embryonic kidney cells that lower caloric intake sends a signal that activates a gene inside cells that codes for the enzyme NAMPT (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase). The two- to four-fold surge in NAMPT in turn triggers the production of a molecule called NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), which plays a key role in cellular metabolism and signaling.
      • We began investigating this idea nearly 15 years ago by imagining that evolution would have favored a universal regulatory system to coordinate this well-known response to environmental stress. If we could identify the gene or genes that serve as its master controllers and thereby act as master regulators of an organism's life span, these natural defense mechanisms might be turned into weapons against the diseases and decline that are now apparently synonymous with human aging.
      • Many recently discovered genes, known by such cryptic names as daf-2, pit-1, amp-1, clk-1 and p66Shc , have been found to affect stress resistance and life span in laboratory organisms, suggesting that they could be part of a fundamental mechanism for surviving adversity. But our own two laboratories have focused on a gene called SIR2 , variants of which are present in all organisms studied so far, from yeast to humans. Extra copies of the gene increase longevity in creatures as diverse as yeast, roundworms and fruit flies, and we are working to determine whether it does the same for larger animals, such as mice.
      • As one of the first longevity genes to have been identified, SIR2 is the best characterized, so we will focus here on its workings. They illustrate how a genetically regulated survival mechanism can extend life and improve health, and growing evidence suggests that SIR2 may be the key regulator of that mechanism.
      • When an extra copy of the SIR2 gene was added to the yeast cell, however, formation of the rDNA circles was repressed and the cell's life span was extended by 30 percent. That finding explained how sir2 could act as a longevity gene in yeast, but amazingly, we soon discovered that extra copies of the sir2 gene also extended the life span of roundworms by as much as 50 percent. We were surprised not only by this commonality in organisms separated by a vast evolutionary distance but by the fact that the adult worm body contains only nondividing cells--thus, the replicative aging mechanism in yeast could not apply to worms. We wanted to know exactly what the SIR2 gene does.
      • The Calorie Connection Restricting an animal's calorie intake is the most famous intervention known to extend life span. Discovered more than 70 years ago, it is still the only one absolutely proven to work. The restricted regime typically involves reducing an individual's food consumption by 30 to 40 percent compared with what is considered normal for its species. Animals ranging from rats and mice to dogs and possibly primates
    • that remain on this diet not only live longer but are far healthier during their prolonged lives. Most diseases, including cancer, diabetes and even neurodegenerative illnesses, are forestalled. The organism seems to be supercharged for survival. The only apparent trade-off in some creatures is a loss of fertility.
      • Having seen how life-extending biological stress increases Sir2 activity, the question became, Is Sir2 necessary to produce the longevity? The answer appears to be a resounding "yes." One way to test whether Sir2 is essential to this process is to remove its gene and determine whether the effect remains. In organisms as complex as fruit flies, calorie restriction does require SIR2 to extend life span. And because the body of an adult fruit fly contains numerous tissues that are analogous to mammalian organs,
      • we suspect that calorie restriction in mammals is also likely to require SIR2 .
      • A handful of genes that control the body's defenses during hard times can also dramatically improve health and prolong life in diverse organisms. Understanding how they work may reveal the keys to extending human life span while banishing diseases of old age
      • This possibility led us to wonder whether Sirt1, in turn, also regulates fat storage in response to diet. Indeed, Sirt1 activity is increased in fat cells after food limitation, causing fat stores to move from the cells into the bloodstream for conversion to energy in other tissues. We surmise that Sirt1 senses the diet, then dictates the level of fat storage and thus the pattern of hormones produced by fat cells. This effect on fat and the signals it sends would, in turn,
    • set the pace of aging in the entire organism and make Sirt1 a key regulator of the longevity conferred by calorie restriction in mammals. It would also closely link aging and metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, associated with excess fat. Intervening pharmacologically in the Sirt1 pathway in fat cells might therefore forestall not only aging but also specific ailments
      • We also know that the SIR2 family of genes evolved far back in time because today they are found in organisms ranging from baker's yeast, Leishmania parasites and roundworms to flies and humans. In all these organisms but the last, which has not yet been tested, Sirtuins dictate length of life. This fact alone convinces us that human Sirtuin genes probably hold the key to our health and longevity as well.
    • MAIZE
    • NUTS
    • BANANA
    • GARLIC
    • HONEY