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Black History Presentation

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I was asked to present something educational to the students at my kid\'s school for Black History Month. I agreed, but only on the condition that I would have total liberty in doing so. This is the …

I was asked to present something educational to the students at my kid\'s school for Black History Month. I agreed, but only on the condition that I would have total liberty in doing so. This is the final result.

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  • 1. What is "Race"?
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  • 2. A group of people arbitrarily classified and distinguished as a more or less distinct group by culture, language, genetically transmitted physical characteristics, common history, nationality or geographic distribution.
    A population so related.
    Any of the traditional divisions of humankind, the commonest being the Caucasian, Mongoloid, and Negro.
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  • 3. . . . on the eighth day! of the race of Israel! of the tribe of Benjamin! a Hebrew of Hebrews! according to law a Pharisee! Phillipians 3:5 YLT
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  • 4. And you are a choice race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people acquired, that the excellences you may show forth of Him who out of darkness did call you to His wondrous light. 1Peter 2:9 YLT
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  • 5. That he declareth to her all his heart, and saith to her, `A razor hath not gone up on my head, for a Nazarite to God I am from the womb of my mother; if I have been shaven, then hath my power turned aside from me, and I have been weak, and have been as any of the human race.' Judges 16:17 YLT
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  • 6. What is "Black"?
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  • 7. A member of any of various dark-skinned peoples, esp. those of Africa, Oceania, and Australia.
    Of or belonging to an American ethnic group descended from African peoples having dark skin; African-American.
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  • 8. Of or belonging to a racial group having brown to black skin, especially one of African origin: the Black population of South Africa.
    Of or belonging to an American ethnic group descended from African peoples having dark skin; African-American.
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  • 9. I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, as the tents of Kedar, as the curtains of Solomon. Song of Soloman 1:5
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  • 12. What is "Racism"?
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  • 13. A belief, policy or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement, usually involving the discriminatory idea that one's own race is superior and has the right to rule others.
    Hatred or intolerance of another race or other races.
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  • 14. Then said the woman of Samaria unto him, How is it that thou, being a Jew, ask a drink of me, which am a woman of [the race of] Samaria? for the Jews have no dealings with the Samaritans. John 4:9
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  • 15. Racism has always been with us, but it was never "institutionalized" and propagated so vehemently until two centuries ago. Here is some background information.
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  • 16. Charles Robert Darwin (1809 – 1882) was an English naturalist. After becoming eminent among scientists for his field work and inquiries into geology, he proposed and provided what he considered scientific evidence that all species of life have evolved over time from one or a few common ancestors through the process of natural selection.
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  • 17. His five-year voyage on the Beagle established him as a geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell’s uniformitarian ideas, and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author.
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  • 18. Uniformitarianism, in the philosophy of science, is the assumption that the natural processes operating in the past are the same as those that can be observed operating in the present. Its methodological significance is frequently summarized in the statement: ‘The present is the key to the past.’ Uniformitarianism has been proven false, for just the opposite has been found to be true: ‘The past is the key to the present.’
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  • 19. Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin investigated transmutation (the transformation of one species into another), and advanced the theory of natural selection in 1838. Transmutation has also been proven to be false.
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  • 20. His 1859 book "On the Origin of Species" established evolution as fact, and was accepted by the scientific community and the general public, while his theory of natural selection came to be widely seen as the primary explanation of the process of evolution and now forms the basis of modern evolutionary theory.
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  • 21. As Charles Darwin's ideas on evolutionary theory gained acceptance in the late 1800s, the public's faith in science as a source for social remedies increased in popularity, and scientists have looked for ways to "improve" humanity.
    For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, He snares the wise in their own craftiness. 1Corinthians 3:19
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  • 22. Accompanying these theories was the "science" of eugenics.
    Eugenics - The systematic attempt to increase desirable genetic traits and to decrease undesirable genetic traits in a population.
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  • 23. The term "eugenics" was first coined by Francis Galton in 1869 in his book Hereditary Genius. The term came from the Greek "eugenes," meaning "good in stock." And Galton claimed that judicious mating could "give more suitable races or strains of blood a better chance of prevailing speedily over the less suitable."
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  • 24. Galton introduced the ideas that led to a "scientific" approach to eugenics, including the concept of "positive eugenics" in which he encouraged those he deemed the healthiest and most intelligent to marry one another and procreate.
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  • 25. The theory of eugenics also posed that defective persons procreated more rapidly and bred more readily than normal, the result being that society was flooded with inferior and unproductive people.
    Dobermanexample
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  • 26. Although Galton's theories did not gain widespread acceptance in England, in the United States his ideas were received enthusiastically and interpreted in programs of "negative eugenics" designed to keep certain people from bearing children.
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  • 27. Negative eugenics included such extreme measures as castration and sterilization as well as the institutionalization of people considered "defective" or "undesirable" – those deemed "lower races".
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  • 28. Racial, social, and moral issues were key factors in the American eugenics movement, which grew greatly, not because of the number of people supporting it, but because of the perceived knowledge and importance of the people encouraging it.
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  • 29. Eugenics victims included individuals diagnosed with mental retardation, psychiatric symptoms, epilepsy, deafness, blindness and people considered to be of low moral stature - unwed mothers, thieves, and prostitutes: for such behaviors were thought to be genetically based.
    And the LORD said unto him, Who hath made man's mouth? or who maketh the dumb, or deaf, or the seeing, or the blind? have not I the LORD? Exodus 4:11
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  • 30. A number of states enacted miscegenation laws that prohibited marriage between people of different races because it was believed that mixing the genes of different races would allow undesirable traits to proliferate in the dominant population.
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  • 31. In an attempt to keep the "unfit" from procreating, legislators passed compulsory sterilization laws.
    As arrows are in the hand of a mighty man; so are children of the youth. Happy is the man that hath his quiver full of them: they shall not be ashamed, but they shall speak with the enemies in the gate. Psalms 127:4, 5
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  • 32. Indiana was the first state to pass such legislation in 1907; by 1932, thirty states had similar laws, and approximately 100,000 people had been sterilized.
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  • 33. The Eugenic Strategy
    First. The eugenicists still appeal to racism but the appeal is well disguised - going by such code names as "gene frequency", which is a legitimate term in genetics.
    This is intellectual camouflage guised as science.
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  • 34. Second. The eugenicists adopted a policy of "crypto-eugenics" following World War II. "Crypto-eugenics" means working through other organizations, such as the International Planned Parenthood Federation.
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  • 35. Third. The eugenicists adopted the tactic of finding and using ambiguities and loopholes in the law to introduce the desired eugenic activity as a normal necessary medical procedure, so that the patient himself would request it. Then they would shroud it in medical privacy so that records would be hidden.
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  • 36. Fourth. As anyone familiar with contemporary marketing knows, positioning oneself in the public’s mind with another who is a leader in some way or who is popular, automatically serves to enhance one’s own weaker position. The eugenicists use advertising and people of import and celebrities to rally support. They know that advertising knows how to motivate people emotionally while bypassing their brains and sense of logical reasoning.
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  • 37. Influence – the Power of Persuasion
    by Robert Cialdini
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  • 38. But suddenly, at the turn of the 20th century, the Germans would fervently embrace these ideas more energetically and on a greater scale than all others.
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  • 39. In 1897, because of the militaristic ambitions of Germany at the time, Professor Wilhelm Wundt of Leipzig University in Germany conducted research in experimental psychology with the goal of developing a way to make man more inclined to kill his fellow man.
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  • 40. And to make death more digestible, Wundt widely promoted the idea that as man's soul could not be measured with scientific instruments, therefore it obviously did not exist.
    Man was simply another evolved animal. However,
    God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness . . . Genesis 1:26
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  • 41. Stripped of his soul and now no more than a collection of genes and chemicals - as the theory went - man could be manipulated as easily as a dog could be trained to salivate at the sound of a bell.
    And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. Genesis 2:7
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  • 42. Eugene Fischer, Director of the ‘Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics’ in Berlin theorized that "blacks were devoid of value and useless for employment other than for manual crafts." Fischer also urged the annihilation of "Negro" children.
    And GOD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. Genesis 6:5
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  • 43. In the early 1920s, a then-relatively unknown Adolf Hitler was deeply influenced by the eugenicists. Two books by psychiatrists,
    The Sanctioning of the Destruction of Lives Unworthy To Be Lived and The Principles of Human Heredity and Racial Hygiene shaped his psyche and the direction of his life.
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  • 44. Almost exclusively, from these two books came the theories he articulated in Mein Kampf(My Struggle), the book which later set the stage for the destruction of millions.
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  • 45. As Hitler stated, "The right of (a person’s) personal freedom recedes before his duty to preserve the race."
    It is almost universally accepted that Hitler pushed eugenics, but the truth is that eugenics pushed Hitler.
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  • 46. Ernst Rudin, a psychiatrist at Munich University, described as "one of the most evil men in Germany," was the chief architect of the Nazi's racial hygiene program. He preceded Hitler’s rise to power and started his campaign to purge Germany of its "unfit stock" as early as 1916.
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  • 47. He was a leader in claiming that psychiatry should take a major role in purifying the race, which he said, "involved ensuring that genetically ‘defective’ persons shall not be able to propagate."
    And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply Genesis 1:28
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  • 48. Rudin and Schutzstaffel (SS, Protection Squadron) chief Heinrich Himmler drew up Germany's 1933 sterilization law which called for the sterilization of all Jews and "colored" German children. Psychiatry's Racial Purity law implementing segregation was also introduced.
    Jewish Holocaust Museum
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  • 49. Nor was the United States immune to these repulsive theories. In 1887, G. Stanley Hall, founder of the American Journal of Psychology and first president of the American Psychological Association, theorized that Africans, Indians and Chinese were members of "adolescent races" in a stage of "incomplete growth."
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  • 50. As such, this justified psychiatry and psychology's intervention to save them from the "liabilities and dangers of freedom".
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  • 51. Doctors in the United States applauded Germany's sterilization program.
    Dr. Lorthrop Stoddard, director of the ‘US Birth Control League’ commented, "The sterilization law is weeding out the worst strains, those who are unfit to produce children, in the Germanic stock in a scientific and truly humanitarian way."
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  • 52. Margaret Sanger, a eugenicist and the Founder of Planned Parenthood of America, argued in 1939 for plans to stop the growth of black babies in the US.
    To cover up her plan to "exterminate the Negro population," she suggested approaching blacks "through a religious appeal" would be the "most successful educational approach."
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  • 53. She recommended that black ministers be infiltrated and that "three or four" of them with "engaging personalities" be hired to preach throughout the South that sterilization was a solution to poverty.
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  • 54. The common thread to psychiatry's "scientific" justification for sterilization, brutal surgery and other human rights violations was that IQ regulated behavior and status.
    Through the bogus "scientifically tested and proven" concepts of "low IQ" and "racial inferiority," psychiatry has given legitimacy to 20th century racism.
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  • 55. By the 1920s this was absolute dogma: IQ was congenital, inherited, and thus unchanging.
    In this way, the systematic social crippling of certain races could be carried out, if not by violent psychiatric treatments (which is another presentation in itself), then by denying them proper education, employment and other cultural advantages.
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  • 56. Around the same period, a prominent "expert" in IQ testing, psychologist Lewis Terman of Stanford University, a past president of the American Psychological Association, used his tests to claim that 83 percent of Jews were "feebleminded," that children of the poor could never be educated, and that Mexicans, Indians and Blacks "should never be allowed to reproduce."
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  • 57. Similar theories have been peddled in more recent times. In 1958, Audrey Shuey, author of the book Psychology and Life, wrote that IQ test scores "inevitably point to the presence of native [genetic] differences between Negroes and whites ..."
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  • 58. And this proposition has been spread even as recently as 1994 with Murray and Herrnstein's book, The Bell Curve, claiming that African Americans that do worse than whites in intelligence tests, are "genetically disabled" and therefore cannot cope with the demands of contemporary American society.
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  • 59. When Africans were torn from their families and homes and sold into slavery in the United States, science stood ready to define any disobedience or insubordination by them as a "mental illness."
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  • 60. Much "scientific" and statistical rhetoric was used to justify slavery. One 1840 census "proved" that blacks living under "unnatural conditions of freedom" in the North were more prone to insanity.
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  • 61. Dr. Edward Jarvis, a specialist in mental disorders, used this to conclude that slavery shielded blacks from "some of the liabilities and dangers of active self-direction."
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  • 62. The census was later found to be a racist facade in that many of the Northern towns credited with mentally deranged blacks had no black inhabitants at all!
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  • 63. In 1797, the "father" of American psychiatry, Dr. Benjamin Rush – whose face today still adorns the seal of the ‘American Psychiatric Association’ – declared that the color of blacks was caused by a rare, congenital disease called "negritude" which derived from leprosy.
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  • 64. Using "disease" as the reason for segregation, Rush drew the conclusion that ‘Blacks’ disease should entitle them to a double portion of humanity. However, by the same token, "whites should not intermarry with them, for this would tend to infect posterity with the 'disorder' . . . attempts must be made to cure the disease."
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  • 65. In an address to the ‘American Philosophical Society’, Rush said that the only evidence of a "cure" was when the skin color turned white.
    Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or the leopard his spots? . . . Jeremiah 13:23
    The answer is “No”, so in other words, there is no cure!
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  • 66. Since the late 1800s, psychiatry's reasoning for "protecting" blacks from their own "disease" has had a common thread: that the color of skin somehow determines IQ and signals inferiority.
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  • 67. In 1851, Samuel Cartwright, a prominent Louisiana physician, published an essay entitled "Report on the Diseases and Physical Peculiarities of the Negro Race" in the "New Orleans and Surgical Journal". Cartwright claimed to have discovered two mental diseases peculiar to blacks, which he believed justified their enslavement. These were called "DysaesthesiaAethiopis" and "Drapetomania".
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  • 68. DysaethesiaAethiopis supposedly affected both mind and body. The diagnosable signs included disobedience to slave-owners, answering disrespectfully and refusing to work. Therefore, the slave was violating God’s will that he be a "submissive knee-bender", so by the master, "awe and reverence, must be exacted from them".
    The ‘cure’ was to put the person to some kind of hard labor which apparently sent "vitalized blood to the brain to give liberty to the mind."
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  • 69. "Drapetomania" came from drapetes, a runaway slave, and mania, meaning mad or crazy. Cartwright claimed that this "disease" caused blacks to have an uncontrollable urge to run away from their "masters".
    The "proper medical treatment" for this "illness" was "whipping the devil out of them."
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  • 70. US eugenics advocate Dr. Paul Popenoe published the findings of his study, entitled "Intelligence and Race – a Review of the Results of the Army Intelligence Tests – The Negro in 1918."
    Popenoe concluded, ". . . the Negroes' low mental estate is irremediable . . . The Negro is mentally, therefore eugenically, inferior to the white race. All treatment of the Negro . . . must take into account this fundamental fact."
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  • 71. He fabricated and propagated the idea that the IQ of blacks was determined by the amount of "white blood" they had. The lighter skinned the black was, the higher his IQ, and the blacker he was, the lower the IQ.
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  • 72. ‘Treatment’ of African Americans has included some of the most barbaric experiments ever carried out in the name of "scientific" research - and not very long ago. In the 1950s in New Orleans, black prisoners were used for psychosurgery experiments which involved electrodes being implanted into the brain (another presentation).
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  • 73. The experiments were conducted by an Australian psychiatrist, Dr. Harry Bailey and psychiatrist Dr. Robert Heath from Tulane University.
    Bailey boasted in a lecture to nurses 20 years later that the two psychiatrists had used blacks because it was "cheaper to use Niggers than cats because they were everywhere and cheap experimental animals."
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  • 74. . . . for the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth . . . Genesis 8:21
    The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked: who can know it? Jeremiah 17:9
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  • 75. Young people and Black History.
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  • 76. Sept 1957 (Little Rock, Ark.) Nine black students are blocked from entering the all-white Central High School on the orders of Governor OrvalFaubus. President Eisenhower sends federal troops and the National Guard to intervene on behalf of the students, who become known as the "Little Rock Nine."
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  • 77. Feb 1960 (North Carolina) Four black students from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College begin a sit-in at a segregated Woolworth's lunch counter. Although they are refused service, they are allowed to stay at the counter. The event triggers many similar nonviolent protests throughout the South.
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  • 78. Sept 1963 (Alabama) Four young girls (Denise McNair, Cynthia Wesley, Carole Robertson, and Addie Mae Collins) attending Sunday school are killed when a bomb explodes at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, a popular location for civil rights meetings. Riots erupt in Birmingham, leading to the deaths of two more black youths. The girls were ages 11 through 14. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover blocked evidence to the case.
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  • 79. Aug 1955 (Mississippi) Fourteen-year-old Chicagoan Emmett Till is visiting family in Mississippi when he is kidnapped, brutally beaten, shot, and dumped in the Tallahatchie River for allegedly whistling at a white woman. Two white men, J. W. Milam and Roy Bryant, are arrested for the murder and acquitted by an all-white jury, which took just over an hour to reach their verdict to acquit them. One juror said that they took a soda-pop break during the deliberations to stretch them out and "make it look good." The two men later boast about committing the murder in a Look magazine interview.
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  • 80. Aug 1964 (Mississippi) The bodies of three civil-rights workers -- two white, one black -- are found in an earthen dam, six weeks into a federal investigation. James E. Chaney, 21; Andrew Goodman, 21; and Michael Schwerner, 24, had been working to register black voters in Mississippi, and on June 21st had gone to investigate the burning of a black church. They were arrested by the police on speeding charges, incarcerated for several hours, and then released after dark into the hands of the Ku Klux Klan, who murdered them.
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  • 81. 1962-64 (Louisiana) Kid begs mother to take him to Pontchartrain Beach Amusement Park. Mother always refuses, saying "We cannot go there, and one day you’ll understand why.“
    Now, I do.
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  • 82. There are many countless notable accomplishments by many Black men and women.
    Following are two of which I am personally familiar.
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  • 83. In 1939 Europe was in flames and chaos. President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared that the United States would be "Fortress America," the last bastion of freedom for all men. The Axis empire must be defeated.
    We were on the brink of entering the war.
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  • 84. The newly-formed Army Air Corps was positive that no Black man could learn to fly or even service a combat aircraft; however, the Black press, the NAACP, members of Congress, and even the White House vehemently disagreed with this position.
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  • 85. Under considerable pressure, the War Department relented and undertook what was called the "Noble Experiment." It was tacitly considered to be doomed to failure, especially by those who initiated it.
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  • 86. The "Noble Experiment" resulted in the Black Air Force - an "equal" but separate part of the Army Air Corps.
    Due to the rigid pattern of racial segregation that prevailed in the United States during World War II, the War Department chose Tuskegee, Alabama for the base site – purposely far away from the center of things pertaining to the war.
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  • 87. In spite of a lack of official confidence, equipment and support, and a remote location, 992 pilots were graduated from Tuskegee Army Air Corps Flying School, which also trained and developed along with other air corps, training facilities and support personnel.
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  • 88. Thus, the "Noble Experiment" resulted in the Black Air Force - an "equal" but separate part of the Army Air Corps that was good as any and better than most.
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  • 89. These gallant men flew 15,553 sorties in 1,578 missions with the 12th and 15th Army Air Forces, where they were both feared and respected by the Germans who called them the "SchwartzeVogelmenschen", (Black Birdmen).
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  • 90. Because they came to realize just how good and adept these fighter pilots were, White American bomber crews revered them as the "Black Redtail Angels", because the identifying tail assemblies of their aircrafts were painted red.
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  • 91. They were so good, history states that The Black Redtail Angels were the only airmen to never lose a bomber to enemy aircraft fighter interdiction.
    The Black Airmen won 150 distinguished Flying Crosses and Legions of Merit.
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  • 92. Fighting the adversities of a segregated military from the inside, and an awesome enemy from the outside, the Black Air Force became an efficient, cohesive, motivated, and dedicated group.
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  • 93. Calvin Moret- Biographical Information
    Calvin G. Moret was born in New Orleans, La. August 15, 1925.
    Entered the military October 14, 1943.
    Accepted as aviation cadet and completed flying training program at Tuskegee on November 20, 1944, officially becoming a Tuskegee Airman.
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  • 94. Was a founding member of Pelican Flying Club, along with his brother, Adolph J. Moret, Jr., a flight instructor at Tuskegee throughout most of the war years.
    Owned The Moret Press from January 1, 1962 until Hurricane Katrina pounded New Orleans, August 29, 2005.
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  • 95. One of five brothers, all of whom served in the military from 1942 to 1953.
    Married BereniceDeleryRouegeMoret in 1954.
    Has three children - William, Maria and Patrice.
    Grandfather of 11, including granddaughter Cherie Trudeau.
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  • 101. On June 7, 1892, a 30-year-old colored shoemaker named Homer Plessy was jailed for sitting in the "White" car of the East Louisiana Railroad. Plessy was only one-eighths black and seven-eighths white, but under Louisiana law, he was considered black and therefore required to sit in the "Colored" car. Plessy went to court and argued, in Homer Adolph Plessy v. The State of Louisiana, that the Separate Car Act violated the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution.
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  • 102. The judge at the trial was John Howard Ferguson, a lawyer from Massachusetts who had previously declared the Separate Car Act "unconstitutional on trains that traveled through several states". In Plessy's case, however, he decided that the state could choose to regulate railroad companies that operated only within Louisiana. He found Plessy guilty of refusing to leave the white car.
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  • 103. Plessy appealed to the Supreme Court of Louisiana, which upheld Ferguson's decision. In 1896, the Supreme Court of the United States heard Plessy's case and found him guilty once again. Speaking for a seven-person majority, Justice Henry Brown wrote:
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  • 104. "That [the Separate Car Act] does not conflict with the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery ... is too clear for argument. A statute which implies merely a legal distinction between the white and colored races … and which must always exist so long as white men are distinguished from the other race by color -- has no tendency to destroy the legal equality of the two races.
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  • 105. The object of the Fourteenth Amendment was undoubtedly to enforce the absolute equality of the two races before the law, but in the nature of things it could not have been intended to abolish distinctions based upon color, or to enforce social, as distinguished from political equality, or a commingling of the two races upon terms unsatisfactory to either."
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  • 106. This is nothing but legalese double-speak, but was readily accepted none-the-less..
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  • 107. So, Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896), was a landmark United States Supreme Court decision (handed down by a vote of 7 to 1) in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of racial segregation under the doctrine of "separate but equal".
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  • 108. In Plessy v. Ferguson, the U.S. Supreme Court decided that a Louisiana law mandating separate but equal accommodations for blacks and whites on intrastate railroads was constitutional.
    This decision provided the legal foundation to justify many other actions by state and local governments to socially and legally separate blacks and whites.
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  • 109. "Separate but equal" remained standard doctrine in U.S. law until its final repudiation in the later Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education, almost 60 years later, in May of 1954.
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  • 110. May 1954 The Supreme Court rules on the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, unanimously agreeing that segregation in public schools is unconstitutional. The ruling paves the way for large-scale desegregation. The decision overturns the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson ruling that sanctioned "separate but equal" segregation of the races. It is a victory for Blacks everywhere.
    Consulting legal counsel - A. M. Trudeau Jr.
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  • 111. Another case:
    James T. McCAIN, Plaintiff, v. James H. DAVIS et al., Defendants. Daisy BATES, Plaintiff, v. SHERATON CORPORATION OF AMERICA, a Corporation, et al., Defendants
    Civ. A. Nos. 12937, 12940
    UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE EASTERN DISTRICT OF LOUISIANA, NEW ORLEANS DIVISION
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  • 112. COUNSEL: [**1]
    Benjamin E. Smith, Robert Collins, Nils R. Douglas, Alvin B. Jones, New Orleans, La., for plaintiff, James T. McCain.
    A. P. Tureaud, Ernest N. Morial, A. M. Trudeau, Jr., New Orleans, La., Leroy D. Clark, New York City, for plaintiff, Daisy Bates.
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  • 113. These two cases raise an important Fourteenth Amendment question: the applicability of Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses to a state law forbidding 'white' hotels to provide accommodations for Negroes.
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  • 114. The Negro plaintiffs in these two class actions allege that certain New Orleans hotels, acting under the compulsion of a Louisiana criminal statute, LSA-R.S. 14:317, refused them stay because they were Negroes. The defendant hotel companies acknowledge this and state that the statute gave them no alternative but to deny accommodations.
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  • 115. The plaintiffs ask for a declaratory judgment declaring LSA-R.S. 14:317 unconstitutional and for a preliminary and permanent injunction enjoining the defendants from acting under LSA-R.S. 14:317 to deny accommodations to Negroes at hotels.
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  • 116. The Court holds that LSA-R.S. 14:317 is unconstitutional and, except as to the members of the Commission Council, grants the injunction as prayed for by the plaintiffs.
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  • 117. Henderson v. Louisiana. (SD La.) Def.-Negro convicted of rape; La. Sup. Ct. affirmed. Pet. for habeas corpus filed; issues include exclusion of Negroes from petit jury. Pending.
    Lionel Collins, Esq., 713 13th St., Gretna, La.; A. M. Trudeau, Esq., 1821 Orleans Ave., New Orleans, La. CLU.
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  • 118. SCHOOL DESEGREGATION CASES
    Earl Benjamin BUSH et al., Plaintiffs, v. ORLEANS PARISH SCHOOL BOARD et al., Defendants
    UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE EASTERN DISTRICT OF
    LOUISIANA, NEW ORLEANS DIVISION
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  • 119. 138 F. Supp. 336; 1956 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 3761
    February 15, 1956
    Notable counsel: Robert L. Carter, New York City, A. M. Trudeau, Jr., New Orleans, La., Thurgood Marshall, New York City, for plaintiffs.
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  • 120. SCH. BD. — 594 F.2d 489
    1979-05-07 United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit
    Alternate formats:
    MOORE v. TANGIPAHOA PARISH SCHOOL BOARD.
    594 F.2d 489 (5th Cir. 1979)
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  • 121. A. M. Trudeau, Jr., Ernest Morial, New Orleans, James C. Gray, New York City, A. P. Tureaud, La., Margaret Ford, Shreveport, La., for plaintiffs-appellees, cross-appellants.
    This class action school desegregation case of Tangipahoa Parish has been pending in the federal courts since 1965.
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  • 122. Without a doubt, the locality most impervious to federal authority, and where the most egregious violations of civil liberties occurred, was Plaquemines Parish, still under the heel of Leander Perez. "Blacks considered ‘uppity’ were tried before local courts on trumped-up charges and invariably received stiff sentences", writes Perez’s biographer.
    Most sentences were a travesty of justice.
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  • 123. Such victims very, very rarely enjoyed legal representation. There were no black lawyers in the parish and those in New Orleans tended to completely avoid Plaquemines Parish. In 1961 Earl Amadee and A. M. Trudeau had arrived at the courthouse in the city of Pointe a La Hache to find that their clients had already been tried, convicted, and sentenced. Perez then personally threatened them, ordering the two lawyers to leave the parish forthwith.
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  • 124. Papers of the NAACP
    Louisiana State Conference, 1961–1965.
    Major Topics: Fifteenth annual meeting (1961); Louisiana State Conference constitution and by-laws; education; membership and Freedom Fund statistics; police brutality; seventeenth annual meeting (1963); state conference and branch officers.
    Principal Correspondents: Clarence A. Laws; Roy Wilkins; A. M. Trudeau Jr.; Horace C. Bynum; Emmitt J. Douglas; Mary Jamieson.
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  • 125. Civil rights struggle lives on in La.'s public schools
    Segregation rising since mid-1980s
    Sunday, July 29, 2007
    On a September morning in 1965, Lena Vern Dandridge and a handful of black girls climbed on to Bus No. 75 for their first-ever school day with white students at Riverdale High School in JEFFERSON PARISH.
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  • 126. Dandridge recounts the memories of that sophomore year in 1965: the name of her first bus driver, Walter Richardson; the whispered jeers and insults in gym class, "You're out of your element, baby," "Why don't you go back to where you came from?"; the cautious band of teachers standing watch in the mornings, waiting for signs of trouble.
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  • 127. About a month before she started school, her father, the Rev. Arthur Dandridge, a prominent local minister, took her on the 20-minute drive from their Little Farms home to catch her first glimpse of Riverdale High School, an all-girls school at the time.
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  • 128. "I remember saying, 'How does my daddy think I'm going to go to this white school on Jefferson Highway?' " Dandridge-Houston said. "I was like, 'You've lost your mind. Daddy has cracked for sure.' "
    Arthur Dandridge and lawyers A.M. Trudeau and Lionel Collins initiated the Jefferson case, which was decided for the plaintiff.
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  • 129. Antoine Marcel "Mutt" Trudeau Jr. was born on March 27, 1927, to Antoine Marcel Sr. and Amelia Miller. He received degrees from Xavier University in New Orleans and Southern University Law School. Before beginning civil rights activist work, Mutt Trudeau fought in World War II, being stationed in Japan.
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  • 130. In 1954, Trudeau was appointed to the NAACP Legal Defense Fund and Educational Fund by Thurgood Marshall. Additionally, Trudeau served as co-counsel in a number of civil rights cases from 1955 through 1978, and is best known for his work to end segregation in Southeast Louisiana Parishes.
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  • 131. Trudeau was President of the NAACP State Conference of Branches, President and member of the board of directors of the Urban League of Greater New Orleans, Assistant City Attorney, and President of the Safety Industrial Life Insurance and Sick Benefit Association Incorporated. Trudeau was also an Eisenhower appointee to the Presidential Commission on Government Contracts.
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  • 132. A. M. Trudeau, Jr. used legislation and the court system as weapons to fight for equality and equity. Among his most ardent causes were Jim Crow laws, fair housing laws, equal opportunity employment and school integration; he worked with A. P Tureaud, Lionel Collins, Earl Amedee, Roy Wilkins Thurgood Marshall, and other attorneys to help Blacks acquire constitutional justice.
    He is the other grandfather of Cherie Trudeau.
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  • 133. At the consummation of all things, in that great day of judgment, shall thou standest before Me O peoples of the earth: and I shall judge thee according to the colour of thy skins and its hue thereof. And woe, and anguish, and pain of heart shall be to those of shadowy shade and darker color. Absurdiah 6:66
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  • 134. And Peter said unto them, `You know how unlawful it is for a Jewish man to keep company with or go to one of another race. But God has shown me that I should not call any man common or unclean. Acts 10:28
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  • 135. And Jesus answering said, You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbor as yourself.
    Luke 10:27
    But he, willing to justify himself, said unto Jesus, And who is my neighbor?Luke 10:29
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  • 136. And the LORD said unto Cain, Where is Abel thy brother [neighbor]? And he said, I know not: Am I my brother's keeper?Genesis 4:9
    God says, Yes, you most certainly are!:
    Don't be concerned only about your own interests, but also be concerned about the interests of others. Philippians 2:4
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  • 137. If a man say, I love God, and hateth his brother, he is a liar: for he that loveth not his brother whom he hath seen, how can he love God whom he hath not seen? 1John 4:20
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  • 138. A new commandment I give unto you: That you love one another . As I have loved you, that you also love one another. By this shall all men know that you are my disciples, if you have love one for another. John 13:34-35
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  • 139. And God has made of ONEBLOOD [a common racial origin] all nations of men to dwell on all the face of the earth, and has determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation. [Why???]
    That they should seek the Lord!, if perhaps they might feel after him, and find him, though he be not far from every one of us. Acts 17:26, 27
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  • 140. There is one race that is superior and takes precedence over all the others. In the grand scheme of things, it is the one and only true race that is really of any importance – and it is “the race set before us”:
    Therefore seeing we also are surrounded with so great a cloud of witnesses [all the righteous people of the Bible], let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which does so easily ensnare us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us. Hebrews 12:1
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  • 141. Know you not that they who run in a race all run, but one receives the prize. So run, that you may obtain it! 1Corinthians 9:24
    This race determines your final destiny, and if you lose this race, you lose EVERYTHING!!!:
    For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul? Matthew 16:26
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  • 142. Your race is surely coming to an end:
    I returned, and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift . . . but time and death happens to them all. For man also does not know his time: like fish taken in a cruel net, like birds caught in a snare, so the sons of men are snared in an evil time, when it falls suddenly upon them. Ecclesiastes 9:11, 12
    Whereas you know not what shall be tomorrow. For what is your life? It is even a vapor, that appears for a little time, and then vanishes away. James 4:14
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  • 143. The race you are now running is infinitely more important than where you’ve already run – what your past personal race history is. And God says the only way to win this race is this:
    Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and you shall be saved . . . Acts 16:31If you shall confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and shall believe in your heart that God has raised him from the dead, you shall be saved. Romans 10:9
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  • 144. Don’t lose the race and be lost forever. Don’t end up Where the worm dies not, and the fire is never quenched Mark 9:48– in hell!
    So,
    Let us hear the conclusion of the entirematter: Fear God, and keep his commandments -- for this is the whole duty of man! Ecclesiastes 12:13
    Are you ready to leave this planet?
    Do you know Jesus?
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