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  • 1. AGGRESSION
    • AGGRESSION IS SEEN AS A BAD THING, AND IF SOMEONE IS SAID TO BE ‘AGGRESSIVE’ THEN IT IS LOOKED UPON AS UNACCEPTABLE BEHAVIOUR IN OUR SOCIETY. THE INTENT TO HARM IS NOT ACCEPTABLE OR VERY NICE..
    • BUT WHAT ABOUT IT’S PLACE IN SPORT?
  • 2. CAUSES OF AGGRESSION IN SPORT ‘ANTECEDENTS’
    • THE NATURE OF THE GAME
    • THE WIDE DIVISION BETWEEN SCORES (I.E LOSING 10-0)
    • PREVIOUS EXPERIENCES
    • POOR FORM, LEADS TO FRUSTRATION
    • BAD REFEREE DECISIONS
    • HOSTILE CROWDS
    • THE VENUE
    • HIGH AROUSAL
    • EXTRINSIC REWARDS
  • 3. AGGRESSION
    • BARON TRIED TO MAKE SENSE OF IT BY DIVIDING AGGRESSION INTO 3 CATEGORIES:
    • 1) HOSTILE AGGRESSION (OR REACTIVE)
    • 2) INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION ( CHANNELLED)
    • 3) ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOUR.
  • 4.
    • HOSTILE (REACTIVE)
    • THIS IS THE TYPE THAT NEEDS TO BE ELIMINATED FROM SPORT. THE PRIME MOTIVE IS TO HARM AN OPPONENT AND CAUSE AND INJURY. THIS AGGRESSION IS OUTSIDE THE RULES OF THE GAME AND INVOLVES ANGER!
    • INSTRUMENTAL (CHANNELLED)
    • THIS IS WITHIN THE RULES AND ALTHOUGH THE MOTIVE IS TO BE SUCCESSFUL AT THE SKILL, THERE IS AN INTENT TO HARM! E.G A RUGBY LEAGUE PLAYER WILL RUN HARD AT THE DEFENCE TO BREAK THE TACKLES, THE SECONDARY AIM IS TO HARM ENOUGH SO THE DEFENDER MAY BE A LITTLE RELUCTANT TO TACKLE NEXT TIME. ANGER IS NOT EVIDENT!
    • ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOUR
    • THIS DOES NOT INTEND TO HARM AND IS STRICTLY WITHIN THE RULES OF THE GAME. IT IS ARGUED THAT IT IS NOT A FORM OF AGGRESSION! IT INVOLVES COMPLETING THE SKILL SUCCESSFULLY. E.G DRIBBLING THE BALL THROUGH A GROUP OF PLAYERS ON A BASKETBALL COURT, THIS IS ASSERTIVE NOT AGGRESSIVE!
  • 5. THEORIES OF AGGRESSION
    • INSTINCT , - TRAIT PERSPECTIVE
    • SOCIAL LEARNING - SOCIAL LEARNING PERSPECTIVE
    • FRUSTRATION HYPOTHESIS – INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE
    • 1. INSTINCT
    • FREUD, ORIGINALLY BUT EXTENDED BY LORENZ IN 1966.
    • THIS THOERY STATES THAT AGGRESSION IS GENETICALLY INHERITED AND THAT A TRAIT OF VIOLENCE LIES WITHIN EVERYONE. FREUD CALLED THIS INNATE CHARACTERISTIC THE ‘DEATH INSTINCT’
    • LORENZ BELIEVED AGGRESSIVE ENERGY IS ALWAYS BUILDING UP AND NEEDS TO BE REALEASED!
  • 6.
    • SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
    • BANDURA (1966). THIS THEORY DO NOT BELIEVE THAT AGGRESSION IS BIOLOGICALLY BASED, BUT IS DEVELOPED THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL FORCES. THEY BELIEVED IT IS LEARNED THROUGH WATCHING OTHERS!
    • FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION
    • PROPOSED BY DOLLARD. FRUSTRATION DEVELOPS WHEN GOAL DIRECTED BEHAVIOUR OR A NEED TO ACHIEVE IS BLOCKED.
    • IF THE AGGRESSIVE ACT IS SUCCESSFUL FRUSTRATION IS RELEASED AND THE AGGRESSOR FEELS GOOD. IF IT FAIL THEN THIS RESULTS IN MORE PUNSIHMENT AND MORE FRUSTRATION FOLLOWS. PAGE 262 DIAGRAM!
  • 7. AGGRESSION CUE HYPOTHESIS BERKOWITZ 1969
    • INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE
    • HE BELIEVED THAT FRUSTRATION LEADS TO AN INCREASE IN AROUSAL WHICH CAN LEAD TO AGGRESSSION. HE BELIEVED AGGRESSIVE CUES LIKE, BASEBALL BATS, HOCKEY STICKS, NATURE OF THE GAME, WILL TRIGGER AGGRESSION IF AROUSAL IS HIGH.
    • HE THOUGHT THE BEST PLAYERS HAVE THE ABILITY TO CONTROL FRUSTRATION AND AROUSAL!
    • PAGE 263
  • 8. Exam Question.
    • Q. An aggressive action is likely to impede performance. Identify the strategies that would prevent abnormal aggressive behaviour. [4].